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Violence risk

Nicole H Weiss, Courtney Peasant, Tami P Sullivan
Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) report higher rates of HIV-risk behaviors. However, few studies have examined factors that may influence the strength of the link between IPV and HIV-risk behaviors. The goal of the current study was to extend extant research by evaluating the potential moderating role of avoidant coping in this relation. Participants were 212 women currently experiencing IPV (M age = 36.63, 70.8 % African American) who were recruited from the community. Significant positive associations were found between physical, psychological, and sexual IPV severity and both avoidant coping and HIV-risk behaviors...
October 24, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Taejun Yoo, Byeongjin Ye, Jung-Il Kim, Siwoo Park
OBJECTIVE: The present study analyzed relationship of workplace violence and perpetrators of violence on sleep disturbance among wage workers in Korea. METHODS: The present study used data from the 4th Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) of 2014 in selecting a total of 25,138wage workers as the study population, which excluded those who failed or refused to respond to questions required for the present study. The workplace violence experience group included people who satisfied at least one of six relevant criteria (verbal abuse, unwanted sexual attention, threatening or humiliating behavior, physical violence, bullying/harassment, and sexual harassment) and the group was divided according to whether the perpetrator of violence was a client or colleague...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Joe Lowenstein, Charlotte Purvis, Katie Rose
Risk assessments identify the presence of a Personality Disorder diagnosis as relevant to future violence. At present, risk assessments focus on the presence of the disorder rather than identifying key traits related to risk. Systematic searches of three databases were conducted from January 2000 until August 2014. Of 92,143, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. A lack of empirical research was found focusing on individual traits; instead most considered PD diagnosis as a sole entity. A preliminary model has been developed detailing the link between potential interactions of diagnostic traits and risk of violence...
2016: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
E Longo, M Masellis, G Fondi, C Cedri, C Debbia, A Pitidis
Accidents and burns are a major problem in Italy and in industrialized countries, due to the consequences they have on health, especially in children aged 0-4 years. In Italy, about 400 people die each year from burns, with over 70% of these occurring in the home. In the European Union, burns are one of the top five causes of death from accidents, accounting for 3% of all deaths from accidents and violence in those age groups. One percent of all deaths in children are due to burns. In this paper, we illustrate the results of qualitative analysis, conducted according to the methodology of content analysis, on narratives included in the anamnesis of clinical papers at the ED in 738 cases of burns in children (0-14 years) observed in a sample of Emergency Departments in the years 2005-2009...
December 31, 2015: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
Jani Nöthling, Sharain Suliman, Lindi Martin, Candice Simmons, Soraya Seedat
South African adolescents are exposed to high levels of violence and trauma, including community violence, abuse, and neglect. Violence and trauma are associated with negative mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Demographic characteristics, additional exposure to trauma, community violence, and types of childhood abuse and neglect may place adolescents at greater risk of developing PTSD. This study aimed to first assess the weighted contribution of demographic factors, trauma load, community violence, and types of abuse and neglect in predicting PTSD symptom severity...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Jamie Kwan, Margaret Jones, Lisa Hull, Simon Wessely, Nicola Fear, Deirdre MacManus
Large numbers of British and American Reservists have been deployed to operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Little is known about the impact of deployment and combat exposure on violent behavior in Reservists. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported violent behavior among a representative sample of United Kingdom Reservists, the risk factors associated with violence and the impact of deployment and combat exposure on violence. This study used data from a large cohort study of randomly selected UK military personnel and included Reservists who were in service at the time of sampling (n = 1710)...
October 24, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Michael B MacIsaac, Lyndal C Bugeja, George A Jelinek
OBJECTIVE: To review the association between exposure to interpersonal violence and suicide among women. METHODS: In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol (PRISMA-P), this review examined articles identified by using the key terms 'interpersonal violence', 'suicide' and 'death'. Of 5,536 articles identified, 38 met the a priori inclusion criteria. These required that studies examined interpersonal violence, included women and completed suicide was a measured outcome...
October 23, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Katie M Edwards, Victoria L Banyard, Elizabeth A Moschella, Katherine M Seavey
This study qualitatively examined rural emerging adults' ways of thinking (i.e., lay theories) about the causes of intimate partner violence (IPV) and ideas on how to prevent IPV most effectively. Participants were 74 individuals (majority Caucasian, heterosexual, low income) between the ages of 18 and 24 who resided in one of 16 rural communities. Participants' perceptions of the causes of IPV included (a) individual-level pathology, stress, and lack of education; (b) intergenerational transmission of violence and early-life factors; (c) relationship stressors and challenges; and (d) community factors...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Community Psychology
J Bradley Segal
Certain genes and neurobiology ('neurogenetics') may predispose some people to violent behavior. Increasingly, defendants introduce neurogenetic evidence as a mitigating factor during criminal sentencing. Identifying the cause of a criminal act, biological or otherwise, does not necessarily preclude moral or legal liability. However, valid scientific evidence of an inherited proclivity sometimes should be considered when evaluating whether a defendant is less morally culpable for a crime and perhaps less deserving of punishment...
April 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Emel Sari Gokten, Nagihan Saday Duman, Nusret Soylu, Mehmet Erdem Uzun
It is known that children with mental and developmental problems are at risk of abuse and neglect. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is one of the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine whether children diagnosed with ADHD are under more risk in terms of child abuse and neglect compared to controls. In this case-control study, 104 children, who applied to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit of Bursa Yuksek Ihtisas Training and Research Hospital between January and June 2015, were diagnosed with ADHD, and had no other psychiatric comorbidity except for disruptive behavior disorders, and 104 healthy children were compared...
