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George Kunnackal John, Lin Wang, Julie Nanavati, Claire Twose, Rajdeep Singh, Gerard Mullin
Dietary alteration of the gut microbiome is an important target in the treatment of obesity. Animal and human studies have shown bidirectional weight modulation based on the probiotic formulation used. In this study, we systematically reviewed the literature and performed a meta-analysis to assess the impact of prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and fat mass in adult human subjects. We searched Medline (PubMed), Embase, the Cochrane Library and the Web of Science to identify 4721 articles, of which 41 were subjected to full-text screening, yielding 21 included studies with 33 study arms...
March 16, 2018: Genes
Mansooreh Samimi, Adeleh Dadkhah, Hamed Haddad Kashani, Maryam Tajabadi-Ebrahimi, Elahe Seyed Hosseini, Zatollah Asemi
Data on the effects of synbiotic supplementation on glycemic control, lipid profiles, and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of synbiotic supplementation on glycemic control and lipid profiles in women with PCOS. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done at the Naghavi Hospital affiliated to Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran, between April 2017 and June 2017...
March 12, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Mengxia Wang, Yongxiong Chen, Yuanyuan Wang, Yuan Li, Haihui Zheng, Fangli Ma, ChungWah Ma, Xiaojun Zhang, Biyu Lu, Zhiyong Xie, Qiongfeng Liao
Weaning is an essential and important event for infants and rodent animals, and the dietary supplementation plays a crucial role in regulating the composition and function of gut microbiota in the initial period after weaning. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of two probiotics along with three polysaccharides (PP) in weaned rats. Male SD rats, 21 days of age, were divided into two groups: one group was administered with PP for four weeks and the other was not. Body weight, food intake, gut epithelial barrier function, digestive enzyme activities, and the composition and function of gut microbiota were analyzed...
March 9, 2018: Food & Function
Elham Karimi, Ashraf Moini, Mehdi Yaseri, Nooshin Shirzad, Mahdi Sepidarkish, Mojgan Hossein-Boroujerdi, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common causes of infertility in women of reproductive age. Insulin resistance is a main pathophysiologic feature in these patients. According to some studies, the intake of probiotic bacteria may improve glucose homoeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of synbiotics on metabolic parameters and apelin in PCOS patients. This randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted on eighty-eight PCOS women aged 19-37 years old...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Bruno K Rodiño-Janeiro, María Vicario, Carmen Alonso-Cotoner, Roberto Pascua-García, Javier Santos
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), one of the most frequent digestive disorders, is characterized by chronic and recurrent abdominal pain and altered bowel habit. The origin seems to be multifactorial and is still not well defined for the different subtypes. Genetic, epigenetic and sex-related modifications of the functioning of the nervous and immune-endocrine supersystems and regulation of brain-gut physiology and bile acid production and absorption are certainly involved. Acquired predisposition may act in conjunction with infectious, toxic, dietary and life event-related factors to enhance epithelial permeability and elicit mucosal microinflammation, immune activation and dysbiosis...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Ceyda Tugba Pekmez, Lars Ove Dragsted, Lena Kirchner Brahe
The gut microbiome affects the health status of the host through different mechanisms and is associated with a wide variety of diseases. Both childhood undernutrition and obesity are linked to alterations in composition and functionality of the gut microbiome. One of the possible mechanisms underlying the interplay between microbiota and host metabolism is through appetite-regulating hormones (including leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1). Short chain fatty acids, the end product of bacterial fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates, might be able to alter energy harvest and metabolism through enteroendocrine cell signaling, adipogenesis and insulin-like growth factor-1 production...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Magdy El-Salhy, Tarek Mazzawi
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a widespread gastrointestinal disorder affecting 11.2% of the world adult population. The intestinal microbiome is thought to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of IBS. The composition of the fecal microbiome in IBS patients differs from that in healthy individuals, but the exact bacteria species involved in the development of IBS remain to be determined. There is also an imbalance between useful and harmful bacteria (dysbiosis) in the intestinal microbiome in patients with IBS...
March 1, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
A N Sharma, S Kumar, A K Tyagi
A study of 120 days was undertaken to ascertain the effect of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization and faecal characteristics in Murrah buffalo calves. Twenty Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 days old and 31 ± 2.0 kg of body weight (BW) were randomly assigned into four groups. Group I served as the control (CON) in which only basal diet (concentrate mixture and green fodder) was provided, without any supplementation. Mannan-oligosaccharides at 4 g/calf/day were supplemented as prebiotic to Group II (PRE), whereas Group III (PRO) received Lactobacillus acidophilus in the form of fermented milk as probiotic at 200 ml/calf/day having 108  CFU/ml and Group IV (SYN) was supplemented with both MOS and Lactobacillus acidophilus as synbiotic at similar dose...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Andrea Mancini, Francesca Campagna, Piero Amodio, Kieran M Tuohy
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a debilitating neuropsychiatric condition often associated with acute liver failure or cirrhosis. Advanced liver diseases are characterized by a leaky gut and systemic inflammation. There is strong evidence that the pathogenesis of HE is linked to a dysbiotic gut microbiota and to harmful microbial by-products, such as ammonia, indoles, oxindoles and endotoxins. Increased concentrations of these toxic metabolites together with the inability of the diseased liver to clear such products is thought to play an important patho-ethiological role...
February 27, 2018: Food & Function
Changting Meng, Chunmei Bai, Thomas D Brown, Leroy Hood, Qiang Tian
Human gut microbiota play an essential role in both healthy and diseased states of humans. In the past decade, the interactions between microorganisms and tumors have attracted much attention in the efforts understanding various features of the complex microbial communities, as well as the possible mechanisms through which the microbiota are involved in cancer prevention, carcinogenesis, and anti-cancer therapy. A large number of studies have indicated that microbial dysbiosis contributes to cancer susceptibility via multiple pathways...
