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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180123/repetitive-traumatic-brain-injury-in-patients-from-kashan-iran
#1
Esmaeil Fakharian, Mahdi Mohammadzadeh, Shirin Behdadmehr, Hamid Reza Sabri, Azadeh Sadat Mirzadeh, Javad Mohammadzadeh
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide problem, especially in countries with high incidence of road traffic accidents such as Iran. Patients with a single occurrence of TBI have been shown to be at increased risk to sustain future TBI. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to present the incidence and characteristics of repeated TBI (RTBI) in Iranian patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: During one year, all admitted TBI patients with prior TBI history were enrolled into the study...
September 2016: Trauma Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074785/deformable-registration-of-ct-and-cone-beam-ct-with-local-intensity-matching
#2
Seyoun Park, William Plishker, Harry Quon, John Wong, Raj Shekhar, Junghoon Lee
Cone-beam CT (CBCT) is a widely used intra-operative imaging modality in image-guided radiotherapy and surgery. A short scan followed by a filtered-backprojection is typically used for CBCT reconstruction. While data on the mid-plane (plane of source-detector rotation) is complete, off-mid-planes undergo different information deficiency and the computed reconstructions are approximate. This causes different reconstruction artifacts at off-mid-planes depending on slice locations, and therefore impedes accurate registration between CT and CBCT...
February 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048096/su-f-j-205-effect-of-cone-beam-factor-on-cone-beam-ct-number-accuracy
#3
W Yao, C Hua, J Farr, S Brady, T Merchant
PURPOSE: To examine the suitability of a Catphan™ 700 phantom for image quality QA of a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system deployed for proton therapy. METHODS: Catphan phantoms, particularly Catphan™ 504, are commonly used in image quality QA for CBCT. As a newer product, Catphan™ 700 offers more tissue equivalent inserts which may be useful for generating the electron density - CT number curve for CBCT based treatment planning. The sensitometry-and-geometry module used in Catphan™ 700 is located at the end of the phantom and after the resolution line pair module...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047877/su-c-206-05-pixel-wise-calculation-of-noise-statistics-on-iterative-ct-reconstruction-from-a-single-scan
#4
T Wang, L Zhu
PURPOSE: As iterative CT reconstruction continues to advance, the spatial distributions of noise standard deviation (STD) and accurate noise power spectrum (NPS) on reconstructed CT images become more important for method evaluation ans algorithm parameters settings. Using data of a single scan, we propose a practical method for pixel-wise noise statistics calculation on iterative CT reconstruction image, which enables accurate calculation of noise STD for each pixel and NPS without stationary noise assumption...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047159/th-cd-207a-10-using-the-gamma-index-to-flag-changes-in-anatomy-during-radiation-therapy-of-head-and-neck-cancer
#5
B Schaly, J Kempe, S Mitchell, V Venkatesan, J Battista
PURPOSE: This article presents a fast algorithm for comparing 3-D anatomy from Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) imaging using the gamma comparison index and to demonstrate how this can be used to flag patients for possible re-planning of treatment. METHODS: CBCT scans acquired on a Varian linear accelerator during treatment were used as input to the gamma comparator using thresholds of 5 mm distance to agreement and 30 Hounsfield Unit CT number difference. The fraction 1 CBCT study was initially used as the reference...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837185/quantitative-estimation-of-a-ratio-of-intracranial-cerebrospinal-fluid-volume-to-brain-volume-based-on-segmentation-of-ct-images-in-patients-with-extra-axial-hematoma
#6
Ha Son Nguyen, Mohit Patel, Luyuan Li, Shekar Kurpad, Wade Mueller
BACKGROUND: Diminishing volume of intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with space-occupying masses have been attributed to unfavorable outcome associated with reduction of cerebral perfusion pressure and subsequent brain ischemia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to employ a ratio of CSF volume to brain volume for longitudinal assessment of space-volume relationships in patients with extra-axial hematoma and to determine variability of the ratio among patients with different types and stages of hematoma...
November 11, 2016: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833352/adaptive-radiotherapy-for-head-neck-cancer
#7
Shrikant Balasaheb Mali
Changes in patient anatomy may occur either from a tumour volume, position or function of a specific organ at risk, or target volume, weight loss or a reduction in postoperative oedema, and may vary between patients. Adaptive radiotherapy aims to correct morphological variations by realizing one or more plans during the treatment course. Imaging is used to detect these variations, thereby deciding on a potential replanning. At present, adaptive radiotherapy for head neck cancer (HNC) mainly deals with treatment response, such as weight loss or tumor shrinkage...
