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Angela Wulff, Maria Karlberg, Malin Olofsson, Anders Torstensson, Lasse Riemann, Franciska S Steinhoff, Malin Mohlin, Nina Ekstrand, Melissa Chierici
Helcom scenario modelling suggests that the Baltic Sea, one of the largest brackish-water bodies in the world, could expect increased precipitation (decreased salinity) and increased concentration of atmospheric CO2 over the next 100 years. These changes are expected to affect the microplanktonic food web, and thereby nutrient and carbon cycling, in a complex and possibly synergistic manner. In the Baltic Proper, the extensive summer blooms dominated by the filamentous cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon sp., Dolichospermum spp...
2018: Marine Biology
Sarah M Churchill, Grant Trewartha, Aki I T Salo
Athletes in inner lanes may be disadvantaged during athletic sprint races containing a bend portion because of the tightness of the bend. We empirically investigated the veracity of modelled estimates of this disadvantage and the effect of running lane on selected kinematic variables. Three-dimensional video analysis was conducted on nine male athletes in lanes 8, 5 and 2 of the bend of an outdoor track (radii: 45.10, 41.41 and 37.72 m, respectively). There was over 2% (p < 0.05) reduction in mean race velocity from lane 8 (left step 9...
March 21, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Daniela Caccamo, Sergio Ricca, Monica Currò, Riccardo Ientile
Hypovitaminosis D has become a pandemic, being observed in all ethnicities and age groups worldwide. Environmental factors, such as increased air pollution and reduced ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation, as well as lifestyle factors, i.e., decreased outdoor activities and/or poor intake of vitamin D-rich food, are likely involved in the etiology of a dramatic reduction of vitamin D circulating levels. The insufficiency/deficiency of vitamin D has long been known for its association with osteoporosis and rickets...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kaleb S Abbott, Hope M Queener, Lisa A Ostrin
SIGNIFICANCE: We investigated links between the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, light exposure, refractive error, and sleep. Results showed that morning melatonin was associated with light exposure, with modest differences in sleep quality between myopes and emmetropes. Findings suggest a complex relationship between light exposure and these physiological processes. PURPOSE: Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) signal environmental light, with pathways to the midbrain to control pupil size and circadian rhythm...
March 21, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Talia Brandman, Marius V Peelen
We internally represent the structure of our surroundings even when there is little layout information available in the visual image, such as when walking through fog or darkness. One way in which we disambiguate such scenes is through object cues; for example, seeing a boat supports the inference that the foggy scene is a lake. Recent studies have investigated the neural mechanisms by which object and scene processing interact to support object perception. The current study examines the reverse interaction by which objects facilitate the neural representation of scene layout...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Matt Luther, Fergus Gardiner, Shane Lenson, David Caldicott, Ryan Harris, Ryan Sabet, Mark Malloy, Jo Perkins
Specific Event Identifiers a. Event type: Outdoor music festival. b. Event onset date: December 3, 2016. c. Location of event: Regatta Point, Commonwealth Park. d. Geographical coordinates: Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Australia (-35.289002, 149.131957, 600m). e. Dates and times of observation in latitude, longitude, and elevation: December 3, 2016, 11:00-23:00. f. Response type: Event medical support. Abstract Introduction Young adult patrons are vulnerable to risk-taking behavior, including drug taking, at outdoor music festivals...
March 21, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Marco Simões, Miguel Bernardes, Fernando Barros, Miguel Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and repetitive patterns of behavior, which can lead to deficits in adaptive behavior. In this study, a serious game was developed to train individuals with ASD for an important type of outdoor activity, which is the use of buses as a means of transportation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a serious game that defines a "safe environment" where the players became familiar with the process of taking a bus and to validate if it could be used effectively to teach bus-taking routines and adaptive procedures to individuals with ASD...
