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Dairy phosphate

E Haese, J Möhring, H Steingass, M Schollenberger, M Rodehutscord
The first objective of this study was to determine the influence of dietary composition on the in situ disappearance of phytate (InsP6) from wheat, corn, soybean meal, and rapeseed meal [solvent-extracted, without (RSM) or with (hRSM) heat treatment] in the rumen of dairy cows. The second objective was to assess the primary degradation products of InsP6 in the rumen. Three diets differing in phosphorus and InsP6 concentration (basal diet = 0.38% P in dry matter; high-P diet = 0.56% P; high-InsP6 diet = 0.39% P) were fed to 3 ruminally fistulated lactating Jersey cows in a 3 × 3 Latin square...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Gi-Seong Moon, Arjan Narbad
A bioluminescent Lactobacillus plantarum (pLuc2) strain was constructed. The luminescent signal started to increase during the early exponential phase and reached its maximum in the mid-exponential phase in a batch culture of the strain. The signal detection sensitivity of the strain was the highest in PBS (phosphate buffered saline), followed by milk and MRS broth, indicating that the sensitivity was influenced by the matrix effect. The strain was used in millet seed fermentation which has a complex matrix and native lactic acid bacteria (LAB)...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
J W Spears, K E Lloyd, K Krafka
Chromium (Cr), in the form of Cr propionate, has been permitted for supplementation to cattle diets in the United States at levels up to 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM since 2009. Little is known regarding Cr concentrations naturally present in practical feed ingredients. The present study was conducted to determine Cr concentrations in feed ingredients commonly fed to ruminants. Feed ingredients were collected from dairy farms, feed mills, grain bins, and university research farms. Mean Cr concentrations in whole cereal grains ranged from 0...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Roni Yair, Michael S Allen
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of fructose and phosphate (Pi) infusions on dry matter intake by dairy cows to further understand the mechanisms controlling feed intake related to hepatic energy status. We performed 3 experiments in which we infused fructose and Pi intravenously or abomasally to Holstein cows. The first experiment used 8 cows (4-8 d postpartum) in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with 1 square of multiparous and 1 square of primiparous cows. A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used including jugular infusions of solutions (1 L/h) containing fructose or glucose (0...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
J Mielgo-Ayuso, J Valtueña, I Huybrechts, C Breidenassel, M Cuenca-García, S De Henauw, P Stehle, A Kafatos, M Kersting, K Widhalm, Y Manios, E Azzini, D Molnar, L A Moreno, M González-Gross
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Current research in adults indicates that fruit and vegetable (FAV) consumption increases serum levels of vitamins C, E and folate of β-carotene and reduces homocysteine concentrations. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of FAV consumption on vitamin intakes and their impact on blood vitamin concentrations in European adolescents. SUBJECT/METHODS: This multi-center cross-sectional study included 702 (53.7% females) adolescents, aged 12...
January 25, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Paulo De Sa Peixoto, Juliana V C Silva, Guillaume Laurent, Marc Schmutz, Daniel Thomas, Antoine Bouchoux, Geneviève Gésan-Guiziou
Understanding how proteins stabilize amorphous calcium ortho-phosphate (ACP) phases is of great importance in biology and for pharmaceutical or food applications. Until now, most of the former investigations about ACP-protein stability and equilibrium were performed under conditions where ACP colloidal nanoclusters are surrounded by low to moderate concentrations of peptides or proteins (15-30 g L(-1)). As a result, the question of ACP-protein interactions in highly concentrated protein systems has clearly been overlooked, whereas it corresponds to actual industrial conditions such as drying or membrane filtration in the dairy industry for instance...
January 30, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Anne-Louise Hother, Mikkel Lykke, Torben Martinussen, Hanne Damgaard Poulsen, Christian Mølgaard, Per Torp Sangild, André Briend, Christian Fink Hansen, Henrik Friis, Kim F Michaelsen, Thomas Thymann
BACKGROUND: Phosphorus (P) levels in refeeding diets are very important as undernourished children are at risk of hypophosphatemia during refeeding. For this reason, conventional corn-soy-blends (CSB) have been reformulated by the World Food Programme to obtain a mono-calcium-phosphate fortified product (CSB+) and a product further fortified with skim milk powder (CBS++). METHODS: Using a piglet model of undernourished children, we hypothesized that feeding of CSB+, CSB++ or CSB+ with added whey permeate (CSB+/wp) would help to prevent refeeding hypophosphatemia...
2017: PloS One
Timothy J Snelling, R John Wallace
BACKGROUND: Ruminal digestion is carried out by large numbers of bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi. Understanding the microbiota is important because ruminal fermentation dictates the efficiency of feed utilisation by the animal and is also responsible for major emissions of the greenhouse gas, methane. Recent metagenomic and metatranscriptomic studies have helped to elucidate many features of the composition and activity of the microbiota. The metaproteome provides complementary information to these other -omics technologies...
January 7, 2017: BMC Microbiology
Elliot Nicholas Grady, Jacqueline MacDonald, Linda Liu, Alex Richman, Ze-Chun Yuan
Isolated from a wide range of sources, the genus Paenibacillus comprises bacterial species relevant to humans, animals, plants, and the environment. Many Paenibacillus species can promote crop growth directly via biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and release of siderophores that enable iron acquisition. They can also offer protection against insect herbivores and phytopathogens, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and viruses...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Qinglong Wu, Nagendra P Shah
Residual lactose and galactose in fermented dairy foods leads to several industrial and health concerns. There is very little information pertaining to manufacture of fermented dairy foods that are low in lactose and galactose. In the present study, comparative genomic survey demonstrated the constant presence of chromosome-encoded tagatose-6-phosphate (T6P) pathway in Lactobacillus casei group. Lactose/galactose utilization tests and β-galactosidase assay suggest that PTS(Gal) system, PTS(Lac) system and T6P pathway are major contributors for lactose/galactose catabolism in this group of organisms...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
Bagher Larijani, Arash Hossein-Nezhad, Elham Feizabad, Zhila Maghbooli, Hossein Adibi, Majid Ramezani, Eghbal Taheri
BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted to elucidate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, bone turnover marker's variation and its influencing factors among adolescents of Tehran. METHODS: Totally 444 middle and high school (53.6 % in high school) students (both girls and boys) were recruited. A short food frequency questionnaire designed to estimate dietary calcium and vitamin D consumption. Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone specific alkaline phosphates, 25 (OH) vitamin D, osteocalcin, cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX), total protein, albumin and creatinine were determined...