February 20, 2018: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
Mona Mischke, Tulika Arora, Sebastian Tims, Eefje Engels, Nina Sommer, Kees van Limpt, Annemarie Baars, Raish Oozeer, Annemarie Oosting, Fredrik Bäckhed, Jan Knol
AIMS: The metabolic state of human adults is associated with their gut microbiome. The symbiosis between host and microbiome is initiated at birth, and early life microbiome perturbation can disturb health long-lastingly. Here, we determined how beneficial microbiome interventions in early life affect metabolic health in adulthood. METHODS: Postnatal diets were supplemented with either prebiotics (scGOS/lcFOS) or synbiotics (scGOS/lcFOS with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V) until post-natal (PN) day 42 in a well-established rodent model for nutritional programming...
February 20, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Zohoor Nabhani, Seyed Jamal Ghaemmaghami Hezaveh, Elham Razmpoosh, Mohammad Asghari-Jafarabadi, Bahram Pourghassem Gargari
AIMS: The role of gut microbiota in the management of diabetes is shown. In this randomized clinical trial we assessed the effects of synbiotic supplementation on insulin, lipid profile and antioxidative status among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: Ninety pregnant women with GDM were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either a daily synbiotic capsule - consisting of L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, L. gasseri (1.5-7...
February 10, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Meenakshi Rajpoot, Anil K Sharma, Anil Sharma, Girish Kumar Gupta
The human body is a home to more than 1 trillion microbes with a diverse variety of commensal microbes that play a crucial role towards the health of the individual. These microbes occupy different habitats such as gut, skin, vagina, oral etc. Not only the types and abundance of microbes are different in different organs, but also these may differ in different individuals. The genome of these microbiota and their ecosystem constitute to form a microbiome. Factors such as diet, environment, host genetics etc...
February 6, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Pawel Antoni Kolodziejski, Maciej Sassek, Daniela Chalupka, Natalia Leciejewska, Leszek Nogowski, Pawel Mackowiak, Damian Jozefiak, Katarzyna Stadnicka, Maria Siwek, Marek Bednarczyk, Tomasz Szwaczkowski, Ewa Pruszynska-Oszmalek
Background: In order to discover new strategies to replace antibiotics in the post-antibiotic era in meat-type chicken production, two new synbiotics were tested: (Lactobacillus salivarius IBB3154 plus galactooligosaccharide (Syn1) and Lactobacillus plantarum IBB3036 plus raffinose family oligosaccharides (Syn2). Methods: The synbiotics were administered via syringe, using a special automatic system, into the egg air chamber of Cobb 500 broiler chicks on the 12th day of egg incubation (2 mg of prebiotics + 105 cfu bacteria per egg)...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Tzu-Lin Yeh, Pei-Ching Shih, Shu-Jung Liu, Chao-Hsu Lin, Jui-Ming Liu, Wei-Te Lei, Chien-Yu Lin
Background: Influenza infection is a common disease with a huge disease burden. Influenza vaccination has been widely used, but concerns regarding vaccine efficacy exist, especially in the elderly. Probiotics are live microorganisms with immunomodulatory effects and may enhance the immune responses to influenza vaccination. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the influence of prebiotics/probiotics/synbiotics supplementation on vaccine responses to influenza vaccination...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
M Lemaire, I Le Huërou-Luron, S Blat
Early nutrition may have long-lasting metabolic impacts in adulthood. Even though breast milk is the gold standard, most infants are at least partly formula-fed. Despite obvious improvements, infant formulas remain perfectible to reduce the gap between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Improvements such as reducing the protein content, modulating the lipid matrix and adding prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics, are discussed regarding metabolic health. Numerous questions remain to be answered on how impacting the infant formula composition may modulate the host metabolism and exert long-term benefits...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Isara Wattananapakasem, Adele Costabile, Prisana Suwannaporn
Black waxy and red jasmine rice flour (6.5% and 18.7% amylose content, respectively) were modified using pullulanase followed by heat-moisture treatment (Hydrolyzed-HMT) to produce microcapsules that entrapped L. plantarum TISTR 1465. Hydrolyzed-HMT of colored rice flours showed restricted pasting properties, lower breakdown and higher thermal properties than native flour (p<0.05). Hydrolysis treatment was able to promote a low molecular weight starch that easily formed a crystalline structure after HMT...
January 2018: Food Research International
Linsheng Huang, Qi Zhu, Xiao Qu, Huanlong Qin
Chronic functional constipation is a kind of common intestinal disease that occurs in children, adults and elderly people. This disease not only causes great influence to physiological function, but also results in varying degrees of psychological barriers. At present, constipation treatments continue to rely on traditional methods such as purgative therapy and surgery. However, these approaches can disrupt intestinal function. Recent research between intestinal diseases and gut microbiota has gradually revealed a connection between constipation and intestinal flora disturbance, providing a theoretical basis for microbial treatment in chronic constipation...
January 23, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Lian-Hua Cui, Chang-Guo Yan, Hui-Shan Li, Whee-Soo Kim, Liang Hong, Sang-Kee Kang, Yun-Jaie Choi, Chong-Su Cho
Synbiotics are a combination of probiotics and prebiotics, which lead to synergistic benefits in host welfare. Probiotics have been used as an alternative to antibiotics. Among the probiotics, Pediococcus acidilactici (PA) has shown excellent antimicrobial activity against Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) as a major poultry pathogen and has improved the production performances of animals. Inulin is widely used as a prebiotic for the improvement of animal health and growth. The main aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the antimicrobial activity of inulin nanoparticles (INs)-internalized PA encapsulated into alginate/chitosan/alginate (ACA) microcapsules (MCs) in future in vivo application...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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