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Giusy Diella, Agostino Di Ciaula, Michele Pio Lorusso, Carmine Summo, Giuseppina Caggiano, Francesco Caponio, Maria Teresa Montagna, Piero Portincasa
BACKGROUND: Almonds are healthy nutraceuticals, which vary across different cultivars. We compared the composition, agreeability and gastrointestinal effects of two almond cultivars from different areas. METHODS: Californian Carmel (CAcv) and local Apulian Filippo Cea (FCcv) cultivars were compared for the chemical composition and sensory evaluation according to visual analogue and semiquantitative scales in 60 volunteers. Gallbladder/gastric motility (ultrasonography) and orocecal transit time (H2-breath test) were studied in another 24 subjects by comparing the effects of a standard liquid test meal with isovolumetric almond test meals (24 g of CAcv or FCcv almonds)...
March 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Noam Zilberman, Gal Yadid, Yaniv Efrati, Yehuda Neumark, Yuri Rassovsky
Substance-related and behavioral addictions are extremely prevalent and represent a major public health concern. In the ongoing attempt to understand the addictive personality, contradictory results have arisen from studies that have explored personality traits in different addiction populations. The diversity across addiction types suggests that some of these inconsistencies stem from distinct personalities underlying each addiction. The present study compares the personality profiles of several addictions, representing both substance (drugs and alcohol) and behavioral (gambling and sex) subtypes...
March 6, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Christian Hakulinen, Markus Jokela
BACKGROUND: Personality has been associated with alcohol use, but less is known about how alcohol use may influence long-term personality trait change. METHODS: The present study examines associations between alcohol use and change in the five major personality traits across two measurement occasions (mean follow-up of 5.6 years). A total of 39 722 participants (54% women) were pooled from six cohort studies for an individual-participant meta-analysis. Alcohol use was measured as (1) average alcohol consumption, (2) frequency of binge drinking, (3) symptoms of alcohol use disorder, and (4) a global indicator of risky alcohol use...
March 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Sarah K Mesrobian, Alessandro E P Villa, Michel Bader, Lorenz Götte, Alessandra Lintas
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by deficits in executive functions and decision making during childhood and adolescence. Contradictory results exist whether altered event-related potentials (ERPs) in adults are associated with the tendency of ADHD patients toward risky behavior. Clinically diagnosed ADHD patients ( n = 18) and healthy controls ( n = 18), aged between 18 and 29 (median 22 Yo), were screened with the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales and assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, and by the 60-item HEXACO Personality Inventory...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Michael L Slepian, James N Kirby
Although prior work has examined secret keeping, no prior work has examined who gets told secrets. Five studies find compassion and assertiveness predict having secrets confided in oneself (as determined by both self- and peer reports), whereas enthusiasm and politeness were associated with having fewer secrets confided. These results bolster suggestions that interpersonal aspects of personality (which can fit a circumplex structure) are driven by distinct causal forces. While both related to agreeableness, compassion (empathy and desire to help) predicts being confided in more, whereas politeness (concern with social norms and social rules) predicts being confided in less...
March 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Daniele Castagnolo, Kate Lauder, Anita Toscani, Yuyin Qi, Jesmine Lim, Simon Charnock, Krupa Korah
1,3-Mercaptoalkanols constitute an important class of volatile sulfur compounds and contribute to both agreeable and disagreeable flavours and fragrances of many foods and beverages. Most mercaptoalkanols exist as chiral isomers and their olfactory perception may depend on their diastereomeric and enantiomeric configuration. A number of mercaptoalkanols bear a chiral hydroxyl group whose configuration is strictly related to their olfactory properties. To date, few synthetic methods have been described for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure mercaptoalkanols bearing a chiral hydroxyl-moiety...
