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Dairy + phosphate

Elliot Nicholas Grady, Jacqueline MacDonald, Linda Liu, Alex Richman, Ze-Chun Yuan
Isolated from a wide range of sources, the genus Paenibacillus comprises bacterial species relevant to humans, animals, plants, and the environment. Many Paenibacillus species can promote crop growth directly via biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and release of siderophores that enable iron acquisition. They can also offer protection against insect herbivores and phytopathogens, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and viruses...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Qinglong Wu, Nagendra P Shah
Residual lactose and galactose in fermented dairy foods leads to several industrial and health concerns. There is very little information pertaining to manufacture of fermented dairy foods that are low in lactose and galactose. In the present study, comparative genomic survey demonstrated the constant presence of chromosome-encoded tagatose-6-phosphate (T6P) pathway in Lactobacillus casei group. Lactose/galactose utilization tests and β-galactosidase assay suggest that PTS(Gal) system, PTS(Lac) system and T6P pathway are major contributors for lactose/galactose catabolism in this group of organisms...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
Bagher Larijani, Arash Hossein-Nezhad, Elham Feizabad, Zhila Maghbooli, Hossein Adibi, Majid Ramezani, Eghbal Taheri
BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted to elucidate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, bone turnover marker's variation and its influencing factors among adolescents of Tehran. METHODS: Totally 444 middle and high school (53.6 % in high school) students (both girls and boys) were recruited. A short food frequency questionnaire designed to estimate dietary calcium and vitamin D consumption. Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone specific alkaline phosphates, 25 (OH) vitamin D, osteocalcin, cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX), total protein, albumin and creatinine were determined...
2016: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
Steven J Granger, Tim H E Heaton, Verena Pfahler, Martin S A Blackwell, Huimin Yuan, Adrian L Collins
The need to reduce both point and diffuse phosphorus pollution to aquatic ecosystems is widely recognised and in order to achieve this, identification of the different pollutant sources is essential. Recently, a stable isotope approach using oxygen isotopes within phosphate (δ(18)OPO4) has been used in phosphorus source tracing studies. This approach was applied in a one-off survey in September 2013 to the River Taw catchment in south-west England where elevated levels of phosphate have been reported. River water δ(18)OPO4 along the main channel varied little, ranging from +17...
September 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
C W Klootwijk, C E Van Middelaar, P B M Berentsen, I J M de Boer
The abolition of the Dutch milk quota system has been accompanied by the introduction of a new manure policy to limit phosphate production (i.e., excretion via manure) on expanding dairy farms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of these recent policy changes on the farm structure, management, labor income, nitrogen and phosphate surpluses, and greenhouse gas emissions of an average Dutch dairy farm. The new manure policy requires that any increase in phosphate production be partly processed and partly applied to additional farmland...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Teklu Wegayehu, Md Robiul Karim, Berhanu Erko, Longxian Zhang, Getachew Tilahun
Giardia duodenalis is a widespread protozoan parasite that infects human and other mammals. Assessing the zoonotic transmission of the infection requires molecular characterization as there is considerable genetic variation within the species. This study was conducted to identify assemblages of Giardia duodenalis in dairy calves; and to assess the potential role of cattle isolates in zoonotic transmission in central Ethiopia. A total of 449 fecal samples were collected and screened using microscopy and PCR targeting the small-subunit (ssu) rRNA, triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), β-giardin (bg) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes...
September 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
K Kezia, J Lee, B Zisu, M Weeks, G Chen, S Gras, S Kentish
An understanding of crystallisation within saline effluents is important for the design of both brine crystallisers and brine disposal ponds. In this work, crystallisation of a saline effluent concentrate from the Australian dairy industry has been examined at 22 wt% and 30 wt% total solids and at temperatures between 10 and 70 °C. The precipitation occurs more rapidly at higher temperatures. This trend is dictated by precipitation of calcium phosphate salts, albeit the major constituents of the mixture are NaCl and lactose...
September 15, 2016: Water Research
Rosa Collado, Antoni Prenafeta, Luis González-González, Josep Antoni Pérez-Pons, Marta Sitjà
Streptococcus uberis is a worldwide pathogen that causes intramammary infections in dairy cattle. Because virulence factors determining the pathogenicity of S. uberis have not been clearly identified so far, a commercial vaccine is not yet available. Different S. uberis strains have the ability to form biofilm in vitro, although the association of this kind of growth with the development of mastitis is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use as vaccine antigens of proteins from S...
July 19, 2016: Vaccine
Eva Brod, Anne Falk Øgaard, Tore Krogstad, Trond Knapp Haraldsen, Emmanuel Frossard, Astrid Oberson
Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP) and an unfertilized control (NoP) in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
A Khol-Parisini, E Humer, H Harder, E Mickdam, Q Zebeli
Recent data indicate beneficial effects of treating grains with lactic acid (LA) in alleviating the need for inorganic phosphorus supplementation during ruminal fermentation in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding concentrates treated with LA with or without inorganic phosphorus supplementation on feed intake, performance, blood variables, and reticuloruminal pH in dairy cows. A total of 16 early-lactating cows (12 Simmental and 4 Brown Swiss) were included in this study from d 1 until d 37 postpartum...
