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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762862/stress-and-the-psyche-brain-immune-network-in-psychiatric-diseases-based-on-psychoneuroendocrineimmunology-a-concise-review
#1
REVIEW
Anna Giulia Bottaccioli, Francesco Bottaccioli, Andrea Minelli
In the last decades, psychoneuroendocrineimmunology research has made relevant contributions to the fields of neuroscience, psychobiology, epigenetics, molecular biology, and clinical research by studying the effect of stress on human health and highlighting the close interrelations between psyche, brain, and bodily systems. It is now well recognized that chronic stress can alter the physiological cross-talk between brain and biological systems, leading to long-lasting maladaptive effects (allostatic overload) on the nervous, immune, endocrine, and metabolic systems, which compromises stress resiliency and health...
May 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709585/emerging-role-of-viral-vectors-for-circuit-specific-gene-interrogation-and-manipulation-in-rodent-brain
#2
REVIEW
Erika Sarno, Alfred J Robison
Over the past half century, novel tools have allowed the characterization of myriad molecular underpinnings of neural phenomena including synaptic function, neurogenesis and neurodegeneration, membrane excitability, and neurogenetics/epigenetics. More recently, transgenic mice have made possible cell type-specific explorations of these phenomena and have provided critical models of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, it has become clear that many critical areas of study require tools allowing the study and manipulation of individual neural circuits within the brain, and viral vectors have come to the forefront in driving these circuit-specific studies...
April 27, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707086/epigenetics-of-metabolic-syndrome-as-a-mood-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Sermin Kesebir
Mood disorders comprise major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and the milder forms of these two disorders. Reccurring MDD is also known as unipolar disorder. The distinction between unipolar and bipolar disorders was first suggested in 1957 by Leonard and was made official after support by several studies in 1980. Indeed, in 150 AD, Aretaeus of Cappadocia wrote "It seems to me that melancholia is the beginning and a part of mania". Additionally, Kraepelin, who proposed the first medical disease model in psychiatry a century ago, considered recurrent unipolar depression cases under the category of bipolar disorder and conceptualized spectrum disorders...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706161/the-epigenetic-clock-at-birth-associations-with-maternal-antenatal-depression-and-child-psychiatric-problems
#4
Anna Suarez, Jari Lahti, Darina Czamara, Marius Lahti-Pulkkinen, Anna K Knight, Polina Girchenko, Esa Hämäläinen, Eero Kajantie, Jari Lipsanen, Hannele Laivuori, Pia M Villa, Rebecca M Reynolds, Alicia K Smith, Elisabeth B Binder, Katri Räikkönen
OBJECTIVE: Maternal antenatal depression may compromise the fetal developmental milieu and contribute to individual differences in aging and disease trajectories in later life. We evaluated the association between maternal antenatal depression and a novel biomarker of aging at birth, namely epigenetic gestational age (GA) based on fetal cord blood methylation data. We also examined whether this biomarker prospectively predicts and mediates maternal effects on early childhood psychiatric problems...
May 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695761/epigenetic-variability-in-conversion-to-psychosis-novel-findings-from-an-innovative-longitudinal-methylomic-analysis
#5
Oussama Kebir, Boris Chaumette, Marie-Odile Krebs
Conversion to psychosis is a longitudinal process during which several epigenetic changes have been described. We tested the hypothesis that epigenetic variability in the methylomes of ultra-high risk (UHR) individuals may contribute to the risk of conversion. We studied a longitudinal cohort of UHR individuals (n = 39) and compared two groups (converters, n = 14 vs. non-converters, n = 25). A longitudinal methylomic study was conducted using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip covering half a million cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites across the human genome from whole-blood samples...
April 26, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667298/distinct-chromatin-structures-at-the-monoamine-oxidase-a-maoa-promoter-correlate-with-allele-specific-expression-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#6
M Manca, V Pessoa, P Myers, A Pickles, J Hill, H Sharp, C Murgatroyd, V J Bubb, J P Quinn
Monoamine oxidase-A (MAOA) metabolises monoamines and is implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. A polymorphic repetitive DNA domain, termed the uVNTR (upstream variable number tandem repeat), located at the promoter of the MAOA gene is a risk factor for many of these disorders. MAOA is on the X chromosome suggesting gender could play a role in regulation. We analysed MAOA regulation in the human female cell line, SH-SY5Y, which is polymorphic for the uVNTR. This heterozygosity allowed us to correlate allele specific gene expression with allele specific transcription factor binding and epigenetic marks for MAOA...
