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Mechanical wound closure

Helen A Thomason, Jodie M Lovett, Carla J Spina, Christian Stephenson, Andrew J McBain, Matthew J Hardman
Chronic wounds often exist in a heightened state of inflammation whereby excessive inflammatory cells release high levels of proteases and reactive oxygen species (ROS). While low levels of ROS play a fundamental role in the regulation of normal wound healing, their levels need to be tightly regulated to prevent a hostile wound environment resulting from excessive levels of ROS. Infection amplifies the inflammatory response, augmenting levels of ROS which creates additional tissue damage that supports microbial growth...
March 12, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Darwin O Larco, Bradly M Bauman, Madelaine Cho-Clark, Shaila K Mani, T John Wu
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons originate outside the central nervous system (CNS) in the nasal placode where their migration to the basal forebrain is dependent on the integration of multiple signaling cues during development. The proper migration and establishment of the GnRH neuronal population within the CNS are critical for normal pubertal onset and reproductive function. The endopeptidase EP24.15 is expressed along the migratory path of GnRH neurons and cleaves the full-length GnRH to generate the metabolite GnRH-(1-5)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Walison N Silva, Pedro H D M Prazeres, Ana E Paiva, Luiza Lousado, Anaelise O M Turquetti, Rodrigo S N Barreto, Erika Costa de Alvarenga, Maria A Miglino, Ricardo Gonçalves, Akiva Mintz, Alexander Birbrair
Healing is a vital response important for the re-establishment of the skin integrity following injury. Delayed or aberrant dermal wound healing leads to morbidity in patients.The development of therapies to improve dermal healing would be useful. Currently, the design of efficient treatments is stalled by the lack of detailed knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in wound healing. Recently, by using state-of-art technologies, it was revealed that macrophages signal via GPNMB to mesenchymal stem cells, accelerating skin healing...
March 5, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Jessie Chen, Stephanie Van Gulden, Tammy L McGuire, Andrew C Fleming, Chio Oka, John A Kessler, Chian-Yu Peng
Astrocytes perform a wide array of physiological functions including structural support, ion exchange, and neurotransmitter uptake. Despite this diversity, molecular markers that label subpopulations of astrocytes are limited, and mechanisms that generate distinct astrocyte subtypes remain unclear. Here we identified a Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) signaling regulated protein, serine protease High temperature requirement A 1 (HtrA1), as a novel marker of forebrain astrocytes, but not of neural stem cells, in adult mice of both sexes...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Antoine L Carre, Michael S Hu, Aaron W James, Kenichiro Kawai, Michael G Galvez, Michael T Longaker, H Peter Lorenz
BACKGROUND: Acute wound healing is a dynamic process that results in the formation of scar tissue. The mechanisms of this process are not well understood; numerous signaling pathways are thought to play a major role. Here, the authors have identified β-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling as an early acute-phase reactant in acute wound healing and scar formation. METHODS: The authors created 6-mm full-thickness excisional cutaneous wounds on adult β-catenin-dependent Wnt signal (BAT-gal) reporter mice...
March 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Ming-Hsien Chien, Yung-Chuan Ho, Shun-Fa Yang, Yi-Chieh Yang, Szu-Yu Lai, Wan-Shen Chen, Ming-Jenn Chen, Chao-Bin Yeh
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world, especially, in eastern Asia, and its prognosis is poor once metastasis occurs. Niclosamide, a US Food and Drug Administration-approved antihelmintic drug, was shown to inhibit the growth of various cancers including HCC, but the effect of niclosamide on cell motility and the underlying mechanism have not yet been completely defined. The present study demonstrated that niclosamide, at 0-40 nM, concentration-dependently inhibited wound closure and the migratory/invasive capacities of human Huh7 and SK-Hep-1 HCC cells without exhibiting cytotoxicity...