October 19, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Minh T H Le, Sara Holton, Huong T Nguyen, Rory Wolfe, Jane Fisher
BACKGROUND: Limited evidence is available about poly-victimisation (exposure to multiple forms of victimisation) and mental health among adolescents in low and lower-middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between lifetime exposure to poly-victimisation, health risk behaviours, symptoms of common mental health problems and suicidal ideas in the previous year among high school students in Vietnam. METHODS: Participants were high school students in rural and urban districts of Hanoi, Vietnam...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Jeremy W Coid, Kamaldeep Bhui, Deirdre MacManus, Constantinos Kallis, Paul Bebbington, Simone Ullrich
BACKGROUND: There is growing risk from terrorism following radicalisation of young men. It is unclear whether psychopathology is associated. AIMS: To investigate the population distribution of extremist views among UK men. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of 3679 men, 18-34 years, in Great Britain. Multivariate analyses of attitudes, psychiatric morbidity, ethnicity and religion. RESULTS: Pro-British men were more likely to be White, UK born, not religious; anti-British were Muslim, religious, of Pakistani origin, from deprived areas...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Linda Witek Janusek, Dina Tell, Noni Gaylord-Harden, Herbert L Mathews
African American men (AAM) who are exposed to trauma and adversity during their early life are at greater risk for poor health over their lifespan. Exposure to adversity during critical developmental windows may embed an epigenetic signature that alters expression of genes that regulate stress response systems, including those genes that regulate the inflammatory response to stress. Such an epigenetic signature may increase risk for diseases exacerbated by inflammation, and may contribute to health disparity...
October 17, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Viola Bulgari, Laura Iozzino, Clarissa Ferrari, Marco Picchioni, Valentina Candini, Alessandra De Francesco, Paolo Maggi, Beatrice Segalini, Giovanni de Girolamo
The increased risk of violence in schizophrenia has been linked to several environmental, clinical and neuropsychological factors, including executive dysfunction. However, data about the nature of these effects are mixed and controversial. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between clinical and neuropsychological factors with violence risk in patients with schizophrenia, taking into account current psychopathology and lifetime alcohol use. We compared a sample of patients living in Residential Facilities (RFs) with schizophrenia and a past history of interpersonal violence (vSZ, N=50) to patients with schizophrenia matched on age, gender and alcohol abuse/dependence but with no violence history (nvSZ, N=37)...
October 17, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Andrew Paul Gray, Faisca Richer, Sam Harper
OBJECTIVES: Following the onset of intensive colonial intervention and rapid social change in the lives of Inuit people, youth in Nunavik have experienced high rates of mental health problems and suicide. Inuit people describe a broad range of contextual influences on mental wellness based on lived experience, but most epidemiological studies have focused on individual risk factors and pathologies. This study aimed to assess the influence of multiple determinants of mental wellness among Inuit youth in Nunavik, including culturally meaningful activities, housing and community social characteristics...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Shaniece Criss, Dahiana Rodriguez, Roberta E Goldman
Our qualitative study examined how stresses of daily life affected substance use and perceived risk among Black and Hispanic adolescents. We conducted 11 focus groups with students aged 13-25 in public and alternative schools in Providence, Rhode Island, using Bourdieu's Social Practice theoretical approach to guide questioning and data analysis. Despite participants' frequent marijuana use, they perceived the emphasis society places on substance use as misguided, obfuscating the persistence of more critical problems such as stress and reduced opportunity resulting from neighborhood violence, poor schools, financial difficulties, and home troubles...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Sophie Rausch, Julia Herzog, Janine Thome, Petra Ludäscher, Meike Müller-Engelmann, Regina Steil, Kathlen Priebe, Thomas Fydrich, Nikolaus Kleindienst
BACKGROUND: Childhood interpersonal violence is a major risk factor for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), other axis-I disorders or Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Individuals with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical abuse (CPA) who meet the criteria of any axis-I disorder usually also exhibit general psychopathologic symptoms and impairments in quality of life and sexuality. The present study investigates whether women with a history of potentially traumatic CSA/CPA without any axis-I disorder or BPD show subthreshold symptoms of PTSD-specific and general psychopathology and impairments in global functioning, quality of life, and sexuality...
2016: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
Larry Cohen, Rachel Davis, Anna Realini
We describe violence in the United States (US) and solutions the Urban Networks to Increase Thriving Youth (UNITY) Initiative has developed, led by Prevention Institute, a US non-governmental organization (NGO) and authors of this article, with initial funding from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Safety distribution across populations is unequal, while public health research has identified aspects of community environments that affect the likelihood of violence, or risk and resilience factors...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
Michele Cascardi, Sean Blank, Vikash Dodani
Advancing dating violence (DV) research requires consistent conceptualization and measurement. However, empirical sudies on the measurement of psychological and physical DV perpetration and victimization are uncommon. There were three aims of the current study: (a) to examine the construct validity of psychological and physical DV perpetration and victimization on the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory (CADRI) and Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2) using factor analysis; (b) to compare empirically derived DV scales with ones using face valid definitions of psychological and physical DV within each measure; and (c) to compare results obtained from the CADRI with those obtained from the CTS2...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Rosalind L Coleman, Susie McLean
INTRODUCTION: The offer of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as an additional option for HIV prevention for people at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of combination HIV prevention approaches. Implementing this depends on integrating PrEP in public health programmes that address risky practices with evidence-based interventions, and that operate in an enabling legal and policy environment for the delivery of health services to those at higher risk of HIV infection...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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