April 18, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656664/epigenetic-aging-in-major-depressive-disorder
#7
Laura K M Han, Moji Aghajani, Shaunna L Clark, Robin F Chan, Mohammad W Hattab, Andrey A Shabalin, Min Zhao, Gaurav Kumar, Lin Ying Xie, Rick Jansen, Yuri Milaneschi, Brian Dean, Karolina A Aberg, Edwin J C G van den Oord, Brenda W J H Penninx
OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder is associated with an increased risk of mortality and aging-related diseases. The authors examined whether major depression is associated with higher epigenetic aging in blood as measured by DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns, whether clinical characteristics of major depression have a further impact on these patterns, and whether the findings replicate in brain tissue. METHOD: DNAm age was estimated using all methylation sites in blood of 811 depressed patients and 319 control subjects with no lifetime psychiatric disorders and low depressive symptoms from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650294/increased-methylation-at-an-unexplored-glucocorticoid-responsive-element-within-exon-1-d-of-nr3c1-gene-is-related-to-anxious-depressive-disorders-and-decreased-hippocampal-connectivity
#8
Helena Palma-Gudiel, Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Cristian Tornador, Carles Falcón, Núria Bargalló, Gustavo Deco, Lourdes Fañanás
Among the major psychiatric disorders, anxious-depressive disorders stand out as one of the more prevalent and more frequently associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis abnormalities. Methylation at the exon 1F of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 has been associated with both early stress exposure and risk for developing a psychiatric disorder; however, other NR3C1 promoter regions have been underexplored. Exon 1D emerges as a suggestive new target in stress-related disorders epigenetically sensitive to early adversity...
April 9, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604450/changes-in-methylation-within-the-stk32b-promoter-are-associated-with-an-increased-risk-for-generalized-anxiety-disorder-in-adolescents
#9
Diana M Ciuculete, Adrian E Boström, Anna-Kaisa Tuunainen, Farah Sohrabi, Lara Kular, Maja Jagodic, Sarah Voisin, Jessica Mwinyi, Helgi B Schiöth
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is highly prevalent among adolescents. An early detection of individuals at risk may prevent later psychiatric condition. Genome-wide studies investigating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) concluded that a focus on epigenetic mechanisms, which mediate the impact of environmental factors, could more efficiently help the understanding of GAD pathogenesis. We investigated the relationship between epigenetic shifts in blood and the risk to develop GAD, evaluated by the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) score, in 221 otherwise healthy adolescents...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595559/mthfr-gene-methylation-is-associated-with-perceived-stress-in-healthy-young-adults
#10
Karen M Jiménez, Angela J Pereira-Morales, Diego A Forero
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic factors have been identified in the past years as interesting candidates for psychiatric disorders and related endophenotypes. It has been found that the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is associated with major depressive disorder, and the aim of the current study was to examine the possible association between perceived stress and MTHFR methylation, taking into account depressive symptoms as a covariate. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Seventy-eight healthy Colombian participants (mean age=20...
June 2018: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573791/understanding-the-molecular-mechanisms-underpinning-gene-by-environment-interactions-in-psychiatric-disorders-the-fkbp5-model
#11
REVIEW
Natalie Matosin, Thorhildur Halldorsdottir, Elisabeth B Binder
Epidemiologic and genetic studies suggest common environmental and genetic risk factors for a number of psychiatric disorders, including depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Genetic and environmental factors, especially adverse life events, not only have main effects on disease development but also may interact to shape risk and resilience. Such gene by adversity interactions have been described for FKBP5, an endogenous regulator of the stress-neuroendocrine system, conferring risk for a number of psychiatric disorders...
March 21, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572461/dnmt3a-in-the-dorsal-dentate-gyrus-is-a-key-regulator-of-fear-renewal
#12
Zhiting Gong, Qiang Zhou
Renewal of extinguished fear memory in an altered context is widely believed to be a major limiting issue for exposure therapy in treating various psychiatric diseases. Effective prevention of fear renewal will significantly improve the efficacy of exposure therapy. DNA methyltransferase (DNMTs) mediated epigenetic processes play critical roles in long term memory, but little is known about their functions in fear memory extinction or renewal. Here we investigated whether DNMTs regulate fear renewal after extinction...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559394/pentoxifylline-prevents-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-induced-memory-impairment
#13
Karem H Alzoubi, Omar F Khabour, Mohammed Ahmed
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling prevalent and difficult-to-treat psychiatric disorder, which can develop after the exposure to severe traumatic events such as those occurring during wars and natural disasters. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a potent antioxidant, which has an important role in prevention of cognitive dysfunctions. In the present study, the effect of PTX on memory impairment induced by PTSD was investigated using the rat animal model. PTSD-like behavior was induced in animals using a single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of PTSD (2 h restrain, 20 min forced swimming, 15 min rest, 1-2 min diethyl ether exposure)...
