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Angela Lupattelli, Elke Ronningen, Stine Kleppe Krogsrud, Hedvig Nordeng, Eivind Ystrom
This study explored the impact of women's personality on drinking and smoking habits before and during pregnancy, using a multinational perspective. Data on maternal personality traits, background information, and alcohol and cigarette smoking before and during pregnancy were collected from 9187 women from more than 18 countries. High conscientiousness and agreeableness resulted as protective factors against alcohol consumption during pregnancy; trait-specific associations were apparent on individual region level...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
Robert G Maunder, Jonathan J Hunter
BACKGROUND: Standardized measurement of physical and mental health is useful for identification of health problems. Personalized feedback of the results can influence health behavior, and treatment outcomes can be improved by monitoring feedback over time. However, few resources are available that are free for users, provide feedback from validated measurement instruments, and measure a wide range of health domains. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop an internet self-assessment resource that fills the identified gap and collects data to generate and test hypotheses about health, to test its feasibility, and to describe the characteristics of its users...
May 16, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
Felicitas Ehlen, Katharina Schindlbeck, Lisa Nobis, André Maier, Fabian Klostermann
Objectives: The complex symptomatology of Parkinson' disease (PD) usually goes along with reduced physical activity. Previous studies have indicated positive effects of activating therapies on patients' well-being. This study, therefore, examined how activity in daily life is related to patients' subjective condition. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one PD patients rated their condition every two hours during two routine days and documented the duration and type of their activities (based on the PRISCUS-Physical Activity Questionnaire) during the respective time intervals...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
Juan Hou, Yamikani Ndasauka, Xuefei Pan, Shuangyi Chen, Fei Xu, Xiaochu Zhang
Research trying to understand individual difference in the use of different social networking sites (SNSs) is minimal. In the present study, we collected data from 714 college students in China (273 males) to assess how personality traits and psychological factors relate to excessive use of WeChat and Weibo. We found that excessive use of Weibo and WeChat correlated positively with neuroticism, loneliness, and external locus of control and negatively with agreeableness, social support, and social interaction...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Thomas R Kwapil, Georgina M Gross, Chris J Burgin, Michael L Raulin, Paul J Silvia, Neus Barrantes-Vidal
The present study provided the first examination of the construct validity of the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS) and the first assessment of its psychometric properties outside of its derivation samples. The MSS contains 77 items that assess positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy. A large multisite sample of 1,430 participants completed the MSS and measures of schizotypal personality traits and the five-factor model of personality. The MSS subscales had good-to-excellent internal consistency reliability that showed no shrinkage relative to the MSS derivation samples...
May 3, 2018: Personality Disorders
Matthis Morgenstern, Alina Nies, Michaela Goecke, Reiner Hanewinkel
BACKGROUND: In 2015, 12.1% of 12- to 17-year-olds in Germany had reportedly already tried e-cigarette smoking at least once. We carried out a study of the "gateway" hypothesis, according to which the use of e-cigarettes can motivate adolescents to start smoking conventional cigarettes. METHODS: During the 2015/2016 school year, 2186 tenth-graders in the German states of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein who had never smoked conventional cigarettes before took part in a survey over a 6-month period (mean age 15...
April 6, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Sabrina Hoppe, Tobias Loetscher, Stephanie A Morey, Andreas Bulling
Besides allowing us to perceive our surroundings, eye movements are also a window into our mind and a rich source of information on who we are, how we feel, and what we do. Here we show that eye movements during an everyday task predict aspects of our personality. We tracked eye movements of 42 participants while they ran an errand on a university campus and subsequently assessed their personality traits using well-established questionnaires. Using a state-of-the-art machine learning method and a rich set of features encoding different eye movement characteristics, we were able to reliably predict four of the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness) as well as perceptual curiosity only from eye movements...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Mindy Lee, Karen Murphy, Glenda Andrews
Positive face-to-face human interactions are known to benefit well-being. Drawing upon previous work regarding the interference of media (via technological devices or print) in social interaction, the aim of this study was to identify whether using media during face-to-face interaction could potentially limit the positive effect of interaction on well-being. Participants were 437 university students who completed an online survey which assessed media multitasking behaviors, well-being (trait depression, trait anxiety, social anxiety, empathy, and psychological well-being), and personality traits (Big-5 and narcissism)...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Andreia Nunes, Teresa Limpo, César F Lima, São Luís Castro
The importance of quickly assessing personality traits in many studies prompted the development of brief scales such as the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), a measure of five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness). In the current study, we present the Portuguese version of TIPI and examine its psychometric properties, based on a sample of 333 Portuguese adults aged 18 to 65 years. The results revealed reliability coefficients similar to the original version (α = 0...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Brittany Gatta, Jessica Turnbull
CONTEXT: With the current and projected shortage of palliative care (PC) specialists, an integrative model of PC will be needed to meet the needs of patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Prior studies of PC interventions suggest that success depends upon meeting the needs of individual institutions or ICUs. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to qualitatively explore the beliefs and practices of one institution's medical ICU (MICU) physicians in regard to providing an integrative model of PC...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Varoona Bizaoui, Jessica Gage, Rita Brar, Katherine A Rauen, Lauren A Weiss
Personality is a complex, yet partially heritable, trait. Although some Mendelian diseases like Williams-Beuren syndrome are associated with a particular personality profile, studies have failed to assign the personality features to a single gene or pathway. As a family of monogenic disorders caused by mutations in the Ras/MAPK pathway known to influence social behavior, RASopathies are likely to provide insight into the genetic basis of personality. Eighty subjects diagnosed with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, Costello syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, and Noonan syndrome were assessed using a parent-report BFQ-C (Big Five Questionnaire for Children) evaluating agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, intellect/openness, and neuroticism, along with 55 unaffected sibling controls...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Megan Morris, W Kim Halford, Jemima Petch
Family mediation is a widely used approach to assist separated parents to resolve conflicts about parenting arrangements for their children, yet frequently parents undertaking mediation do not reach a mutually agreeable resolution. In Australia, where the current study was conducted, separated parents must attempt family mediation before they can seek to appear in the family court for custody issues. We compared mediation enhanced with motivational interviewing (MI) with mediation as usual (MAU) in a randomized controlled trial...