2016: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
Steven J Granger, Tim H E Heaton, Verena Pfahler, Martin S A Blackwell, Huimin Yuan, Adrian L Collins
The need to reduce both point and diffuse phosphorus pollution to aquatic ecosystems is widely recognised and in order to achieve this, identification of the different pollutant sources is essential. Recently, a stable isotope approach using oxygen isotopes within phosphate (δ(18)OPO4) has been used in phosphorus source tracing studies. This approach was applied in a one-off survey in September 2013 to the River Taw catchment in south-west England where elevated levels of phosphate have been reported. River water δ(18)OPO4 along the main channel varied little, ranging from +17...
September 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
C W Klootwijk, C E Van Middelaar, P B M Berentsen, I J M de Boer
The abolition of the Dutch milk quota system has been accompanied by the introduction of a new manure policy to limit phosphate production (i.e., excretion via manure) on expanding dairy farms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of these recent policy changes on the farm structure, management, labor income, nitrogen and phosphate surpluses, and greenhouse gas emissions of an average Dutch dairy farm. The new manure policy requires that any increase in phosphate production be partly processed and partly applied to additional farmland...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Teklu Wegayehu, Md Robiul Karim, Berhanu Erko, Longxian Zhang, Getachew Tilahun
Giardia duodenalis is a widespread protozoan parasite that infects human and other mammals. Assessing the zoonotic transmission of the infection requires molecular characterization as there is considerable genetic variation within the species. This study was conducted to identify assemblages of Giardia duodenalis in dairy calves; and to assess the potential role of cattle isolates in zoonotic transmission in central Ethiopia. A total of 449 fecal samples were collected and screened using microscopy and PCR targeting the small-subunit (ssu) rRNA, triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), β-giardin (bg) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes...
September 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
K Kezia, J Lee, B Zisu, M Weeks, G Chen, S Gras, S Kentish
An understanding of crystallisation within saline effluents is important for the design of both brine crystallisers and brine disposal ponds. In this work, crystallisation of a saline effluent concentrate from the Australian dairy industry has been examined at 22 wt% and 30 wt% total solids and at temperatures between 10 and 70 °C. The precipitation occurs more rapidly at higher temperatures. This trend is dictated by precipitation of calcium phosphate salts, albeit the major constituents of the mixture are NaCl and lactose...
September 15, 2016: Water Research
Rosa Collado, Antoni Prenafeta, Luis González-González, Josep Antoni Pérez-Pons, Marta Sitjà
Streptococcus uberis is a worldwide pathogen that causes intramammary infections in dairy cattle. Because virulence factors determining the pathogenicity of S. uberis have not been clearly identified so far, a commercial vaccine is not yet available. Different S. uberis strains have the ability to form biofilm in vitro, although the association of this kind of growth with the development of mastitis is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use as vaccine antigens of proteins from S...
July 19, 2016: Vaccine
Eva Brod, Anne Falk Øgaard, Tore Krogstad, Trond Knapp Haraldsen, Emmanuel Frossard, Astrid Oberson
Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP) and an unfertilized control (NoP) in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
A Khol-Parisini, E Humer, H Harder, E Mickdam, Q Zebeli
Recent data indicate beneficial effects of treating grains with lactic acid (LA) in alleviating the need for inorganic phosphorus supplementation during ruminal fermentation in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding concentrates treated with LA with or without inorganic phosphorus supplementation on feed intake, performance, blood variables, and reticuloruminal pH in dairy cows. A total of 16 early-lactating cows (12 Simmental and 4 Brown Swiss) were included in this study from d 1 until d 37 postpartum...
August 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Christelle F Iskandar, Catherine Cailliez-Grimal, Abdur Rahman, Emmanuel Rondags, Benoît Remenant, Monique Zagorec, Jorgen J Leisner, Frédéric Borges, Anne-Marie Revol-Junelles
The dairy population of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum is characterized by a high diversity suggesting a high diversity of the genetic traits linked to the dairy process. As lactose is the main carbon source in milk, the genetics of lactose metabolism was investigated in this LAB. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the species C. maltaromaticum exhibits genes related to the Leloir and the tagatose-6-phosphate (Tagatose-6P) pathways. More precisely, strains can bear genes related to one or both pathways and several strains apparently do not contain homologs related to these pathways...
September 2016: Food Microbiology
J Lüttgenau, B Lingemann, O Wellnitz, A K Hankele, M Schmicke, S E Ulbrich, R M Bruckmaier, H Bollwein
Inflammation of the uterus is associated with disturbed ovarian function and reduced reproductive performance in dairy cows. To investigate the influence of endometritis on the bovine corpus luteum, 8 heifers received intrauterine infusions with either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; 9mL) or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 3µg/kg of body weight diluted in 9mL of PBS) at 6-h intervals from 12h before and until 9d after ovulation during 2 cycles in a random order (ovulation=d 1). An untreated cycle was examined before and after PBS and LPS cycles, and the mean values from both untreated cycles were used as control...
August 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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