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Silvie Koval, Gregoire Krahenbuhl, Karryn Warren, Graham O'Brien
In urban environments airborne particulates (dust) must be managed to ensure that industry and community coexist in a mutually beneficial and sustainable manner. The composition of the dust is a function of the local environment and industry. In general, there is a view by many community members that a significant proportion of inhalable (PM10 ) and respirable (PM2.5 ) dust in these environments could be coal. Thus there is a need to have an analytical method that provides a quantitative analysis of the amount and size distribution of the different particulates that can be present in air samples...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Sujeet Kumar, Mohmad Mashooq, Ravi Kumar Gandham, S V Alavandi, Viswas Konasagara Nagaleekar
Clostridium chauvoei causes fatal black quarter infection in cattle and buffaloes. The quorum sensing (QS) system, a bacterial cell to cell communication process, of the pathogen was characterized in the current study. The results indicated that C. chauvoei lacked luxS (autoinducer-2) based quorum sensing as detected by the sensor strain Vibrio harveyi BB170. This was supported by absence of luxS gene in C. chauvoei genome. However, the genomic analysis indicated the presence of agrBD system in all three genomes of C...
June 18, 2018: Anaerobe
Frank W J M Smeenk, Laurien A Schrijver, Hennie C J van Bavel, Eric F J van de Laar
In 2014, a group of physicians of the Catharina Hospital in Eindhoven (The Netherlands) started a project called "Talking about end-of-life care in a timely manner". Just like others in the country, the Eindhoven group noticed that regularly, very frail elderly people were admitted to hospital in acute situations without there ever having been conversations about their wishes concerning treatment options at the end of life. The project aimed to prevent unnecessary admissions and treatments for these frail patients by stimulating physicians, patients and informal caregivers to start conversations about end-of-life care together at an earlier stage...
December 2017: Breathe
Alexander G Truesdell, Behnam Tehrani, Ramesh Singh, Shashank Desai, Patricia Saulino, Scott Barnett, Stephen Lavanier, Charles Murphy
The incidence of cardiogenic shock is rising, patient complexity is increasing and patient survival has plateaued. Mirroring organisational innovations of elite military units, our multidisciplinary medical specialists at the INOVA Heart and Vascular Institute aim to combine the adaptability, agility and cohesion of small teams across our large healthcare system. We advocate for widespread adoption of our 'combat' methodology focused on: increased disease awareness, early multidisciplinary shock team activation, group decision-making, rapid initiation of mechanical circulatory support (as appropriate), haemodynamic-guided management, strict protocol adherence, complete data capture and regular after action reviews, with a goal of ending preventable death from cardiogenic shock...
May 2018: Interventional Cardiology
Gareth H Rees, Peter Crampton, Robin Gauld, Stephen MacDonell
Concerns over New Zealand's health workforce sufficiency, distribution and sustainability continue. Proposed solutions tend to focus on supplying medical professionals to meet predicted numbers or to resolve distributional problems. This is despite quantitative forecasts being known to have poor reliability. A recent study on New Zealand's health workforce planning, which focused less on medical workforce numbers and more on the system's organisation and constituent interrelations, highlights the use of complementary methods to define the problems and design a range of policy responses...
June 22, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
James Stanley, Elinor Millar, Kelly Semper, Cheryl Davies, Anthony Dowell, Dee Mangin, Ross Lawrenson, Diana Sarfati
AIMS: To describe the experiences of people living with multimorbidity in New Zealand. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adults with multimorbidity enrolled in two primary health organisations in New Zealand. Potential participants with multimorbidity were identified using retrospective hospital discharge data coded for long-term conditions. Sampling was stratified by ethnicity (Māori, Pacific and non-Māori/non-Pacific). Analysis was descriptive, with some responses compared to the general population estimates from the New Zealand Health Survey...
