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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161680/prediction-of-violent-crime-on-discharge-from-secure-psychiatric-hospitals-a-clinical-prediction-rule-fovox
#1
A Wolf, T R Fanshawe, A Sariaslan, R Cornish, H Larsson, S Fazel
BACKGROUND: Current approaches to assess violence risk in secure hospitals are resource intensive, limited by accuracy and authorship bias and may have reached a performance ceiling. This study seeks to develop scalable predictive models for violent offending following discharge from secure psychiatric hospitals. METHODS: We identified all patients discharged from secure hospitals in Sweden between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 2013. Using multiple Cox regression, pre-specified criminal, sociodemographic, and clinical risk factors were included in a model that was tested for discrimination and calibration in the prediction of violent crime at 12 and 24 months post-discharge...
August 4, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161260/hiv-self-testing-among-female-sex-workers-in-zambia-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Michael M Chanda, Katrina F Ortblad, Magdalene Mwale, Steven Chongo, Catherine Kanchele, Nyambe Kamungoma, Andrew Fullem, Caitlin Dunn, Leah G Barresi, Guy Harling, Till Bärnighausen, Catherine E Oldenburg
BACKGROUND: HIV self-testing (HIVST) may play a role in addressing gaps in HIV testing coverage and as an entry point for HIV prevention services. We conducted a cluster randomized trial of 2 HIVST distribution mechanisms compared to the standard of care among female sex workers (FSWs) in Zambia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Trained peer educators in Kapiri Mposhi, Chirundu, and Livingstone, Zambia, each recruited 6 FSW participants. Peer educator-FSW groups were randomized to 1 of 3 arms: (1) delivery (direct distribution of an oral HIVST from the peer educator), (2) coupon (a coupon for collection of an oral HIVST from a health clinic/pharmacy), or (3) standard-of-care HIV testing...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160819/physical-fighting-and-associated-factors-among-adolescents-aged-13-15-years-in-six-western-pacific-countries
#3
Lili Yang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Bo Xi, Pascal Bovet
Youth violence is an important public health challenge around the world, yet the literature on this problem in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has been limited. The present study aims to examine the prevalence of adolescent physical fighting (defined as having been involved in at least one physical fight during the past 12 months) in selected LMICs, and its relations with potential risk factors. We included 6377 school-going adolescents aged 13-15 years from six Western Pacific (WP) countries that had recently conducted a Global School-based Student Health Survey...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160606/the-relationship-between-hazardous-alcohol-use-and-violence-among-street-involved-youth
#4
Nadia Fairbairn, Evan Wood, Sabina Dobrer, Huiru Dong, Thomas Kerr, Kora Debeck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Alcohol is a major contributor to premature disability and death among youth, often due to physical trauma, violence, and suicide. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine the association between hazardous alcohol use and experiences of violence among a cohort of street-involved youth. METHODS: Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit substances in Vancouver, Canada...
November 21, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159908/twenty-years-later-the-cognitive-portrait-of-openness-to-reconciliation-in-rwanda
#5
Serge Caparos, Sara-Valérie Giroux, Eugène Rutembesa, Emmanuel Habimana, Isabelle Blanchette
With this work, we intended to draw a cognitive portrait of openness to reconciliation. No study had yet examined the potential contribution of high-level cognitive functioning, in addition to psychological health, to explaining attitudes towards reconciliation in societies exposed to major trauma such as post-genocide Rwanda. We measured the contribution of general cognitive capacity, analytical thinking, and subjective judgements. Our results show that higher cognitive capacity is not associated with greater openness to reconciliation...
November 21, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158326/women-and-substance-use-a-qualitative-study-on-sexual-and-reproductive-health-of-women-who-use-drugs-in-delhi-india
#6
Vartika Sharma, Avina Sarna, Waimar Tun, Lopamudra Ray Saraswati, Ibou Thior, Ira Madan, Stanley Luchters
OBJECTIVES: To explore contextual factors that increase vulnerabilities to negative sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes and possible differences in SRH-related behaviours and the needs of women who use drugs (WUD) through non-injecting and injecting routes. DESIGN: Qualitative study design using semi-structured in-depth interviews. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty women who injected drugs in the past 3 months and 28 women who reported using drugs through non-injecting routes in the past 1 month...
November 19, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158227/physical-and-sexual-dating-violence-and-nonmedical-use-of-prescription-drugs
#7
Heather B Clayton, Richard Lowry, Kathleen C Basile, Zewditu Demissie, Michele K Bohm
BACKGROUND: Little information is available on the associations between nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) and dating violence victimization (DVV) among high school students and how associations vary by sex. METHODS: We used data from the 2015 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9 to 12. The sample was restricted to students who dated during the 12 months before the survey, resulting in a sample of 5136 boys and 5307 girls...