February 26, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Piul S Rabbani, Trevor Ellison, Bukhtawar Waqas, Darren Sultan, Salma Abdou, Joshua A David, Joshua M Cohen, Alejandro Gomez-Viso, Gretl Lam, Camille Kim, Jennifer Thomson, Daniel J Ceradini
AIMS: Though unmitigated oxidative stress in diabetic chronic non-healing wounds poses a major therapeutic challenge, currently, there are no effective pharmacological agents. We targeted the cytoprotective Nrf2/Keap1 pathway, which is dysfunctional in diabetic skin and the regenerative environment in the diabetic wound. We assessed the efficacy of a potent Nrf2-activator, RTA 408, a semi-synthetic oleanane triterpenoid, on accelerating diabetic wound healing. METHODS: Using Leprdb/db mice, we made 10mm-diameter excisional humanized wounds in dorsal skin...
February 21, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
E D Shirley, V Mai, K M Neal, G M Kiebzak
Purpose: Acute compartment syndrome often requires additional surgery to achieve wound closure. Little information exists regarding the expected number of surgeries, techniques and complications after closure in paediatric patients. Methods: A retrospective chart review identified patients treated for acute compartment syndrome at four hospitals over a ten-year period. The cause of injury, type of dressing, number of surgeries, type of closure and complications were recorded...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
Angelica Panico, Federica Paladini, Mauro Pollini
Skin injuries represent a health problem with consequences in terms of morbidity, disability and life quality. Numerous strategies have been developed for the treatment of wounds, including skin substitutes, biomembranes, scaffolds, and smart dressings. The excellent properties of fibroin can be exploited for the development of advanced wound dressing biomaterials, aiming at promoting the wound healing process. In this work, silk fibroin films modified through the addition of glucose were developed to enhance flexibility of medical device without affecting the biocompatibility, to promote wound healing and to improve the patient well-being...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Andrea Beatriz Cragnolini, Gonzalo Montenegro, Wilma J Friedman, Daniel Hugo Mascó
Astrocytes are a heterogeneous population of glial cells that react to brain insults through a process referred to as astrogliosis. Reactive astrocytes are characterized by an increase in proliferation, size, migration to the injured zone and release of a plethora of chemical mediators such as NGF and BDNF. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are brain region-associated responses of astrocytes to an injury and to the neurotrophins NGF and BDNF. We used the scratch injury model to study the closure of a wound inflicted on a monolayer of astrocytes obtained from cortex, hippocampus or striatum...
February 11, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Steven L Percival
Biofilms are responsible for stimulating and maintaining wound inflammation, increasing infection risk and delaying wound closure. Appropriate biofilm management is required to fight against local and systemic infection and to restore balance to the wound environment. The most effective way to remove biofilms involves the use of mechanical techniques, with the wound dressing representing an important component of this strategy. Wound dressing fibres, such as polyacrylate fibres, have been shown to be effective in affecting biofilm architecture by disrupting the biofilm matrix...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Wound Care
Rita A Costa, Deborah M Power
Skin wound healing has been widely studied in mammalian models but the information on teleost cutaneous healing is sparse and frequently considered in the context of viral or bacterial infections or parasitic infestations in aquaculture. In the present study a detailed time course (0 h, 6 h, 1, 2, 3 and 4 days) coupled to morphology and gene expression analysis revealed rapid regeneration of skin without scarring in a marine teleost after a superficial wound caused by the loss of a large area of scales. The integrity of the integument, as assessed by quantification of extracellular matrix (ECM) gene transcripts (fn1a, colIα1, colVα2, colXα1, ogn1, ogn2, crtac1a, cyr61, pcna, krt2 and mmp9) was restored within 2 days...
February 4, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Shuichuan Huang, Zhibo Chen, Weibin Wu, Mian Wang, Rui Wang, Jin Cui, Wen Li, Shenming Wang
MicroRNA (miR)-31 serves a key role in various biological processes, including tumor development, angiogenesis and inflammation. Whether miR-31 is involved in the pathological processes of arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) remains to be elucidated, as does the mechanism of miR-31 regulation of arterial smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). In the present study, miR-31 expression was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization, and was significantly upregulated in human ASO arterial walls compared with normal arterial walls (P<0...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Panxi Yu, Zhen Zhai, Xiaolei Jin, Xiaonan Yang, Zuoliang Qi
BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has been applied in the clinical field for more than a decade, but largely in oral surgery and implant dentistry. Its utilization in plastic and reconstructive surgery is limited and lacking a comprehensive review. Hence, this article focuses on the various clinical applications of PRF pertaining to the plastic and reconstructive field through a systematic review. METHODS: In this review, articles describing the clinical application of PRF in plastic and reconstructive surgery were screened using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria...