March 13, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
James Iveniuk
Objectives: This article examines the implications of personality traits for social network connectedness in older adulthood, across different social relationships. Methods: This article uses data from the National Social Life Health and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally-representative, longitudinal survey of community-dwelling older Americans (N = 2,261). Network characteristics were predicted using Poisson and negative binomial regression (for network size) as well as multilevel identity-linked and ordinal-logit-linked regressions (for tie strength)...
February 26, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Sara Konrath, Brian P Meier, Brad J Bushman
Empathy involves feeling compassion for others and imagining how they feel. In this article, we develop and validate the Single Item Trait Empathy Scale (SITES), which contains only one item that takes seconds to complete. In seven studies (N=5,724), the SITES was found to be both reliable and valid. It correlated in expected ways with a wide variety of intrapersonal outcomes. For example, it is negatively correlated with narcissism, depression, anxiety, and alexithymia. In contrast, it is positively correlated with other measures of empathy, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and agreeableness...
April 2018: Journal of Research in Personality
Sari Mullola, Christian Hakulinen, David Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, Justin Presseau, Markus Jokela, Jukka Vänskä, Tiina Paunio, Marko Elovainio
We examined whether physicians' personality traits moderate the association between medical specialty and well-being at work. Nationally representative sample of Finnish physicians (n = 2,815; 65% women; aged 25 to 72 years in 2015) was used. Personality was assessed with the shortened Big Five Inventory. Indicators of well-being at work were measured with scales from Work Ability Index, General Health Questionnaire, Jenkins' Sleep Problems Scale and Suicidal Ideation. Higher extraversion, openness to experience and agreeableness showed as personality traits beneficial for higher well-being at work among person-oriented specialties whereas higher conscientiousness but lower openness and agreeableness showed as personality traits beneficial for higher well-being at work among technique-oriented specialties...
March 9, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
Quinn A Conklin, Brandon G King, Anthony P Zanesco, Jue Lin, Anahita B Hamidi, Jennifer J Pokorny, María Jesús Álvarez-López, Marta Cosín-Tomás, Colin Huang, Perla Kaliman, Elissa S Epel, Clifford D Saron
A growing body of evidence suggests that meditation training may have a range of salubrious effects, including improved telomere regulation. Telomeres and the enzyme telomerase interact with a variety of molecular components to regulate cell-cycle signaling cascades, and are implicated in pathways linking psychological stress to disease. We investigated the effects of intensive meditation practice on these biomarkers by measuring changes in telomere length (TL), telomerase activity (TA), and telomere-related gene (TRG) expression during a 1-month residential Insight meditation retreat...
March 5, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Subin Park, Mina Jeon, Yeeun Lee, Young-Mi Ko, Chul Eung Kim
OBJECTIVES: Identifying predictors of psychological help-seeking attitudes is essential to improve access to needed mental health services. We investigated factors - particularly Big Five personality traits - that affect attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help for mental illness among Korean adults. METHODS: A total of 654 participants aged 15-54 years were recruited through an online panel survey. Help-seeking attitudes for mental illness were measured by the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale (ATSPPH), and personality traits were measured by the Big Five Personality Inventory-10...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Meng-Ning Tsai, Ching-Lin Wu, Lei-Pin Tseng, Chih-Pei An, Hsueh-Chih Chen
Previous research has shown that individuals with autism are frequently mocked in their childhood and are consequently more anxious about being ridiculed. Research has also shown that autistic individuals have a higher level of gelotophobia (fear of being laughed at) compared to typically developed individuals. However, recent studies have also found that gelotophobia is strongly related to personality, which suggests that personality is a factor that helps to create a higher level of gelotophobia in autistic individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Katharina Kolbeck, Steffen Moritz, Julia Bierbrodt, Christina Andreou
Ongoing research is shifting towards a dimensional understanding of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Aim of this study was to identify personality profiles in BPD that are predictive of self-destructive behaviors. Personality traits were assessed (n = 130) according to the five-factor model of personality (i.e., Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness) and an additional factor called Risk Preference. Self-destructive behavior parameters such as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and other borderline typical dyscontrolled behaviors (e...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Francisco Muñoz, Andrea Hildebrandt, Annekathrin Schacht, Birgit Stürmer, Felix Bröcker, Manuel Martín-Loeches, Werner Sommer
Knowing what makes a top gastronomy experience unique and retrievable in the long term is of interest for scientific and economic reasons. Recent attempts to isolate predictors of the hedonic evaluation of food have afforded several factors, such as individual and social attributes, or liking/disliking profiles. However, in these studies relevant variables have been examined in isolation without an integrative perspective. Here we investigated 80 guests enjoying a 23-course meal in a top gastronomy restaurant, in groups of four...
