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Epigenetics psychiatric

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314819/depressive-like-behaviors-are-regulated-by-nox1-nadph-oxidase-by-redox-modification-of-nmda-receptor-1
#1
Masakazu Ibi, Junjie Liu, Noriaki Arakawa, Shiho Kitaoka, Ai Kawaji, Ken-Ichi Matsuda, Kazumi Iwata, Misaki Matsumoto, Masato Katsuyama, Kai Zhu, Satoshi Teramukai, Tomoyuki Furuyashiki, Chihiro Yabe-Nishimura
Involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been suggested in the development of psychiatric disorders. NOX1 is a non-phagocytic form of NADPH oxidase whose expression in the nervous system is negligible compared with other NOX isoforms. However, NOX1-derived ROS increase inflammatory pain and tolerance to opioid analgesia. To clarify the role of NOX1 in the brain, we examined depressive-like behaviors in mice deficient in Nox1 (Nox1(-/Y)). Depressive-like behaviors induced by chronic social defeat stress or administration of corticosterone (CORT) were significantly ameliorated in Nox1(-/Y) Generation of ROS was significantly elevated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of mice administrated with CORT, while NOX1 mRNA was up-regulated only in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) among brain areas responsible for emotional behaviors...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306543/peripheral-levels-of-bdnf-and-opiate-use-disorder-literature-review-and-update
#2
Raul Felipe Palma-Álvarez, Elena Ros-Cucurull, Kristopher Amaro-Hosey, Laia Rodriguez-Cintas, Lara Grau-López, Margarida Corominas-Roso, Cristina Sánchez-Mora, Carlos Roncero
Several neurobiological factors are related to opiate-use disorder (OUD), and among them, neurotrophins have a relevant role. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a central neurotrophin involved in many neuronal processes, and it has been related to several psychiatric diseases and addictive disorders. BDNF can be measured in plasma and serum; its levels may reflect BDNF concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS) and, indirectly, CNS processes. Hence, peripheral BDNF could be a biomarker in clinical practice...
March 17, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298276/early-life-nutritional-programming-of-cognition-the-fundamental-role-of-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-mediating-the-relation-between-early-life-environment-and-learning-and-memory-process
#3
REVIEW
Laura Moody, Hong Chen, Yuan-Xiang Pan
The perinatal period is a window of heightened plasticity that lays the groundwork for future anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral outcomes. During this time, maternal diet plays a pivotal role in the maturation of vital organs and the establishment of neuronal connections. However, when perinatal nutrition is either lacking in specific micro- and macronutrients or overloaded with excess calories, the consequences can be devastating and long lasting. The brain is particularly sensitive to perinatal insults, with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders having been linked to a poor in utero environment...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273291/an-integrated-neuroscience-perspective-on-formulation-and-treatment-planning-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-an-educational-review
#4
David A Ross, Melissa R Arbuckle, Michael J Travis, Jennifer B Dwyer, Gerrit I van Schalkwyk, Kerry J Ressler
Importance: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric illness, increasingly in the public spotlight in the United States due its prevalence in the soldiers returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. This educational review presents a contemporary approach for how to incorporate a modern neuroscience perspective into an integrative case formulation. The article is organized around key neuroscience "themes" most relevant for PTSD. Within each theme, the article highlights how seemingly diverse biological, psychological, and social perspectives all intersect with our current understanding of neuroscience...
March 8, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272133/how-well-do-we-understand-the-long-term-health-implications-of-childhood-bullying
#5
Pablo Patricio Zarate-Garza, Bridget K Biggs, Paul Croarkin, Brooke Morath, Jarrod Leffler, Alfredo Cuellar-Barboza, Susannah J Tye
Once dismissed as an innocuous experience of childhood, bullying is now recognized as having significant psychological effects, particularly with chronic exposure. Victims of bullying are at risk for a number of psychiatric disturbances, and growing evidence suggests that the pathophysiological effects of bullying, as with other forms of trauma and chronic stress, create additional health risks. We review the literature on the known sequelae of bullying, including psychiatric and physiological health effects, with a focus on implications for the victim...
March 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241754/dna-methylation-profiles-of-elderly-individuals-subjected-to-indentured-childhood-labor-and-trauma
#6
Zoya Marinova, Andreas Maercker, Andreas Küffer, Mark D Robinson, Tomasz K Wojdacz, Susanne Walitza, Edna Grünblatt, Andrea Burri
BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma is associated with increased vulnerability to mental and somatic disorders later in life. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation are one potential mechanism through which such long-lasting impairments/consequences can be explained. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether childhood trauma is associated with long-term DNA methylation alterations in old age. METHODS: We assessed genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in a cohort of former indentured child laborers ("Verdingkinder") who suffered severe childhood adversities (N = 30; M age = 75...