November 20, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157230/barriers-and-facilitators-to-implementing-an-evidence-based-woman-focused-intervention-in-south-african-health-services
#8
Brittni N Howard, Richard Van Dorn, Bronwyn J Myers, William A Zule, Felicia A Browne, Tara Carney, Wendee M Wechsberg
BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic, numerous behavior change, risk-reduction, and biomedical interventions have been developed and tested. While some of these interventions have shown to be efficacious in randomized trials, it often takes almost two decades for an intervention to be translated into practice. Meanwhile, South Africa continues to have among the highest prevalence of HIV globally, with women of childbearing age bearing the burden of the epidemic. Given the urgency of the HIV epidemic among vulnerable women in South Africa, it is imperative that evidence-based interventions be implemented rapidly into practice...
November 21, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153725/differentiating-among-attempted-completed-and-multiple-nonfatal-strangulation-in-women-experiencing-intimate-partner-violence
#9
Jill Theresa Messing, Michelle Patch, Janet Sullivan Wilson, Gabor D Kelen, Jacquelyn Campbell
PURPOSE: Because identification of intimate partner violence (IPV) in health care settings is low and strangulation increases lethality risk among women experiencing IPV, we examined the prevalence and correlates of nonfatal strangulation among 1,008 women survivors of IPV. METHODS: Trained researchers conducted semistructured interviews with women survivors of IPV referred by police. Multinomial logistic regression examined differential correlates of attempted, completed, and multiple strangulation...
November 16, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153074/is-being-punished-at-school-an-indicator-of-psychosocial-risk
#10
Ana Isabel Corchado, María José Díaz-Aguado Jalón, Rosario Martínez-Arias
Research carried out in different cultural contexts shows that the use of exclusively coercive disciplinary measures does not improve the behavior of those punished, and may even increase the risks underpinning those behaviors. The aim of this research was to study whether there is a link between repeatedly suffering punishment at school and psychosocial risks in adolescence. A non-experimental design was implemented with selected groups. The participants were 507 adolescents from four groups with different risk levels: in social protection (n = 189); subject to court measures (n = 104); in treatment for drug abuse (n = 25); and comparison group (n = 189)...
November 20, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152871/an-explanatory-model-of-dating-violence-risk-factors-in-spanish-adolescents
#11
Alazne Aizpitarte, Itziar Alonso-Arbiol, Fons J R Van de Vijver
Dating violence is a serious public health issue that needs further understanding in terms of risk factors that may be involved in it. The main goal of this study was to test a mediational model of dating violence risk factors. The sample was composed of 477 secondary and college students from Spain (59% females). A dynamic developmental explanatory model considering aggressiveness, insecure attachment, interparental conflict, and peer dating violence was tested using a multigroup structural equation model...
December 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152784/workplace-violence-injury-in-106-us-hospitals-participating-in-the-occupational-health-safety-network-ohsn-2012-2015
#12
Matthew R Groenewold, Raymond F R Sarmiento, Kelly Vanoli, William Raudabaugh, Susan Nowlin, Ahmed Gomaa
BACKGROUND: Workplace violence is a substantial occupational hazard for healthcare workers in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed workplace violence injury surveillance data submitted by hospitals participating in the Occupational Health Safety Network (OHSN) from 2012 to 2015. RESULTS: Data were frequently missing for several important variables. Nursing assistants (14.89, 95%CI 10.12-21.91) and nurses (8.05, 95%CI 6.14-10.55) had the highest crude workplace violence injury rates per 1000 full-time equivalent (FTE) workers...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149538/psychologic-intimate-partner-violence-and-the-risk-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-in-rio-de-janeiro
#13
Gustavo Lobato, Michael E Reichenheim, Claudia L Moraes, Fernando M Peixoto-Filho, Lívia S Migowski
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether psychologic intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a risk factor for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). METHODS: The cross-sectional study enrolled 810 randomly selected mothers of infants younger than 5 months attending basic health services in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from January to July 2007. Psychologic and physical IPV were evaluated by the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale; IUGR was defined as below the 10th percentile of the Alexander curve...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147043/postpartum-depression-in-india-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Ravi Prakash Upadhyay, Ranadip Chowdhury, Aslyeh Salehi, Kaushik Sarkar, Sunil Kumar Singh, Bireshwar Sinha, Aditya Pawar, Aarya Krishnan Rajalakshmi, Amardeep Kumar
Objective: To provide an estimate of the burden of postpartum depression in Indian mothers and investigate some risk factors for the condition. Methods: We searched PubMed®, Google Scholar and Embase® databases for articles published from year 2000 up to 31 March 2016 on the prevalence of postpartum depression in Indian mothers. The search used subject headings and keywords with no language restrictions. Quality was assessed via the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale...