February 28, 2018: Appetite
Anne Chong, Soo Hong Chew, Poh San Lai, Richard P Ebstein, Jean-Philippe Gouin
Oxytocin (OT) plays a salient role in contributing to the high levels of human sociality that characterize our species. Across the lifespan this nonapeptide promotes prosocial behaviors and modulates stress responses. Curiously, the OXT-Neurophysin I gene has been little studied despite the fact this is the structural gene for the OT nonapeptide. In a large group of Han Chinese undergraduate students (n = 1593) we examined associations of two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the OXT- Neurophysin I gene with personality traits...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Wiebke Schmidt, David Raymond, David Parish, Ian G C Ashton, Peter I Miller, Carlos J A Campos, Jamie D Shutler
The need to ensure future food security and issues of varying estuarine water quality is driving the expansion of aquaculture into near-shore coastal waters. It is prudent to fully evaluate new or proposed aquaculture sites, prior to any substantial financial investment in infrastructure and staffing. Measurements of water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen can be used to gain insight into the physical, chemical and biological water quality conditions within a farm site, towards identifying its suitability for farming, both for the stock species of interest and for assessing the potential risk from harmful or toxic algae...
January 2018: Aquacultural Engineering
Greg Perlman, Molly Gromatsky, Kate Lee Salis, Daniel N Klein, Roman Kotov
Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (aNSSI) is associated with abnormal scores on personality traits, such as high neuroticism. However, no studies to date have examined personality facets of self-injury in a cohort younger than college-age. Plus, adolescent psychopathologies, especially Depressive Disorders, are associated with a similar personality profile and are highly comorbid with aNSSI. Consequently, it remains unclear whether personality provides insights about aNSSI in youth beyond that due to underlying psychopathology...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Alfonsina D'Iorio, Federica Garramone, Fausta Piscopo, Chiara Baiano, Simona Raimo, Gabriella Santangelo
BACKGROUND: The role of specific personality traits as factor risks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been consistently found, whereas personality traits specifically related to AD (after the diagnosis) have not been outlined yet. OBJECTIVE: A meta-analysis of published studies was performed to determine whether AD patients have a distinctive personality trait profile compared to healthy subjects (HC), similar to or different from a premorbid personality profile consistently reported in previous studies...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Adam W Hanley, Eric L Garland
Dispositional mindfulness (DM), or the tendency to attend to present moment experience, may have important implications for the structure of human personality. However, relationships between DM and the Big Five Model of Personality (BF) have not been definitively established. Therefore, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to extend previous investigations of the relationship between DM and the BF, utilizing a larger sample of studies, attending to relational inconsistencies potentially associated with alternative methods of operationalizing DM, conducting the first meta-analysis of the DM subdomains in relation to the BF, and situating the results in a cybernetic model...
December 2017: Mindfulness
Stefana Morgan, Bruce Cooper, Steven Paul, Marilyn J Hammer, Yvette P Conley, Jon D Levine, Christine Miaskowski, Laura B Dunn
Background: This study identified latent classes of cancer patients based on Big Five personality dimensions and evaluated for differences in demographic and clinical characteristics, depression, anxiety, and cancer-related symptoms. Methods: Patients (n=1248) with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, or lung cancer completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventories, NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS)...
October 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
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