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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132028/dna-methylation-and-genetic-variation-of-the-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-ace-in-depression
#1
Dilys Lam, Marie-Laure Ancelin, Karen Ritchie, Richard Saffery, Joanne Ryan
BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, and in older persons is associated with high levels of comorbidity and under-treatment. Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis is consistently observed in the older population as well as depressed patients, with the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) a key regulator of the stress response. Epigenetic regulation of ACE may play an important role in HPA axis (dys)regulation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate ACE promoter methylation as a biomarker of late-life depression, and its association with genetic variation and cortisol secretion...
November 8, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106571/retrieval-induced-upregulation-of-tet3-in-pyramidal-neurons-of-the-dorsal-hippocampus-mediates-cocaine-associated-memory-reconsolidation
#2
Cao Liu, Xue Sun, Zhilin Wang, Qiumin Le, Peipei Liu, Changyou Jiang, Feifei Wang, Lan Ma
Background: Memory retrieval refers to re-exposure to information previously encoded and stored in the brain. Following retrieval, a once-consolidated memory destabilizes and undergoes reconsolidation, during which gene expression changes to restabilize memory. Investigating epigenetic regulation during reconsolidation could provide insights into normal memory formation and pathological memory associated with psychiatric disorders. Methods: We used cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) to assess the cocaine-associated memory of mice and used chemogenetic methods to manipulate the activity of the pyramidal neurons in the dHC...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078292/early-rearing-history-influences-oxytocin-receptor-epigenetic-regulation-in-rhesus-macaques
#3
Maggie Baker, Stephen G Lindell, Carlos A Driscoll, Zhifeng Zhou, Qiaoping Yuan, Melanie L Schwandt, Isaac Miller-Crews, Elizabeth A Simpson, Annika Paukner, Pier Francesco Ferrari, Ravi Kumar Sindhu, Muslima Razaqyar, Wolfgang H Sommer, Juan F Lopez, Robert C Thompson, David Goldman, Markus Heilig, J Dee Higley, Stephen J Suomi, Christina S Barr
Adaptations to stress can occur through epigenetic processes and may be a conduit for informing offspring of environmental challenge. We employed ChIP-sequencing for H3K4me3 to examine effects of early maternal deprivation (peer-rearing, PR) in archived rhesus macaque hippocampal samples (male, n = 13). Focusing on genes with roles in stress response and behavior, we assessed the effects of rearing on H3K4me3 binding by ANOVA. We found decreased H3K4me3 binding at genes critical to behavioral stress response, the most robust being the oxytocin receptor gene OXTR, for which we observed a corresponding decrease in RNA expression...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066960/impaired-latent-inhibition-in-gdnf-deficient-mice-exposed-to-chronic-stress
#4
Mona Buhusi, Colten K Brown, Catalin V Buhusi
Increased reactivity to stress is maladaptive and linked to abnormal behaviors and psychopathology. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) alters catecholaminergic neurotransmission and remodels neuronal circuits involved in learning, attention and decision making. Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is essential for the physiology and survival of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra and of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. Up-regulation of GDNF expression during stress is linked to resilience; on the other hand, the inability to up-regulate GDNF in response to stress, as a result of either genetic or epigenetic modifications, induces behavioral alterations...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066808/cross-tissue-integration-of-genetic-and-epigenetic-data-offers-insight-into-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Shan V Andrews, Shannon E Ellis, Kelly M Bakulski, Brooke Sheppard, Lisa A Croen, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Craig J Newschaffer, Andrew P Feinberg, Dan E Arking, Christine Ladd-Acosta, M Daniele Fallin
Integration of emerging epigenetic information with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) genetic results may elucidate functional insights not possible via either type of information in isolation. Here we use the genotype and DNA methylation (DNAm) data from cord blood and peripheral blood to identify SNPs associated with DNA methylation (meQTL lists). Additionally, we use publicly available fetal brain and lung meQTL lists to assess enrichment of ASD GWAS results for tissue-specific meQTLs. ASD-associated SNPs are enriched for fetal brain (OR = 3...
October 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063484/micrornas-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#6
Clara Snijders, Laurence de Nijs, Dewleen G Baker, Richard L Hauger, Daniel van den Hove, Gunter Kenis, Caroline M Nievergelt, Marco P Boks, Eric Vermetten, Fred H Gage, Bart P F Rutten
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that can develop following exposure to or witnessing of a (potentially) threatening event. A critical issue is to pinpoint the (neuro)biological mechanisms underlying the susceptibility to stress-related disorder such as PTSD, which develops in the minority of ~15% of individuals exposed to trauma. Over the last few years, a first wave of epigenetic studies has been performed in an attempt to identify the molecular underpinnings of the long-lasting behavioral and mental effects of trauma exposure...