October 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146067/risky-movies-risky-behaviors-and-ethnic-identity-among-black-adolescents
#15
Amy Bleakley, Morgan E Ellithorpe, Michael Hennessy, Patrick E Jamieson, Atika Khurana, Ilana Weitz
PURPOSE: To investigate how exposure to sex, alcohol and violent content in mainstream and Black-oriented movies relates to corresponding adolescent behavior among Black youth from the United States and whether those relationships are moderated by ethnic identity. METHODS: The present study uses survey data from an online sample of 1000 Black adolescents and content analysis ratings on top-grossing 2014 films and 2013/2014 Black-oriented films. Content-specific exposure measures for alcohol, sexual activity, and violence were calculated from self-reported exposure data and content analysis ratings...
October 30, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143627/conceptualizing-pathways-linking-women-s-empowerment-and-prematurity-in-developing-countries
#16
Patience A Afulani, Molly Altman, Joseph Musana, May Sudhinaraset
BACKGROUND: Globally, prematurity is the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5. Many efforts have focused on clinical approaches to improve the survival of premature babies. There is a need, however, to explore psychosocial, sociocultural, economic, and other factors as potential mechanisms to reduce the burden of prematurity. Women's empowerment may be a catalyst for moving the needle in this direction. The goal of this paper is to examine links between women's empowerment and prematurity in developing settings...
November 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143486/violent-behaviour-in-early-psychosis-patients-can-we-identify-clinical-risk-profiles
#17
Valerie Moulin, Julie Palix, Philippe Golay, Alexandre Dumais, Mohammad Mehdi Gholamrezaee, Agathe Azzola, Philipp S Baumann, Luis Alameda, Philippe Conus
AIMS: The objective of this study is to explore, within a sample of early psychosis patients (EPP), if subgroups regarding rate of violent behaviour (VB) against others can be identified on the basis of dynamic risk factors (treatment modifiable characteristics). METHODS: In a sample of 265 EPP, treated at the Treatment and Early Intervention in Psychosis Program in Lausanne, we conducted a latent-class analysis on the basis of the main dynamic VB risk factors (substance use disorder [SUD], positive symptoms, insight, and impulsivity)...
November 15, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140584/the-association-between-female-genital-fistula-symptoms-and-gender-based-violence-a-multi-country-secondary-analysis-of-household-survey-data
#18
Lindsay Mallick, Vandana Tripathi
OBJECTIVE: The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), which include standardized questions on female genital fistula symptoms, provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the epidemiology of fistula. This study sought to examine associations between self-reported fistula symptoms and experience of gender-based violence (GBV) among women interviewed in DHS surveys. METHODS: This study used data from thirteen DHS surveys with standardized fistula and domestic violence modules...
November 15, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140526/risk-and-protective-factors-for-family-violence-among-low-income-fathers-implications-for-violence-prevention-and-fatherhood-programs
#19
R Anna Hayward, Laura Honegger, Amy Cristina Hammock
Over the last decade there has been an increased focus on improving father engagement to improve child and family outcomes. Recent research suggests that child and family outcomes improve with increased fatherhood engagement. This exploratory study examined risk and protective factors associated with approval of family violence among a sample of low-income fathers (N = 686) enrolled in a responsible fatherhood program. The program goals include increasing father involvement and economic stability and encouraging healthy relationships-with a focus on preventing intimate partner violence...
November 13, 2017: Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135836/psychosocial-work-hazards-self-rated-health-and-burnout-a-comparison-study-of-public-and-private-sector-employees
#20
Hsi-Chen Liu, Yawen Cheng
OBJECTIVES: To compare psychosocial work conditions and health status between public and private sector employees and to examine if psychosocial work conditions explained the health differences. METHODS: Two thousand four hundred fourty one public and 15,589 private sector employees participated in a cross-sectional survey. Psychosocial work hazards, self-rated health (SRH), and burnout status were assessed by questionnaire. RESULTS: As compared with private sector employees, public sector employees reported better psychosocial work conditions and better SRH, but higher risk of workplace violence (WPV) and higher levels of client-related burnout...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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