March 20, 2018: JMIR Serious Games
Alberto Vergara-Fernández, Sergio Revah, Patricio Moreno-Casas, Felipe Scott
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous contaminants that can be found both in outdoor and indoor air, posing risks to human health and the ecosystems. The treatment of air contaminated with VOCs in low concentrations can be effectively performed using biofiltration, especially when VOCs are hydrophilic. However, the performance of biofilters inoculated with bacteria has been found to be low with sparsely water soluble molecules when compared to biofilters where fungi develop. Using conceptual and mathematical models, this review presents an overview of the physical, chemical and biological mechanisms that explain the differences in the performance of fungal and bacterial biofilters...
March 17, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Kyu-Sung Ahn, Shin-Eui Huh, Sang-Woo Seol, Ha-Jung Kim, Kuk-Hyun Suh, SungShik Shin
BACKGROUND: The status of flea infestation in dogs is an important public health concern because of their cosmopolitan distribution worldwide and the flea-borne disease transmission. In the present study, we investigated the flea infestation among 116 outdoor dogs (57 females and 59 males) in 8 rural areas of Jeonnam Province, Republic of Korea. RESULTS: Thirty-three dogs (28.4%) were infested with fleas, and all dogs were infested with Ctenocephalides canis. One dog from Hampyeong was co-infested with Ctenocephalides felis orientis, but no dogs were infested with Ctenocephalides felis felis...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Zili Zhang, Jian Wang, Wenju Lu
Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) has long been linked to elevated mortality and morbidity from epidemiological evidences. However, questions remain unclear whether NO2 acts directly on human health or being an indicator of other ambient pollutants. In this study, random-effect meta-analyses were performed on examining exposure to nitrogen oxide (NOx ) and its association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The overall relative risk (RR) of COPD risk related to a 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 exposure increased by 2...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Seynabou Sougoufara, Omar Thiaw, Aurélie Cailleau, Nafissatou Diagne, Myriam Harry, Charles Bouganali, Pape M Sembène, Souleymane Doucoure, Cheikh Sokhna
The implementation of long-lasting insecticidal-treated bed nets (LLINs) has contributed to halving the mortality rate due to malaria since 2000 in sub-Saharan Africa. These tools are highly effective against indoor-feeding malaria vectors. Thus, to achieve the World Health Assembly's new target to reduce the burden of malaria over the next 15 years by 90%, it is necessary to understand how the spatiotemporal dynamics of malaria vectors and human exposure to bites is modified in the context of scaling up global efforts to control malaria transmission...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
David Díaz-Regañón, Alejandra Villaescusa, Tania Ayllón, Fernando Rodríguez-Franco, Mercedes García-Sancho, Beatriz Agulla, Ángel Sainz
BACKGROUND: Hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) have been found infecting cats worldwide. However, studies about feline hemoplasma infections in Spain are scarce. Therefore, the purpose of the research was to evaluate the prevalence of feline hemotropic mycoplasmas and to characterize risk factors and clinical findings associated with these infections in a cat population from the Madrid area, Spain. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to detect Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" (CMhm) and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" (CMt) in blood samples from 456 client-owned and 138 stray cats from Madrid...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Maria Flaminia Persichetti, Maria Grazia Pennisi, Angela Vullo, Marisa Masucci, Antonella Migliazzo, Laia Solano-Gallego
BACKGROUND: Cats can be carriers of infected arthropods and be infected with several vector-borne pathogens (VBP) but there is limited knowledge about their pathogenic role in cats. RESULTS: A cross-sectional controlled study investigated the clinical status and antibody (Bartonella henselae, Rickettsia conorii, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti and Leishmania infantum) and/or blood PCR (Mycoplasma spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Melanie Bannister-Tyrrell, Nguyen Xuan Xa, Johanna Helena Kattenberg, Nguyen Van Van, Vu Khac Anh Dung, Truong Minh Hieu, Nguyen Van Hong, Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, Nguyen Thanh Thao, Tran Thanh Duong, Anna Rosanas-Urgell, Koen Peeters Grietens, Annette Erhart
BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, malaria persists in remote forested regions where infections are spatially heterogeneous, mostly asymptomatic and with low parasite density. Previous studies in Vietnam have investigated broad behavioural concepts such as 'engaging in forest activities' as risk factors for malaria infection, which may not explain heterogeneity in malaria risk, especially in malaria elimination settings. METHODS: A mixed methods study combining ethnographic research and a cross-sectional survey was embedded in a 1-year malariometric cohort study in three ethnic minority villages in South Tra My district, Quang Nam Province in Central Vietnam...