June 22, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
Mark Weatherall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
A R Giuliani, A Mattei, A Appetiti, D Pompei, F Di Donna, F Fiasca, L Fabiani
When the meningococcus B vaccine was introduced into Italy in 2017, it was recommended for newborns based on national epidemiological data indicating that they were at greater risk. However, the vaccination service of the local health authority of L'Aquila had already been receiving spontaneous parental requests to provide vaccination for children in lower-risk age groups from the beginning of 2016. We therefore decided to use a self-administered questionnaire in order to investigate the parents' socio-demographic data; their children's history of other recommended vaccinations (against measles, mumps and rubella, varicella, meningococcus C and, for females, human papilloma virus); the information sources concerning meningococcal vaccination; and the timing of its administration...
June 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
S van Egmond, M Wakkee, M Droger, M T Bastiaens, A van Rengen, K P de Roos, T Nijsten, M Lugtenberg
BACKGROUND: Despite the high and rising incidence rate of keratinocyte cancer (KC) and the importance of incorporating patient values in evidence-based care, few studies have focused on the perspectives of KC patients. OBJECTIVES: To identify the needs and preferences of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients regarding care. METHODS: A qualitative study consisting of three focus groups with BCC patients and three focus groups with SCC patients was conducted...
June 21, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Charlotte B Thorup, Mette Hougaard, Pernille F Blindum, Erik E Sørensen
Surgical site infections that develop after vascular and cardiac surgery are often treated with Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT). Due to the severity of the infection and risk of bleeding, this NPWT often requires hospitalisation. Fourteen patients were selected for qualitative interviews to investigate their experiences and the meaning of patient participation during hospitalisation with NPWT. Results show that hospitalisation induces tension between an intrusion of privacy and being part of a community...
June 21, 2018: International Wound Journal
Dimitri Van de Perre, Ivo Roessink, Colin R Janssen, Erik Smolders, Frederik De Laender, Paul J Van den Brink, Karel A C De Schamphelaere
Ecotoxicological studies mainly consist of single-species experiments evaluating the effects of a single stressor. However, under natural conditions aquatic communities are exposed to a mixture of stressors. This study was set up to identify how the toxicity of zinc (Zn) is affected by increased temperature (T) and increased phosphorus supply (P) and how these interactions vary among species, functional groups, community structure and function. Aquatic microcosms were subjected to three Zn concentrations (background: no Zn added; 75 µg Zn/L and 300 µg Zn/L), two temperatures (16-19 °C and 21-24 °C) and 2 different P additions (low: 0...
June 21, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Emily Shepherd, Rehana A Salam, Philippa Middleton, Shanshan Han, Maria Makrides, Sarah McIntyre, Nadia Badawi, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy is an umbrella term that encompasses disorders of movement and posture attributed to non-progressive disturbances occurring in the developing foetal or infant brain. As there are diverse risk factors and aetiologies, no one strategy will prevent cerebral palsy. Therefore, there is a need to systematically consider all potentially relevant interventions for prevention. OBJECTIVES: PrimaryTo summarise the evidence from Cochrane Systematic Reviews regarding effects of neonatal interventions for preventing cerebral palsy (reducing cerebral palsy risk)...
June 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Oskar Mittag, Toomas Kotkas, Christina Reese, Hanna Kampling, Henning Groskreutz, Wouter de Boer, Felix Welti
OBJECTIVES: Working age disability is a major challenge for policymakers in European countries. This pertains to both occupational reintegration and social benefits for work incapacity. In many states reforms have been initiated aimed at reducing disability scheme inflow and fostering return to work. Our study was motivated by the question as to which aspects of these reforms seem to have been effective. METHODS: Three different approaches were utilized: case vignettes, interviews and expert workshops in the respective countries (Netherlands and Germany in 2012; Finland in 2015), and a systematic search for relevant studies on occupational reintegration was performed...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
A Sanchez-Fernandez, G L Moody, L C Murfin, T Arnold, A J Jackson, S M King, S E Lewis, K J Edler
Recent investigations have shown that deep eutectic solvents provide a suitable environment for self-organisation of biomolecules, in particular phospholipids and proteins. However, the solvation of complex lyophilic moieties by deep eutectic solvents still remains unclear. Here we explore the behaviour of zwitterionic surfactants in choline chloride:glycerol eutectic mixture. Dodecyl-2-(trimethylammonio)ethylphosphate and N-alkyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate (alkyl = dodecyl, tetradecyl) surfactants were investigated by means of surface tension, X-ray reflectivity and small-angle neutron scattering...