December 2016: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782729/an-iterative-projection-based-motion-estimation-and-compensation-scheme-for-head-x-ray-ct
#8
Tao Sun, Jung-Ha Kim, Roger Fulton, Johan Nuyts
PURPOSE: Although current computed tomography (CT) systems can scan the head in a very short time, patient motion sometimes still induces artifacts. If motion occurs, one has to repeat the scan; to avoid motion, sedation or anesthesia is sometimes applied. METHODS: The authors propose a method to iteratively estimate and compensate this motion during the reconstruction. In every iteration, the rigid motion was estimated view-by-view and then used to update the system matrix...
October 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718440/an-interesting-case-report-of-vertebral-artery-dissection-following-polytrauma
#9
Vikas Acharya, Suresh Chandrasekaran, Sujit Nair
INTRODUCTION: The authors present an interesting case of a 19-year-old male who presented as a polytrauma patient following a fall from a height. PRESENTATION OF CASE: He was initially managed on the intensive care unit with intracranial pressure bolt monitoring after being intubated and sedated and having his other traumatic injuries stabilized. Upon attempting to wean sedation and extubation a repeat CT scan of the head was undertaken and showed a new area suggested of cerebral infarction, this was a new finding...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663515/immune-biomarkers-of-treatment-failure-for-a-patient-on-a-phase-i-clinical-trial-of-pembrolizumab-plus-radiotherapy
#10
Gregory S Alexander, Joshua D Palmer, Madalina Tuluc, Jianqing Lin, Adam P Dicker, Voichita Bar-Ad, Larry A Harshyne, Jennifer Louie, Colette M Shaw, D Craig Hooper, Bo Lu
BACKGROUND: Pembrolizumab is a monoclonal antibody that is designed against programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). Pembrolizumab and other immunocheckpoint-blocking monoclonal antibodies work by modulating a patient's own immune system to increase anti-tumor activity. While immunocheckpoint blockade has shown promising results, only 20-40 % of patients experience objective clinical benefit. Differences in individual tumor biology and the presence multiple immune checkpoints present a challenge for treatment...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624450/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-a-rare-sinonasal-neuroendocrine-tumour-adding-to-the-evidence
#11
Aashrai Gudlavalleti, Ryan Dean, Yuxin Liu, Amit S Dhamoon
Sinonasal neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are rare, aggressive neoplasms with a high recurrence potential. There are no robust protocols for the management of these tumours. An 81-year-old man presented with an incidental sinonasal mass visualised on CT scan of head. Over the next few weeks he developed new onset, progressively worsening headache, right eye ptosis and restricted extraocular movements. Imaging confirmed a rapidly enlarging tumour involving the right nasal cavity and the orbit. Biopsy showed a large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the right ethmoidal sinus...
September 13, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618379/utility-of-repeat-head-computed-tomography-for-intracranial-hemorrhage-after-trauma-and-importance-of-direct-patient-care
#12
Mary Ellen Zimmermann, Zachary Brown, Praise Matemavi, Gloria Melnic, Jason Sample
At many institutions, it is common practice for trauma patients with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) to receive routine repeat head computed tomographic (CT) scans after the initial CT scan, regardless of symptoms, to evaluate progression of the injury. The purpose of this study was to assess quantifiable risk factors (age, anticoagulation, gender) that could place patients at greater risk for progression of injury, thus requiring surgical intervention (craniotomy, craniectomy) for which serial CT scanning would be useful...
September 2016: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600874/agreement-and-precision-of-periprosthetic-bone-density-measurements-in-micro-ct-single-and-dual-energy-ct
#13
Bo Mussmann, Søren Overgaard, Trine Torfing, Peter Traise, Oke Gerke, Poul Erik Andersen
The objective of this study was to test the precision and agreement between bone mineral density measurements performed in micro CT, single and dual energy computed tomography, to determine how the keV level influences density measurements and to assess the usefulness of quantitative dual energy computed tomography as a research tool for longitudinal studies aiming to measure bone loss adjacent to total hip replacements. Samples from 10 fresh-frozen porcine femoral heads were placed in a Perspex phantom and computed tomography was performed with two acquisition modes...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577592/the-clinical-impact-of-a-web-based-image%C3%A2-repository-on-radiation-exposure-in%C3%A2-injured-children
#14
Rosemary Nabaweesi, Raghu H Ramakrishnaiah, Mallikarjuna R Rettiganti, Chunqiao Luo, Charles M Glasier, Robert T Maxson, Mary E Aitken, Philip J Kenney, James M Robbins
PURPOSE: The long-term cancer risks for children exposed to radiologic images can be two to three times higher than for adults because children are more sensitive to radiation and have a longer lifetime in which to accumulate exposure from CT scans. Injured children often undergo repeat CT imaging if they are transferred from non-pediatric hospitals to a Level I pediatric trauma center (PTC). This study determined the impact of a statewide web-based image repository (WBIR) on repeat imaging among transferred injured children...