October 21, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054284/the-extended-evolutionary-synthesis-and-addiction-the-price-we-pay-for-adaptability
#7
Tanya Calvey
Humans are more likely to become addicted and to stay addicted than are other animals. This chapter is a neurobiological and molecular review of addiction and the cooccurring traits and psychiatric disorders from the perspective of the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES). Addiction is an example of pleiotropy as many common haplotypes that are associated with individual differences in vulnerability to substance dependence express a variety of important brain-based phenotypes such as neuroadaptive processes...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032046/past-present-and-future-of-genetic-research-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#8
REVIEW
Anahita Bassir Nia, Matthew C Eveleth, Jonathan M Gabbay, Yonis J Hassan, Bosi Zhang, M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a major mental illness with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 1-3%, characterized by a persistent pattern of instability in relationships, mood, impulse regulation, and sense of self. This results in impulsive self-damaging behavior, high suicide rates, and severe functional impairment. BPD has a complex, multifactorial etiology, resulting from an interaction among genetic and environmental substrates, and has moderate to high heritability based on twin and family studies...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027751/the-emerging-role-of-mrna-methylation-in-normal-and-pathological-behavior
#9
REVIEW
Mareen Engel, Alon Chen
Covalent RNA modifications were recently rediscovered as abundant RNA chemical tags. Similarly to DNA epigenetic modifications, they have been proposed as essential regulators of gene expression. Here we focus on two of the most abundant adenosine methylations: N6-methyladenosine (m(6) A), N6,2'-O-dimethyladenosine (m(6) Am) and N1-methyladenosine (m(1) A). We review the potential role of these modifications on mature mRNA in regulating gene expression within the adult brain, nervous system function and normal and pathological behavior...
October 13, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022873/adolescent-thc-exposure-in-female-rats-leads-to-cognitive-deficits-through-a-mechanism-involving-chromatin-modifications-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#10
Pamela Prini, Franceso Rusconi, Erica Zamberletti, Marina Gabaglio, Federica Penna, Mauro Fasano, Elena Battaglioli, Daniela Parolaro, Tiziana Rubino
BACKGROUND: Increasing cannabis consumption among adolescents, studies that link its early use with mental illnesses, and the political debate on cannabis legalization together call for an urgent need to study molecular underpinnings of adolescent brain vulnerability. The emerging role of epigenetic mechanisms in psychiatric diseases led us to hypothesize that epigenetic alterations could play a role in causes and subsequent development of the depressive/psychotic-like phenotype induced by adolescent, but not adult, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure in female rats...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017764/dna-methylation-and-antipsychotic-treatment-mechanisms-in-schizophrenia-progress-and-future-directions
#11
REVIEW
Ellen S Ovenden, Nathaniel W McGregor, Robin A Emsley, Louise Warnich
Antipsychotic response in schizophrenia is a complex, multifactorial trait influenced by pharmacogenetic factors. With genetic studies thus far providing little biological insight or clinical utility, the field of pharmacoepigenomics has emerged to tackle the so-called "missing heritability" of drug response in disease. Research on psychiatric disorders has only recently started to assess the link between epigenetic alterations and treatment outcomes. DNA methylation, the best characterised epigenetic mechanism to date, is discussed here in the context of schizophrenia and antipsychotic treatment outcomes...
October 7, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976920/chronic-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-thc-exposure-differently-affects-histone-modifications-in-the-adolescent-and-adult-rat-brain
#12
Pamela Prini, Federica Penna, Emanuele Sciuccati, Tiziana Alberio, Tiziana Rubino
Adolescence represents a vulnerable period for the psychiatric consequences of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁸-THC) exposure, however, the molecular underpinnings of this vulnerability remain to be established. Histone modifications are emerging as important epigenetic mechanisms involved in the etiopathogenesis of psychiatric diseases, thus, we investigated the impact of chronic Δ⁸-THC exposure on histone modifications in different brain areas of female rats. We checked histone modifications associated to both transcriptional repression (H3K9 di- and tri-methylation, H3K27 tri-methylation) and activation (H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation) after adolescent and adult chronic Δ⁸-THC exposure in the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971146/clinical-and-molecular-correlates-in-fragile-x-premutation-females
#13
Poonnada Jiraanont, Stefan R Sweha, Reem R AlOlaby, Marisol Silva, Hiu-Tung Tang, Blythe Durbin-Johnson, Andrea Schneider, Glenda M Espinal, Paul J Hagerman, Susan M Rivera, David Hessl, Randi J Hagerman, Nuanchan Chutabhakdikul, Flora Tassone
The prevalence of the fragile X premutation (55-200 CGG repeats) among the general population is relatively high, but there remains a lack of clear understanding of the links between molecular biomarkers and clinical outcomes. In this study we investigated the correlations between molecular measures (CGG repeat size, FMR1 mRNA, FMRP expression levels, and methylation status at the promoter region and in FREE2 site) and clinical phenotypes (anxiety, obsessive compulsive symptoms, depression and executive function deficits) in 36 adult premutation female carriers and compared to 24 normal control subjects...
June 2017: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937692/bdnf-at-the-synapse-why-location-matters
#14
M Song, K Martinowich, F S Lee
Neurotrophic factors, a family of secreted proteins that support the growth, survival and differentiation of neurons, have been intensively studied for decades due to the powerful and diverse effects on neuronal physiology, as well as their therapeutic potential. Such efforts have led to a detailed understanding on the molecular mechanisms of neurotrophic factor signaling. One member, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has drawn much attention due to its pleiotropic roles in the central nervous system and implications in various brain disorders...