February 27, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186662/blepharospasm-40-years-later
#7
REVIEW
Giovanni Defazio, Mark Hallett, Hyder A Jinnah, Antonella Conte, Alfredo Berardelli
Forty years ago, C.D. Marsden proposed that blepharospasm should be considered a form of adult-onset focal dystonia. In the present paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of the findings regarding blepharospasm reported in the past 40 years. Although prolonged spasms of the orbicularis oculi muscles remain the clinical hallmark of blepharospasm, patients with blepharospasm may be characterized by various types of involuntary activation of periocular muscles. In addition to motor features, blepharospasm patients may also have nonmotor manifestations, including psychiatric, mild cognitive, and sensory disturbances...
February 10, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169463/relationship-between-epigenetic-regulation-dietary-habits-and-the-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-theory
#8
REVIEW
Kazuki Mochizuki, Natsuyo Hariya, Kazue Honma, Toshinao Goda
Environmental stressors during developmental stages are hypothesized to increase the risk of developing metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and psychiatric diseases during later life. This theory is known as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Recent studies suggest that accumulation of environmental stress, including during developmental stages, is internalized as acquired information designated as "epigenetic memory." This epigenetic memory is generally indicated as DNA methylation and histone modifications in the chromatin...
February 7, 2017: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135659/new-insights-into-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Joanna Oświęcimska, Agnieszka Szymlak, Wojciech Roczniak, Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok, Jarosław Kwiecień
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), characterized by abdominal pain and a change in stool form that cannot be explained by structural abnormalities. Its prevalence ranges from 9 to 23% of the worldwide population. The pathophysiology of IBS is diverse and not well understood. Biopsychosocial concept assumes that the disease is a product of psychosocial factors and altered at multiple levels of gut physiology interactions. Some aetiological factors have been identified, yet...
January 27, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115742/mef2c-transcription-factor-is-associated-with-the-genetic-and-epigenetic-risk-architecture-of-schizophrenia-and-improves-cognition-in-mice
#10
A C Mitchell, B Javidfar, V Pothula, D Ibi, E Y Shen, C J Peter, L K Bicks, T Fehr, Y Jiang, K J Brennand, R L Neve, J Gonzalez-Maeso, S Akbarian
Large-scale consortia mapping the genomic risk architectures of schizophrenia provide vast amounts of molecular information, with largely unexplored therapeutic potential. We harnessed publically available information from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, and report myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) motif enrichment in sequences surrounding the top scoring single-nucleotide polymorphisms within risk loci contributing by individual small effect to disease heritability. Chromatin profiling at base-pair resolution in neuronal nucleosomes extracted from prefrontal cortex of 34 subjects, including 17 cases diagnosed with schizophrenia, revealed MEF2C motif enrichment within cis-regulatory sequences, including neuron-specific promoters and superenhancers, affected by histone H3K4 hypermethylation in disease cases...
January 24, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100850/molecular-characteristic-and-physiological-role-of-dopa-decarboxylase
#11
Joanna Guenter, Robert Lenartowski
The enzyme DOPA decarboxylase (aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase, DDC) plays an important role in the dopaminergic system and participates in the uptake and decarboxylation of amine precursors in the peripheral tissues. Apart from catecholamines, DDC catalyses the biosynthesis of serotonin and trace amines. It has been shown that the DDC amino acid sequence is highly evolutionarily conserved across many species. The activity of holoenzyme is regulated by stimulation/blockade of membrane receptors, phosphorylation of serine residues, and DDC interaction with regulatory proteins...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094813/a-methylome-wide-mqtl-analysis-reveals-associations-of-methylation-sites-with-gad1-and-hdac3-snps-and-a-general-psychiatric-risk-score
#12
D M Ciuculete, A E Boström, S Voisin, H Philipps, O E Titova, M Bandstein, L Nikontovic, M J Williams, J Mwinyi, H B Schiöth
Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with psychiatric diseases. Increasing body of evidence suggests a complex connection of SNPs and the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of gene expression, which is poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the interplay between genetic risk variants, shifts in methylation and mRNA levels in whole blood from 223 adolescents distinguished by a risk for developing psychiatric disorders...
January 17, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059592/mutual-regulation-of-micrornas-and-dna-methylation-in-human-cancers
#13
Sumei Wang, Wanyin Wu, Francois X Claret
microRNAs (miRNAs) and DNA methylation are the 2 epigenetic modifications that have emerged in recent years as the most critical players in the regulation of gene expression. Compelling evidence has indicated the roles of miRNAs and DNA methylation in modulating cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. miRNAs act as negative regulators of gene expression and are involved in the regulation of both physiologic conditions and during diseases, such as cancer, inflammatory diseases, and psychiatric disorders, among others...