August 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Christelle F Iskandar, Catherine Cailliez-Grimal, Abdur Rahman, Emmanuel Rondags, Benoît Remenant, Monique Zagorec, Jorgen J Leisner, Frédéric Borges, Anne-Marie Revol-Junelles
The dairy population of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum is characterized by a high diversity suggesting a high diversity of the genetic traits linked to the dairy process. As lactose is the main carbon source in milk, the genetics of lactose metabolism was investigated in this LAB. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the species C. maltaromaticum exhibits genes related to the Leloir and the tagatose-6-phosphate (Tagatose-6P) pathways. More precisely, strains can bear genes related to one or both pathways and several strains apparently do not contain homologs related to these pathways...
September 2016: Food Microbiology
J Lüttgenau, B Lingemann, O Wellnitz, A K Hankele, M Schmicke, S E Ulbrich, R M Bruckmaier, H Bollwein
Inflammation of the uterus is associated with disturbed ovarian function and reduced reproductive performance in dairy cows. To investigate the influence of endometritis on the bovine corpus luteum, 8 heifers received intrauterine infusions with either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; 9mL) or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 3µg/kg of body weight diluted in 9mL of PBS) at 6-h intervals from 12h before and until 9d after ovulation during 2 cycles in a random order (ovulation=d 1). An untreated cycle was examined before and after PBS and LPS cycles, and the mean values from both untreated cycles were used as control...
August 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Kristine Piccart, Joren Verbeke, Anneleen De Visscher, Sofie Piepers, Freddy Haesebrouck, Sarne De Vliegher
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a common cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. The CNS inhabit various ecological habitats, ranging between the environment and the host. In order to obtain a better insight into the host response, an experimental infection was carried out in eight healthy heifers in mid-lactation with three different CNS strains: a Staphylococcus fleurettii strain originating from sawdust bedding, an intramammary Staphylococcus chromogenes strain originating from a persistent intramammary infection (S...
2016: Veterinary Research
Mahnaz Nemati, Hanisah Kamilah, Nurul Huda, Fazilah Ariffin
Avoidance of dairy products due to lactose intolerance can lead to insufficiency of calcium (Ca) in the body. In an approach to address this problem, tuna bone powder (TBP) was formulated as a calcium supplement to fortify bakery products. In a study, TBP recovered by alkaline treatment contained 38.16 g/100 g of calcium and 23.31 g/100 g of phosphorus. The ratio of Ca:P that was close to 2:1 was hence comparable to that in human bones. The availability of calcium in TBP was 53.93%, which was significantly higher than most calcium salts, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) being the exception...
August 2015: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
M Fürll
UNLABELLED: Systematic metabolic monitoring began in German-speaking countries in the late 1960s, early 1970s, due to an increase in metabolic disorders as a cause of infertility and mastitis and aimed at their prevention through early diagnosis. Development of a unified monitoring standard: Initiated by Rossow, Gürtler, Ehrentraut, Seidel and Furcht a standard "metabolic monitoring in cattle production" was developed in the 1970s. It included farm analysis, clinical and biochemical controls, prophylaxis and follow-up controls...
2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
J Bothmann, F Magnus, W Hasseler, T Kossen, M Fürll
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate metabolic analyses on small dairy farms regarding indications, realization, and results over 5 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 793 serum samples (122 submissions from 53 farms) originating from cows of different lactation stages and from heifers, the parameters free fatty acids (FFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, urea, creatinine, glucose, total protein, albumin, bilirubin, liver enzymes, creatine kinase (CK), β-carotene, electrolytes and trace elements were analyzed...
2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
K Donat, W Siebert, E Menzer, S Söllner-Donat
OBJECTIVE: Systematic metabolic profile tests at regular intervals provide important information to meet the increasing challenges in managing dairy herds. This study aimed at deriving long-term trends from the results of metabolic profile tests in Thuringian German Holstein dairy herds. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood and urine samples were collected from 710 fresh, high yielding, and dry cows, respectively, to monitor 13 parameters including the serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), bilirubin, β-carotene and urea concentrations, the serum of aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities, the serum concentrations of the minerals calcium, inorganic phosphate and selenium, the urine potassium and sodium concentrations, and the net acid-base excretion (NABE)...
2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
M Garcia, T H Elsasser, L Juengst, Y Qu, B J Bequette, K M Moyes
Glutamine is the preferred AA used by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) during the inflammatory response. However, the effect of other AA on bovine PMN response during inflammation and how this is altered by stage of lactation has not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of additional AA supplementation (pool of AA excluding Gln) on AA profiles, gene expression, and inflammatory function of PMN from dairy cows in early and mid lactation in vitro. We used 18 Holstein cows for this study...
May 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Rohit Kumar, Sudarshan Singh Thakur, M S Mahesh
This experiment aimed at studying the nutritional characteristics and feeding value of rice gluten meal (RGM, a wet-milling by-product of rice) in growing dairy calves. RGM contained 464 g/kg of crude protein with 821 and 196 g/kg nitrogen (N) of borate-phosphate insoluble N and acid detergent insoluble N, respectively, which were higher (P < 0.05) than groundnut cake (GNC). In vitro gas production, organic matter digestibility and energy values were comparable between RGM and GNC. For in vivo trial, 18 Karan-Fries calves (6-12 months) were randomly assigned into three groups based on comparable body weight and age...
March 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Torben Larsen, Lene Alstrup, Martin Riis Weisbjerg
The present study was conducted in order to investigate if selected minor milk components would be indicative for the nutritional situation of the cow. Forty-eight dairy cows were offered a high digestible ration vs. a lower digestible ration combined with 2 protein levels in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAG), uric acid and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured and correlated mutually and towards other milking parameters (yield, h since last milking, days in milk (DIM), urea, etc)...
February 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
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