February 2, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Ioannis V Yannas, Dimitrios S Tzeranis, Peter T C So
This article is a review of current research on the mechanism of regeneration of skin and peripheral nerves based on use of collagen scaffolds, particularly the dermis regeneration template (DRT), which is widely used clinically. DRT modifies the normal wound healing process, converting it from wound closure by contraction and scar formation to closure by regeneration. DRT achieves this modification by blocking wound contraction, which spontaneously leads to cancellation of scar formation, a process secondary to contraction...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
Michal Hershfinkel
A distinct G-protein coupled receptor that senses changes in extracellular Zn2+, ZnR/GPR39, was found in cells from tissues in which Zn2+ plays a physiological role. Most prominently, ZnR/GPR39 activity was described in prostate cancer, skin keratinocytes, and colon epithelial cells, where zinc is essential for cell growth, wound closure, and barrier formation. ZnR/GPR39 activity was also described in neurons that are postsynaptic to vesicular Zn2+ release. Activation of ZnR/GPR39 triggers Gαq-dependent signaling and subsequent cellular pathways associated with cell growth and survival...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tiago D Gomes, Sofia G Caridade, Maria P Sousa, Sara Azevedo, Muhammed Y Kandur, Ebru T Öner, Natália M Alves, João F Mano
This work is the first reporting the use of layer-by-layer to produce adhesive free-standing (FS) films fully produced using natural-based macromolecules: chitosan (CHI), alginate (ALG) and sulfated levan (L-S). The deposition conditions of the natural polymers were studied through zeta potential measurements and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring analysis. The properties of the FS films were evaluated and compared with the control ones composed of only CHI and ALG in order to assess the influence of levan polysaccharide introduced in the multilayers...
January 26, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Nicolas E Nunez-Navarro, Fabian M Santana, Loreto P Parra, Flavia C Zacconi
Factor Xa (FXa) plays a key role in haemostasis, it is a central part of the blood coagulation cascade which catalyzes the production of thrombin and leads to clot formation and wound closure. Therefore, FXa is an attractive target for the development of new anticoagulant agents. In this review, we will first describe the molecular features of this fundamental protein in order to understand its mechanism of action, an essential background for the design of novel inhibitors by means of synthetic organic chemistry or using peptides obtained from recombinant methodologies...
January 25, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Zahra Ghiasi, Tracy Gray, Phat Tran, Richard Dubielzig, Chris Murphy, David L McCartney, Ted W Reid
Purpose: To determine whether topical Substance-P (SP) plus insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) can improve corneal healing after photorefractive surface ablation in a rabbit. Methods: After a 9.0-mm corneal de-epithelialization using a combination of chemical (18% alcohol) and mechanical debridement, excimer photorefractive surface ablation was performed bilaterally in eight rabbits (16 eyes) with an 8.0-mm ablation zone and 70-μm depth. The right eye was treated with SP (250 μg/mL) and IGF-1 (25 ng/mL) in hyaluronic acid, one drop twice a day, and the other eye treated with only hyaluronic acid...
January 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Piya Das Ghatak, Shomita S Mathew-Steiner, Priyanka Pandey, Sashwati Roy, Chandan K Sen
A 100% water-soluble surfactant polymer dressing (SPD) that is bio-compatible and non-ionic has been reported to improve wound closure in preliminary clinical studies. The mechanism of action of SPD in wound healing remains unclear. Biofilm infection is a significant problem that hinders proper wound closure. The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanism of action of SPD inhibition of bacterial biofilm development. Static biofilms (48 h) of the primary wound pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01), Staphylococcus aureus (USA300) were grown on polycarbonate membranes and treated with SPD with and without antibiotics for an additional 24 h...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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