March 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Yannick Stephan, Angelina R Sutin, Martina Luchetti, Grégoire Bosselut, Antonio Terracciano
A physically inactive lifestyle is associated with maladaptive patterns of personality development over relatively short follow-up periods. The present study extends existing research by examining whether this association persists over 20 years. Participants (total N = 8,723) were drawn from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduates and Siblings samples and the Midlife in the United States Study. Controlling for demographic factors and disease burden, baseline physical inactivity was related to steeper declines in conscientiousness in all three samples and a meta-analysis (β=-...
April 2018: Journal of Research in Personality
Ethan Kendall, Ozer Algan, Salahuddin Ahmad
Introduction: In this article, we report the results of our investigation on comparison of radiobiological aspects of treatment plans with linear accelerator-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric-modulated arc therapy for patients having hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study using the dose-volume histogram, we calculated and compared biophysical indices of equivalent uniform dose, tumor control probability, and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for 15 whole-brain radiotherapy patients...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Physics
Asbjørn Sonne Nørgaard, Robert Klemmensen
OBJECTIVE: To study personality traits of Danish parliamentarians (MPs) and examine elite-voter congruence and elite differentiation. Whereas previous political elite studies have focused only on the Big Five level we include aspect-level differences. METHOD: In a highly representative survey of Danish MPs (N=81, response rate= 46.3 pct.) and a representative study of Danish voters (N=3,612) we used the 60-item NEO-PI-R short version to examine personality differences on the Big Five level and, based on the NEO-BFAS, the aspect level...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Personality
Carly Magee, Jeremy C Biesanz
INTRODUCTION: Although there is a robust connection between dispositional personality traits and well-being, relatively little research has comprehensively examined the ways in which all Big Five personality states are associated with short-term experiences of well-being within individuals. OBJECTIVES: To address three central questions about the nature of the relationship between personality and well-being states: First, to what extent do personality and well-being states covary within individuals? Second, to what extent do personality and well-being states influence one another within individuals? Finally, are these within-person relationships moderated by dispositional personality traits and well-being? METHODS: Two experience sampling studies (N = 161 and N = 146) were conducted over two weeks...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Personality
Tamara Seitz, Angelika S Längle, Charles Seidman, Henriette Löffler-Stastka
Several studies have demonstrated a correlation between specific personal traits and empathy. However, it is not clear if persons with certain personality traits lack the intent to show empathic behavior or if other factors independent of their intent are affecting their empathic behavior. To answer this question, we asked 132 medical students to fill out questionnaires evaluating the General Intention to Show Empathic Behavior (GISEB) and the five personality traits measured by NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI)...
April 6, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Maki Sakamoto, Jinhwan Kwon, Hikaru Tamada, Yumi Hirahara
We investigate the influence of the visual appearance of a negotiator on persuasiveness within the context of negotiations. Psychological experiments were conducted to quantitatively analyze the relationship between visual appearance and the use of language. Male and female participants were shown three female and male photographs, respectively. They were asked to report how they felt about each photograph using a seven-point semantic differential (SD) scale for six affective factors (positive impression, extraversion, intelligence, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and agreeableness)...
2018: PloS One
Michaela Hiebler-Ragger, Jürgen Fuchshuber, Heidrun Dröscher, Christian Vajda, Andreas Fink, Human F Unterrainer
The study of human emotions and personality provides valuable insights into the parameters of mental health and well-being. Affective neuroscience proposes that several levels of emotions - ranging from primary ones such as LUST or FEAR up to higher emotions such as spirituality - interact on a neural level. The present study aimed to further explore this theory. Furthermore, we hypothesized that personality - formed by bottom-up primary emotions and cortical top-down regulation - might act as a link between primary emotions and religious/spiritual well-being...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Minita Franzen, Gentiana Sadikaj, Debbie S Moskowitz, Brian D Ostafin, Marije Aan Het Rot
BACKGROUND: We examined the influence of interindividual differences in alcohol use on the intraindividual associations of drinking occurrence with interpersonal behaviors, affect, and perceptions of others during naturally occurring social interactions. METHODS: For 14 consecutive days, 219 psychology freshmen (55% female; Mage  = 20.7 years, SD = 2.18) recorded their behaviors, affect, and perceptions in social interactions soon after an interpersonal event occurred...
April 3, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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