March 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555928/altered-dna-methylation-associated-with-a-translocation-linked-to-major-mental-illness
#14
Daniel L McCartney, Rosie M Walker, Stewart W Morris, Susan M Anderson, Barbara J Duff, Riccardo E Marioni, J Kirsty Millar, Shane E McCarthy, Niamh M Ryan, Stephen M Lawrie, Andrew R Watson, Douglas H R Blackwood, Pippa A Thomson, Andrew M McIntosh, W Richard McCombie, David J Porteous, Kathryn L Evans
Recent work has highlighted a possible role for altered epigenetic modifications, including differential DNA methylation, in susceptibility to psychiatric illness. Here, we investigate blood-based DNA methylation in a large family where a balanced translocation between chromosomes 1 and 11 shows genome-wide significant linkage to psychiatric illness. Genome-wide DNA methylation was profiled in whole-blood-derived DNA from 41 individuals using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA)...
March 19, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555185/genomic-approaches-to-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-the-psychiatric-genomic-consortium-initiative
#15
REVIEW
Caroline M Nievergelt, Allison E Ashley-Koch, Shareefa Dalvie, Michael A Hauser, Rajendra A Morey, Alicia K Smith, Monica Uddin
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after exposure to a traumatic event is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder. Heritability estimates from twin studies as well as from recent molecular data (single nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability) indicate moderate to high heritability, yet robust genetic variants for PTSD have not yet been identified and the genetic architecture of this polygenic disorder remains largely unknown. To date, fewer than 10 large-scale genome-wide association studies of PTSD have been published, with findings that highlight the unique challenges for PTSD genomics, including a complex diagnostic entity with contingency of PTSD diagnosis on trauma exposure and the large genetic diversity of the study populations...
February 2, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551912/single-cell-transcriptomics-reveals-regulators-of-neuronal-migration-and-maturation-during-brain-development
#16
Daniel Pensold, Geraldine Zimmer
The correct establishment of inhibitory circuits is crucial for cortical functionality and defects during the development of γ-aminobutyric acid-expressing cortical interneurons contribute to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. A critical developmental step is the migration of cortical interneurons from their site of origin within the subpallium to the cerebral cortex, orchestrated by intrinsic and extrinsic signals. In addition to genetic networks, epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are suggested to drive stage-specific gene expression underlying developmental processes...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524155/reproductive-genetics-and-the-aging-male
#17
REVIEW
Alexander N Yatsenko, Paul J Turek
PURPOSE: To examine current evidence of the known effects of advanced paternal age on sperm genetic and epigenetic changes and associated birth defects and diseases in offspring. METHODS: Review of published PubMed literature. RESULTS: Advanced paternal age (> 40 years) is associated with accumulated damage to sperm DNA and mitotic and meiotic quality control mechanisms (mismatch repair) during spermatogenesis. This in turn causes well-delineated abnormalities in sperm chromosomes, both numerical and structural, and increased sperm DNA fragmentation (3%/year of age) and single gene mutations (relative risk, RR 10)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520039/transgenerational-epigenetic-influences-of-paternal-environmental-exposures-on-brain-function-and-predisposition-to-psychiatric-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Shlomo Yeshurun, Anthony J Hannan
In recent years, striking new evidence has demonstrated non-genetic inheritance of acquired traits associated with parental environmental exposures. In particular, this transgenerational modulation of phenotypic traits is of direct relevance to psychiatric disorders, including depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other anxiety disorders. Here we review the recent progress in this field, with an emphasis on acquired traits of psychiatric illnesses transmitted epigenetically via the male lineage. We discuss the transgenerational effects of paternal exposure to stress vs...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513516/prairie-voles-as-a-model-for-understanding-the-genetic-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-attachment-behaviors
#19
Julie M Sadino, Zoe R Donaldson
Over a lifetime, humans build relationships with family, friends, and partners that are critically important for our mental and physical health. Unlike commonly used laboratory mice and rats, Microtine rodents provide a unique model to study the neurobiology underlying pair bonding and the selective attachments that form between adults. Comparisons between monogamous prairie voles and the closely related but nonmonogamous meadow and montane voles have revealed that brain-region-specific neuropeptide receptor patterning modulates social behavior between and within species...
April 6, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484772/concise-review-regulatory-influence-of-sleep-and-epigenetics-on-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-cognitive-and-emotional-function
#20
REVIEW
Katherine G Akers, Yoan Chérasse, Yuki Fujita, Sakthivel Srinivasan, Takeshi Sakurai, Masanori Sakaguchi
Neural stem and progenitor cells continue to generate new neurons in particular regions of the brain during adulthood. One of these neurogenic regions is the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, which plays an important role in cognition and emotion. By exploiting this innate neuronal regeneration mechanism in the DG, new technologies have the potential to promote resistance to or recovery from brain dysfunction or degeneration. However, a deeper understanding of how adult DG neurogenesis is regulated by factors such as sleep and epigenetic modifications of gene expression could lead to further breakthroughs in the clinical application of neural stem and progenitor cells...
February 27, 2018: Stem Cells
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