November 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561990/dynamic-change-of-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-and-hemorrhagic-transformation-after-thrombolysis-in-stroke
#15
Zhiliang Guo, Shuhong Yu, Lulu Xiao, Xin Chen, Ruidong Ye, Ping Zheng, Qiliang Dai, Wen Sun, Changsheng Zhou, Shuiping Wang, Wusheng Zhu, Xinfeng Liu
BACKGROUND: The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been shown to predict short- and long-term outcomes in ischemic stroke patients. We sought to explore the temporal profile of the plasma NLR in stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and its relationship with intracranial bleeding complications after thrombolysis. METHODS: A total of 189 ischemic stroke patients were prospectively enrolled. Blood samples for leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were obtained at admission and at 3-6, 12-18, and 36-48 h after IVT...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473443/risk-of-delayed-intracranial-hemorrhage-in-anticoagulated-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-systematic-review-and%C3%A2-meta-analysis
#16
Jean-Marc Chauny, Martin Marquis, Francis Bernard, David Williamson, Martin Albert, Mathieu Laroche, Raoul Daoust
BACKGROUND: Delayed intracranial hemorrhage is a potential complication of head trauma in anticoagulated patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to use a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the risk of delayed intracranial hemorrhage 24 h after head trauma in patients who have a normal initial brain computed tomography (CT) scan but took vitamin K antagonist before injury. METHODS: EMBASE, Medline, and Cochrane Library were searched using controlled vocabulary and keywords...
November 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444293/evaluation-of-the-necessity-of-hospitalization-in-children-with-an-isolated-linear-skull-fracture-isf
#17
Adi Reuveni-Salzman, Guy Rosenthal, Oded Poznanski, Yigal Shoshan, Mony Benifla
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of skull fractures after mild head trauma is 2 % in children of all ages and 11 % in children younger than 2 years. The current standard management for a child diagnosed with an isolated skull fracture (ISF), in our institute, is hospitalization for a 24-h observation period. Based on data from the literature, less than 1 % of all minor head injuries require neurosurgical intervention. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of neurological deterioration of ISF cases, in order to assess the need for hospitalization...
September 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438081/transcervical-resection-of-tracheal-diverticulum
#18
Dayu Huang, Qinyun Ma, Shaohua Wang, Qi Ouyang, Xiaofeng Chen
Tracheal diverticulum is a clinical entity rarely reported in the literature. It can be congenital or acquired in origin, and most cases are asymptomatic, usually being discovered incidentally at CT scan. Therefore, treatment has not been widely reported. We present the case of a 30-year-old man with a 6-month history of repeatedly coughing and tracheobronchitis. CT scanning revealed the lesion. The patient underwent surgical resection of the tracheal diverticulum via a transcervical approach. Symptoms resolved after surgical treatment...
January 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27345591/selection-of-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-for-adaptive-radiotherapy-to-decrease-xerostomia
#19
Charlotte L Brouwer, Roel J H M Steenbakkers, Arjen van der Schaaf, Chantal T C Sopacua, Lisanne V van Dijk, Roel G J Kierkels, Hendrik P Bijl, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Johannes A Langendijk, Nanna M Sijtsema
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method to select head and neck cancer patients for adaptive radiotherapy (ART) pre-treatment. Potential pre-treatment selection criteria presented in recent literature were included in the analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Deviations from the planned parotid gland mean dose (PG ΔDmean) were estimated for 113 head and neck cancer patients by re-calculating plans on repeat CT scans. Uni- and multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to select pre-treatment parameters, and ROC curve analysis was used to determine cut off values, for selecting patients with a PG dose deviation larger than 3Gy...
July 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271755/a-treatment-strategy-to-avoid-iatrogenic-pipkin-type-iii-femoral-head-fracture-dislocations
#20
Kyeong-Hyeon Park, Ji-Wan Kim, Chang-Wug Oh, Joon-Woo Kim, Jong-Keon Oh, Hee-Soo Kyung
INTRODUCTION: Reduction is urgently required in cases of traumatic hip dislocation to decrease the risk of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. However, successful reduction may not always be feasible for hip dislocations associated with femoral head fractures. This irreducibility may provoke further incidental fractures of the femoral neck with resultant Pipkin type III injuries. The purpose of this study was to describe an appropriate treatment strategy for irreducible femoral head fracture-dislocations...
August 2016: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
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