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Dairy + phosphate

Michael S Massey, Iris Zohar, James A Ippolito, M Iggy Litaor
Phosphorus capture from wastewater can decrease water pollution and provide a P-rich fertilizer alternative for use in agricultural production. This study was conducted to elucidate P retention mechanisms in Al-based water treatment residuals (Al-WTR) to gain insight regarding P sorption and the potential for P release from Al-WTR after reaction with dairy wastewater. Synchrotron-based microfocused X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) spectrometry, bulk P -edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES), and P -edge micro-XANES spectroscopy were used to determine P distribution and speciation within the Al-WTR materials...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Miji Kim, Sejong Oh, Jee-Young Imm
Preheating conditions (low-, medium-, and high heat-) did not significantly affect the buffering capacity (BC) of skim milk powder (SMP), whereas the level of demineralization significantly affected the BC of whey powders (WP). Heat treatment (85°C for 30 min) of both SMP and WP (90% demineralized) mixtures (88:12, 76:24, 64:36 and 52:48; SMP:WP) resulted in a reduced BC, and the extent of this reduction increased with the proportion of WP increased in the samples. High-buffering milk prepared by the addition of phosphate salts (40 mM NaH2 PO4 and 60 mM Na2 HPO4 ) delayed the rate of pH decline during yoghurt fermentation...
April 2018: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
Fashe Muluneh, Merja R Häkkinen, Rami El-Dairi, Markku Pasanen, Risto O Juvonen
RATIONALE: The toxic metabolites of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are initially formed by cytochrome P450 mediated oxidation reactions and primarily eliminated as glutathione (GSH) conjugates. Although the reaction between the reactive metabolites and GSH can occur spontaneously, the role of the cytosolic enzymes in the process has not been studied. METHODS: The toxic metabolites of selected PAs (retrorsine, monocrotaline, senecionine, lasiocarpine, heliotrine or senkirkine) were generated by incubating them in 100 mM phosphate buffer pH 7...
May 22, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
N Pujato, C M Camussone, M S Renna, M S Perrig, B Morein, L F Calvinho, I S Marcipar
Staphylococcus aureus is a worldwide pathogen that causes mastitis in dairy herds. Shortcomings in control programs have encouraged the development of vaccines against this pathogen. This study evaluated the vaccine candidate VacR, which included recombinant S. aureus protein clumping factor A (rClf), fibronectin binding protein A (rFnBP) and hemolysin beta (rBt), formulated with a novel immune-stimulating complex. Comparisons were made between healthy pregnant heifers that received either VacR (n=8; VacR group) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) plus adjuvant (control group) SC in the supramammary lymph node area on days 45 and 15 before the expected calving date...
May 2018: Veterinary Journal
Mikio Bakke, Shigeya Suzuki
ATP is the universal energy molecule found in animals, plants, and microorganisms. ATP rapid hygiene monitoring tests have been employed in the food industry to ensure that adequate cleanliness is being maintained. However, because ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and AMP by metabolic processes, by heat treatment, or under acidic or alkaline conditions, total adenylate (ATP+ADP+AMP [A3]) could be a more reliable sanitation indicator of food residues that may cause biofilm formation and allergen contamination. Therefore, a novel hygiene monitoring system to measure A3 was developed based on the luciferin-luciferase assay with the combination of two enzymes, pyruvate kinase and pyruvate phosphate dikinase, that can convert ADP into ATP and recycle AMP into ATP, respectively...
May 2018: Journal of Food Protection
F Zandkarimi, J Vanegas, X Fern, C S Maier, G Bobe
Clinical mastitis (CM), the most prevalent and costly disease in dairy cows, is diagnosed most commonly shortly after calving. Current indicators do not satisfactorily predict CM. This study aimed to develop a robust and comprehensive mass spectrometry-based metabolomic and lipidomic workflow using untargeted ultra-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry for predictive biomarker detection. Using a nested case-control design, we measured weekly during the prepartal transition period differences in serum metabolites, lipids, inflammation markers, and minerals between clinically healthy Holstein dairy cows diagnosed with mastitis postcalving (CMP; n = 8; CM diagnosis d 1 = 3 cows, d 2 = 2 cows, d 4 = 1 cow; d 25 = 1 cow, and d 43 = 1 cow that had subclinical mastitis since d 3) or not (control; n = 9)...