March 19, 2018: Malaria Journal
Lisa A Ostrin, Auzita Sajjadi, Julia S Benoit
SIGNIFICANCE: Significant differences in light exposure were observed between school and summer in children, whereas activity and sleep were similar. Associations between parent and child behaviors suggest a potential mechanism for how myopia is transmitted from parents to children through patterns of environmental exposure, in addition to genetic factors. PURPOSE: Objectively measured time outdoors, light exposure, activity, and sleep were examined in children during school and summer and assessed with eye growth...
March 16, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Francesco Paolo Serpe, Filomena Fiorito, Mauro Esposito, Angelo Ferrari, Federico Fracassi, Roberto Miniero, Marco Pietra, Paola Roncada, Gianfranco Brambilla
The domestic cat (Felis catus) was used as a sentinel of exposure to polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in indoor urban environments y. Sera from 120 cats were pooled to form 30 different groups selected by age (<2 years; > 2 ≤ 8 years; > 8 years), sex, municipality (Bologna and Turin) and environment (indoor vs. outdoor). Test portions of 1 mL were analyzed by means of gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) for six selected indicators non-dioxin-like PCBs (∑6 PCBs: congeners #28, #52, #101, #132, #153 and #180) and the results were computed in the upper-bound mode...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Angela R Freeman, James F Hare, W Gary Anderson, Heather K Caldwell
In nearly every vertebrate species examined thus far arginine vasopressin (AVP) and its homologues modulate behavior; thus, providing rich systems for comparative research. In rodents, AVP is best known for its modulation of social behavior; however, to date, research on AVPs effects on behavior have been limited to laboratory models and a few experiments using large outdoor enclosures. To extend our understanding of AVPs role in modulating social behavior and communication in an ecologically relevant context, we examined the effects of AVP on behavior of free-living Richardson's ground squirrels (Urocitellus richardsonii)...
February 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Jesus Idigoras, Francisco Javier Aparicio, Lidia Contreras-Bernal, Susana Ramos-Terrón, María Alcaire, Juan R Sanchez-Valencia, Ana Borras, Angel Barranco, Juan Antonio Anta
A compromise between high power conversion efficiency and long-term stability of hybrid organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells is necessary for their outdoor photovoltaic application and commercialization. Herein, a method to improve the stability of perovskite solar cells under water and moisture exposure consisting in the encapsulation of the cell with an ultrathin plasma polymer is reported. The deposition of the polymer is carried out at room temperature by the remote plasma vacuum deposition of adamantane powder...
March 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
B Køster, J Søndergaard, J B Nielsen, A Olsen, J Bentzen
An important feature of questionnaire validation is reliability. To be able to measure a given concept by questionnaire validly, the reliability needs to be high. The objectives of this study were to examine reliability of attitude and knowledge and behavioral consistency of sunburn in a developed questionnaire for monitoring and evaluating population sun-related behavior. Sun related behavior, attitude and knowledge was measured weekly by a questionnaire in the summer of 2013 among 664 Danes. Reliability was tested in a test-retest design...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Pamela Kaufman, Julie Kang, Ryan David Kennedy, Pippa Beck, Roberta Ferrence
This paper investigates the impacts of smoke-free housing policies on compliance, enforcement and smoking behavior. From 2012 to 2014, we studied two affordable housing providers in Canada with comprehensive smoke-free policies: Waterloo Regional Housing that required new leases to be non-smoking and exempted existing leases, and Yukon Housing Corporation that required all leases (existing and new) to be non-smoking. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted with 31 housing and public health staff involved in policy development and implementation, and qualitative interviews with 56 tenants...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
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