June 21, 2018: Soft Matter
Charlotte Scheerens, Luc Deliens, Simon Van Belle, Guy Joos, Peter Pype, Kenneth Chambaere
Early integration of palliative home care (PHC) might positively affect people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, PHC as a holistic approach is not well integrated in clinical practice at the end-stage COPD. General practitioners (GPs) and community nurses (CNs) are highly involved in primary and home care and could provide valuable perspectives about barriers to and facilitators for early integrated PHC in end-stage COPD. Three focus groups were organised with GPs (n = 28) and four with CNs (n = 28), transcribed verbatim and comparatively analysed...
June 20, 2018: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
Philip Cornwall, Louis J Diorazio, Natalie Monks
Route Design is the first step in the strategic development process for manufacture of a new active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Numerous benefits can be realised for the project and the broader performance of the company. We present an appreciation of some of the potential challenges and describe the principles and practices that have shaped the Route Design culture within AstraZeneca. This is exemplified with case histories and we describe some of the activities that have supported our scientists and the simple messages used to educate the broader organisation...
June 7, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Tooba Noor Mollah, Josefine Antoniades, Fathima Ijaza Lafeer, Bianca Brijnath
BACKGROUND: Despite continued policy and research emphasis to deliver culturally competent mental healthcare, there is: (1) limited evidence about what frontline practitioners consider to be culturally competent care and; (2) what helps or hinders them in delivering such care in their everyday practice. The aims of this article are to address these gaps. METHODS: Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 mental health practitioners working with immigrant patients to explore their understandings and experiences of culturally competent care...
June 20, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Aadil Kazi, Cheryl Haslam, Myanna Duncan, Stacy Clemes, Ricardo Twumasi
This article presents baseline data from 1120 employees across 10 worksites enrolled in a workplace physical activity intervention. The study provides new data on physical activity, sedentary behaviour and health and highlights gender, geographical, job type and industrial sector differences. Sitting at work accounted for more than 60% of participants' total daily sitting time on work days. Weekly and monthly hours worked, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were significantly higher for workers in the private sector compared to the public sector...
June 21, 2018: Ergonomics
Andrea Sarrica, Natalja Kirika, Margherita Romeo, Mario Salmona, Luisa Diomede
Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia obovata bark extracts have been used for thousands of years in Chinese and Japanese traditional medicines and are still widely employed as herbal preparations for their sedative, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, and antispastic effects. Neolignans, particularly magnolol and honokiol, are the main substances responsible for the beneficial properties of the magnolia bark extract (MBE). The content of magnolol and honokiol in MBE depends on different factors, including the Magnolia plant species, the area of origin, the part of the plant employed, and the method used to prepare the extract...
June 20, 2018: Planta Medica
Jane Lloyd, Louise Thomas, Gawaine Powell-Davies, Regina Osten, Mark Harris
Definitions of health literacy have tended to focus on the abilities of patients and communities, rather than on the ability of the health system and its services to respond to patients' different levels of health literacy. However, health literacy is increasingly being recognised as part of a dynamic, two-way relationship, affected by both organisational factors (e.g. tailoring of communication and care to patients' needs) and community factors (e.g. individuals' ability to perceive and seek care). Developing a more comprehensive understanding of health literacy is an important step towards improving health literacy...
June 14, 2018: Public Health Research & Practice
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