January 6, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045465/methylomic-profiling-of-cortex-samples-from-completed-suicide-cases-implicates-a-role-for-psors1c3-in-major-depression-and-suicide
#14
T M Murphy, B Crawford, E L Dempster, E Hannon, J Burrage, G Turecki, Z Kaminsky, J Mill
Major depressive disorder (MDD) represents a major social and economic health issue and constitutes a major risk factor for suicide. The molecular pathology of suicidal depression remains poorly understood, although it has been hypothesised that regulatory genomic processes are involved in the pathology of both MDD and suicidality. In this study, genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation were assessed in depressed suicide completers (n=20) and compared with non-psychiatric, sudden-death controls (n=20) using tissue from two cortical brain regions (Brodmann Area 11 (BA11) and Brodmann Area 25 (BA25))...
January 3, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027955/oxytocin-pathways-in-the-intergenerational-transmission-of-maternal-early-life-stress
#15
REVIEW
Philipp Toepfer, Christine Heim, Sonja Entringer, Elisabeth Binder, Pathik Wadhwa, Claudia Buss
Severe stress in early life, such as childhood abuse and neglect, constitutes a major risk factor in the etiology of psychiatric disorders and somatic diseases. Importantly, these long-term effects may impact the next generation. The intergenerational transmission of maternal early life stress (ELS) may occur via pre-and postnatal pathways, such as alterations in maternal-fetal-placental stress physiology, maternal depression during pregnancy and postpartum, as well as impaired mother-offspring interactions...
February 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990322/recent-advances-and-controversies-in-peripartum-depression
#16
Jennifer L Payne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to update readers on recent controversies and findings on the underlying biology and clinical management of peripartum depression. RECENT FINDINGS: Topics discussed include the discovery and replication of two epigenetic biomarkers of peripartum depression, two well controlled studies that do NOT find associations between in utero antidepressant exposure and cardiac defects and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and ongoing controversy on whether antidepressant use during pregnancy prevents peripartum depression and whether or not hormonal treatments have a place in the management of postpartum depression...
September 2016: Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981188/maternal-immune-activation-epigenetically-regulates-hippocampal-serotonin-transporter-levels
#17
Sonali N Reisinger, Eryan Kong, Deeba Khan, Stefan Schulz, Marianne Ronovsky, Stefanie Berger, Orsolya Horvath, Maureen Cabatic, Angelika Berger, Daniela D Pollak
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most debilitating psychiatric diseases, affecting a large percentage of the population worldwide. Currently, the underlying pathomechanisms remain incompletely understood, hampering the development of critically needed alternative therapeutic strategies, which further largely depends on the availability of suitable model systems. Here we used a mouse model of early life stress - a precipitating factor for the development of MDD - featuring infectious stress through maternal immune activation (MIA) by polyinosinic:polycytidilic acid (Poly(I:C)) to examine epigenetic modulations as potential molecular correlates of the alterations in brain structure, function and behavior...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965039/genetic-predisposition-to-high-anxiety-and-depression-like-behavior-coincides-with-diminished-dna-methylation-in-the-adult-rat-amygdala
#18
Chelsea R McCoy, Nateka L Jackson, Jeremy Day, Sarah M Clinton
Understanding biological mechanisms that shape vulnerability to emotional dysfunction is critical for elucidating the neurobiology of psychiatric illnesses like anxiety and depression. To elucidate molecular and epigenetic alterations in the brain that contribute to individual differences in emotionality, our laboratory utilized a rodent model of temperamental differences. Rats bred for low response to novelty (Low Responders, LRs) are inhibited in novel situations and display high anxiety, helplessness, and diminished sociability compared to High Novelty Responder (HR) rats...
March 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938391/false-data-positive-results-in-neurobiology-moving-beyond-the-epigenetics-of-blood-and-saliva-samples-in-mental-disorders
#19
EDITORIAL
A Cariaga-Martinez, R Alelú-Paz
Many psychiatric diseases are influenced by a set of several genetic and environmental factors that genetics alone cannot explain. Specifically, in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder the absence of consistently replicated genetic effects together with evidence for lasting changes in gene expression after environmental exposures suggest a role of epigenetic mechanisms in its pathophysiological mechanisms. In this field, the presence of positive results could potentially uncover molecular mechanisms of deregulated gene expression in these complex disorders...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933312/the-genetics-and-epigenetics-of-ptsd-overview-recent-advances-and-future-directions
#20
Christina M Sheerin, Mackenzie J Lind, Kaitlin Bountress, Nicole R Nugent, Ananda B Amstadter
This paper provides a brief summary and commentary on the growing literature and current developments related to the genetic underpinnings of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We first briefly provide an overview of the behavioral genetic literature on PTSD, followed by a short synopsis of the substantial candidate gene literature with a focus on genes that have been meta-analyzed. We then discuss the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that have been conducted, followed by an introduction to other molecular platforms used in PTSD genomic studies, such as epigenetic and expression approaches...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
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