October 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893219/a-case-of-a-four-year-old-child-adopted-at-eight-months-with-unusual-mood-patterns-and-significant-polypharmacy
#15
Magdalena Romanowicz, Alastair J McKean, Jennifer Vande Voort
BACKGROUND: Long-term effects of neglect in early life are still widely unknown. Diversity of outcomes can be explained by differences in genetic risk, epigenetics, prenatal factors, exposure to stress and/or substances, and parent-child interactions. Very common sub-threshold presentations of children with history of early trauma are challenging not only to diagnose but also in treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: A Caucasian 4-year-old, adopted at 8 months, male patient with early history of neglect presented to pediatrician with symptoms of behavioral dyscontrol, emotional dysregulation, anxiety, hyperactivity and inattention, obsessions with food, and attachment issues...
September 11, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890420/perinatal-inflammation-and-adult-psychopathology-from-preclinical-models-to-humans
#16
REVIEW
Amaicha Mara Depino
Perinatal environment plays a crucial role in brain development and determines its function through life. Epidemiological studies and clinical reports link perinatal exposure to infection and/or immune activation to various psychiatric disorders. In addition, accumulating evidence from animal models shows that perinatal inflammation can affect various behaviors relevant to psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism, anxiety and depression. Remarkably, the effects on behavior and brain function do not always depend on the type of inflammatory stimulus or the perinatal age targeted, so diverse inflammatory events can have similar consequences on the brain...
September 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886759/epigenetic-regulation-of-the-kappa-opioid-receptor-by-child-abuse
#17
Pierre-Eric Lutz, Jeffrey A Gross, Sabine K Dhir, Gilles Maussion, Jennie Yang, Alexandre Bramoulle, Michael J Meaney, Gustavo Turecki
BACKGROUND: Experiences of abuse and neglect during childhood are major predictors of the emergence of depressive and suicidal behaviors throughout life. The underlying biological mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we focused on the opioid system as a potential brain substrate mediating these effects. METHODS: Postmortem samples from three brain structures regulating social bonds and emotions were analyzed. Groups were constituted of depressed individuals who died by suicide, with or without a history of severe child abuse, and of psychiatrically healthy control subjects...
July 27, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886082/haloperidol-induces-pharmacoepigenetic-response-by-modulating-mirna-expression-global-dna-methylation-and-expression-profiles-of-methylation-maintenance-genes-and-genes-involved-in-neurotransmission-in-neuronal-cells
#18
Babu Swathy, Moinak Banerjee
INTRODUCTION: Haloperidol has been extensively used in various psychiatric conditions. It has also been reported to induce severe side effects. We aimed to evaluate whether haloperidol can influence host methylome, and if so what are the possible mechanisms for it in neuronal cells. Impact on host methylome and miRNAs can have wide spread alterations in gene expression, which might possibly help in understanding how haloperidol may impact treatment response or induce side effects. METHODS: SK-N-SH, a neuroblasoma cell line was treated with haloperidol at 10μm concentration for 24 hours and global DNA methylation was evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883405/modeling-a-linkage-between-blood-transcriptional-expression-and-activity-in-brain-regions-to-infer-the-phenotype-of-schizophrenia-patients
#19
El Chérif Ibrahim, Vincent Guillemot, Magali Comte, Arthur Tenenhaus, Xavier Yves Zendjidjian, Aida Cancel, Raoul Belzeaux, Florence Sauvanaud, Olivier Blin, Vincent Frouin, Eric Fakra
Hundreds of genetic loci participate to schizophrenia liability. It is also known that impaired cerebral connectivity is directly related to the cognitive and affective disturbances in schizophrenia. How genetic susceptibility and brain neural networks interact to specify a pathological phenotype in schizophrenia remains elusive. Imaging genetics, highlighting brain variations, has proven effective to establish links between vulnerability loci and associated clinical traits. As previous imaging genetics works in schizophrenia have essentially focused on structural DNA variants, these findings could be blurred by epigenetic mechanisms taking place during gene expression...
September 7, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870126/innovative-biomarkers-in-psychiatric-disorders-a-major-clinical-challenge-in-psychiatry
#20
Madia Lozupone, Davide Seripa, Eleonora Stella, Maddalena La Montagna, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Nicola Quaranta, Federica Veneziani, Alberto Cester, Rodolfo Sardone, Caterina Bonfiglio, Gianluigi Giannelli, Paola Bisceglia, Roberto Bringiotti, Antonio Daniele, Antonio Greco, Antonello Bellomo, Giancarlo Logroscino, Francesco Panza
Currently, the diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses is based upon DSM-5 criteria. Although endophenotype-specificity for a particular disorder is discussed, the identification of objective biomarkers is ongoing for aiding diagnosis, prognosis, or clinical response to treatment. We need to improve the understanding of the biological abnormalities in psychiatric illnesses across conventional diagnostic boundaries. The present review investigates the innovative post-genomic knowledge used for psychiatric illness diagnostics and treatment response, with a particular focus on proteomics...
September 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
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