June 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Imke Cohrs, Walter Grünberg
BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatemia is commonly associated with disease and decreased productivity in dairy cows particularly in early lactation. Oral supplementation with phosphate salts is recognized as suitable for the rapid correction of hypophosphatemia. Little information is available about the differences in efficacy between salts used for oral phosphorus supplementation. OBJECTIVES: Comparison of efficacy of oral administration of NaH2 PO4 , Na2 HPO4 , and MgHPO4 in treating hypophosphatemia in cattle...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Ramneek Kaur, Monika Sodhi, Ankita Sharma, Vijay Lakshmi Sharma, Preeti Verma, Shelesh Kumar Swami, Parvesh Kumari, Manishi Mukesh
Selection of reference genes has become an integral step in any real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) based expression studies. The importance of this study stems from the fact that riverine buffaloes are major dairy species of Indian sub-continent and the information generated here will be of great interest to the investigators engaged in functional genomic studies of this important livestock species. In this study, an effort was made to evaluate a panel of 10 candidate reference genes (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), beta- actin (ACTB), ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT), ribosomal protein S15 (RPS15), ribosomal protein L-4 (RPL4), ribosomal protein S9 (RPS9), ribosomal protein S23 (RPS23), hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), β2 Microglobulin (β2M) and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 (EEF1A1) across 12 tissues (mammary gland, kidney, spleen, liver, heart, intestine, ovary, lung, muscle, brain, subcutaneous fat and testis) of riverine buffaloes...
2018: PloS One
Zhihua Ju, Changfa Wang, Xiuge Wang, Chunhong Yang, Yan Zhang, Yan Sun, Qiang Jiang, Rongling Li, Jianbin Li, Jifeng Zhong, Jinming Huang
Neutrophil cytosolic factor 4 (NCF4) is a member of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit. This protein functions as an essential factor in the host defense against the progression of bacterial infection. To explore the variability of the NCF4 gene and the susceptibility of cows to mastitis, NCF4 functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) and its targeted microRNA (miRNA) were identified. One SNP g.18475 A>G in the 3'UTR of NCF4 was found within the binding seed region of bta-miR-2426...
May 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Rixiang Huang, Ci Fang, Bei Zhang, Yuanzhi Tang
Phosphorus (P) in animal manures is an important P pool for P recycling and reclamation. In recent years, thermochemical techniques have gained much interests for effective waste treatment and P recycling. This study comparatively characterized the transformation of P during two representative thermochemical treatments (pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization, HTC) of four animal manures (swine, chicken, beef, and dairy manures) by combining nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and sequential extraction...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Giulia Poma, Carlos Sales, Bram Bruyland, Christina Christia, Séverine Goscinny, Joris Van Loco, Adrian Covaci
The occurrence of 14 organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs) was investigated in 165 composite food samples purchased from the Belgian market and divided into 14 food categories, including fish, crustaceans, mussels, meat, milk, cheese, dessert, food for infants, fats and oils, grains, eggs, potatoes and derived products, other food (stocks), and vegetables. Seven PFRs [namely, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), 2-ethylhexyldiphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP), and tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP)] were detected at concentrations above quantification limits...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Lucie Lorieau, Linda Le Roux, Frédéric Gaucheron, Amandine Ligneul, Etienne Hazart, Didier Dupont, Juliane Floury
Numerous calcium sources are available to enrich food, but their behavior during digestion is still unknown. This study focused on the influence of the gastro-intestinal pH, the food structure and the calcium source on the bioaccessibility of the nutrient. Four calcium sources were studied: calcium carbonate, calcium citrate malate, calcium phosphate and calcium bisglycinate. These were added to dairy matrices, containing cream and whey proteins, of different forms (liquid or gel). The kinetics of solubility and ionic calcium concentration during in vitro digestion were studied, as function of gastro-intestinal pH...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Harald Seeger, Andrea Kaelin, Pietro M Ferraro, Damian Weber, Philippe Jaeger, Patrice Ambuehl, William G Robertson, Robert Unwin, Carsten A Wagner, Nilufar Mohebbi
BACKGROUND: Kidney stone disease is common in industrialized countries. Recently, it has attracted growing attention, because of its significant association with adverse renal outcomes, including end stage renal disease. Calcium-containing kidney stones are frequent with high recurrence rates. While hypercalciuria is a well-known risk factor, restricted intake of animal protein and sodium, combined with normal dietary calcium, has been shown to be more effective in stone prevention compared with a low-calcium diet...
December 4, 2017: BMC Nephrology
John A Lucey, Don Otter, David S Horne
Understanding the chemistry of milk and its components is critical to the production of consistent, high-quality dairy products as well as the development of new dairy ingredients. Over the past 100 yr we have gone from believing that milk has only 3 protein fractions to identifying all the major and minor types of milk proteins as well as discovering that they have genetic variants. The structure and physical properties of most of the milk proteins have been extensively studied. The structure of the casein micelle has been the subject of many studies, and the initial views on submicelles have given way to the current model of the micelle as being assembled as a result of the concerted action of several types of interactions (including hydrophobic and the formation of calcium phosphate nanoclusters)...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Pablo Mortera, Federico A Zuljan, Christian Magni, Santiago A Bortolato, Sergio H Alarcón
Multivariate calibration coupled to RP-HPLC with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was applied to the identification and the quantitative evaluation of the short chain organic acids (malic, oxalic, formic, lactic, acetic, citric, pyruvic, succinic, tartaric, propionic and α-cetoglutaric) in fermented food. The goal of the present study was to get the successful resolution of a system in the combined occurrence of strongly coeluting peaks, of distortions in the time sensors among chromatograms, and of the presence of unexpected compounds not included in the calibration step...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
Korkiat Muangthai, Pallop Tankaew, Thanya Varinrak, Ratchanee Uthi, Suvichai Rojanasthien, Takuo Sawada, Nattawooti Sthitmatee
Haemorrhagic septicemia (HS) is a contagious disease in cattle with high morbidity and mortality rates. HS vaccine in Thailand is an oil-adjuvant formulation, and is difficult to administer. The present study aimed to formulate and evaluate the protection in dairy calves conferred by immunization with an in-house intranasal HS vaccine. The intranasal vaccine was formulated in a total volume of 500 µl containing either 50 or 100 µg of the recombinant outer membrane protein H (rOmpH) of Pasteurella multocida strain M-1404 (serovar B:2), and 10 µg of Cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) as a mucosal adjuvant...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
M D Weinroth, C R Carlson, J N Martin, J L Metcalf, P S Morley, K E Belk
Liver abscesses are a major economic burden to beef producers. Although a few causative organisms have been cultured from purulent material, the full polymicrobial diversity of liver abscesses has not been reported. The objective of this study was to characterize purulent material collected from liver abscess in beef cattle produced in different production systems in 3 cattle producing states in the United States using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Differences between purulent material microbial communities among geographic region of feeding and application of a common antimicrobial were also investigated...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Maria Karl, Rudolf Staufenbiel
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors that affect the quality (immunoglobulin concentration) of the first colostrum in Holstein Friesian cows and their relationship to the calcium concentrations in the blood and colostrum, with particular attention to the lactation number. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational study was conducted at a commercial dairy farm (2278 Holstein Friesian cows). The analysis comprised the following variables: colostrum content of immunoglobulins and calcium, colostrum yield; blood serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, non-esterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate; back-fat thickness; daily milk production; calving data; lactation number; male parent of the cow; length of gestation; age at first calving; duration of the dry period; fertility parameters of prelactation; diseases during the dry period and up to 3 days postpartum...
November 3, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
E Laird, M C Casey, M Ward, L Hoey, C F Hughes, K McCarroll, C Cunningham, J J Strain, H McNulty, A M Molloy
BACKGROUND: Consumption of dairy products has been associated with positive health outcomes including a lower risk of hypertension, improved bone health and a reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes. The suggested dairy intake for health in older adults is three servings per day but recent analysis of the NHANES data for older adults reported 98% were not meeting these recommendations. No studies have investigated the consequences of such declines in the dairy intakes of Irish older adults and the subsequent effects on vitamin micronutrient status...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Peter B Skou, Bekzod Khakimov, Thomas H Hansen, Stina D Aunsbjerg, Susanne Knøchel, Dorrit Thaysen, Frans van den Berg
Reusing reverse osmosis (RO) membrane permeate instead of potable water in the dairy industry is a very appealing tactic. However, to ensure safe use, the quality of reclaimed water must be guaranteed. To do this, qualitative and quantitative information about which compounds permeate the membranes must be established. In the present study, we provide a detailed characterization of ultrafiltration, RO, and RO polisher (ROP) permeate with regard to organic and inorganic compounds. Results indicate that smaller molecules and elements (such as phosphate, but mainly urea and boron) pass the membrane, and a small set of larger molecules (long-chain fatty acids, glycerol-phosphate, and glutamic acid) are found as well, though in minute concentrations (<0...
January 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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