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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135456/probiotics-and-their-use-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
Muhammad Amer, Muhammad Nadeem, Saeed Ur Rashid Nazir, Maira Fakhar, Fatima Abid, Qurat-Ul Ain, Elliyah Asif
Context • Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis result in similar gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including pain, diarrhea, stools with mucus or blood, and ulceration or tissue damage within the alimentary canal. Gut microbiota play a crucial role in triggering, maintaining, and exacerbating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Probiotics might help to rebalance the gut flora in a positive way, shifting from pro- to anti-inflammatory. Objectives • The study intended to investigate the safety and use of probiotics and the biological effects of probiotic bacteria on IBD...
November 14, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120358/label-free-biomedical-imaging-using-high-speed-lock-in-pixel-sensor-for-stimulated-raman-scattering
#2
Kamel Mars, De Xing Lioe, Shoji Kawahito, Keita Yasutomi, Keiichiro Kagawa, Takahiro Yamada, Mamoru Hashimoto
Raman imaging eliminates the need for staining procedures, providing label-free imaging to study biological samples. Recent developments in stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) have achieved fast acquisition speed and hyperspectral imaging. However, there has been a problem of lack of detectors suitable for MHz modulation rate parallel detection, detecting multiple small SRS signals while eliminating extremely strong offset due to direct laser light. In this paper, we present a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor using high-speed lock-in pixels for stimulated Raman scattering that is capable of obtaining the difference of Stokes-on and Stokes-off signal at modulation frequency of 20 MHz in the pixel before reading out...
November 9, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109407/paper-based-sensing-device-for-electrochemical-detection-of-oxidative-stress-biomarker-8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-8-ohdg-in-point-of-care
#3
Gabriela V Martins, Ana P M Tavares, Elvira Fortunato, M Goreti F Sales
This work presents a cost-effective, label-free in point-of-care (POC) biosensor for the sensitive detection of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), the most abundant oxidative product of DNA, that may allow a premature assessment of cancer disease, thereby improving diagnosis, prognostics and survival rates. The device targets the direct detection of 8-OHdG by using for the first time a carbon-ink 3-electrode on a paper substrate coupled to Differential Pulse Voltammetry readings. This design was optimized by adding nanostructured carbon materials to the ink and the conducting polymer PEDOT, enhancing the electrocatalytic properties of the sensor towards 8-OHdG detection...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104022/gender-specific-effects-of-physical-activity-on-children-s-academic-performance-the-active-smarter-kids-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
G K Resaland, V F Moe, J B Bartholomew, L B Andersen, H A McKay, S A Anderssen, E Aadland
Active learning combines academic content with physical activity (PA) to increase child PA and academic performance, but the impact of active learning is mixed. It may be that this is a moderated relationship in which active learning is beneficial for only some children. This paper examine the impact of baseline academic performance and gender as moderators for the effects of active learning on children's academic performance. In the ASK-study, 1129 fifth-graders from 57 Norwegian elementary schools were randomized by school to intervention or control in a physical activity intervention between November 2014 and June 2015...
November 2, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096408/associations-between-health-literacy-and-health-behaviors-among-urban-high-school-students
#5
Aesoon Park, Tanya L Eckert, Michelle J Zaso, Lori A J Scott-Sheldon, Peter A Vanable, Kate B Carey, Craig K Ewart, Michael P Carey
BACKGROUND: Health literacy is crucial to develop health-related knowledge, adopt healthy lifestyles, and benefit from health care services. However, research on the association between health literacy and adolescent health outcomes, particularly on their prospective associations, is rare. We assessed health literacy using 3 validated measures, and examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between health literacy and adolescent health behaviors and outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a short-term prospective study of 250 adolescents (mean age = 14 years; 57% female; 48% African American) who were entering or in the ninth grade in an urban school district...
December 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078104/modeling-individual-variation-in-early-literacy-skills-in-kindergarten-children-with-intellectual-disabilities
#6
Arjan van Tilborg, Eliane Segers, Hans van Balkom, Ludo Verhoeven
In the present study, we investigated (i) to what extent the early literacy skills (phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and word decoding) along with cognitive (nonverbal reasoning, attention, phonological short-term memory, sequential memory, executive functioning) and linguistic (auditory discrimination, rapid naming, articulation, vocabulary) precursor measures of 53 six-year old children with intellectual disabilities (ID) differ from a group of 74 peers with normal language acquisition (NLA) and (ii) whether the individual variation of early literacy skills in the two groups to the same extent can be explained from the precursor measures...
October 24, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059841/stability-of-colorimetric-results-in-the-detection-of-urine-biomarkers-using-a-paper-based-analytical-device
#7
Ana Raquel Bertao, Tao Dong
Urinalysis allows obtaining information about many of the body's functions. Normally, urine is a very easily collected specimen, but in some cases, it can be an uncomfortable process. Moreover, standard methods such as microscopic examination or urine culturing represent time-consuming procedures. In this regard, this work explores the design of a device that combines disposable diapers, as a platform for sample collection, with part of the dipsticks method. Even though this is a desirable combination for a faster and comfortable approach, it is also convenient to extend the prescribed time, provided by the dipstick manufacturer, to read the results...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055236/the-importance-of-academic-literacy-for-undergraduate-nursing-students-and-its-relationship-to-future-professional-clinical-practice-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Diana Jefferies, Stephen McNally, Katriona Roberts, Anna Wallace, Annette Stunden, Suzanne D'Souza, Paul Glew
OBJECTIVES: This systematic review was designed to assess the importance of academic literacy for undergraduate nursing students and its relationship to future professional clinical practice. It aimed to explore the link between academic literacy and writing in an undergraduate nursing degree and the development of critical thinking skills for their future professional clinical practice. DESIGN: A systematic review of qualitative studies and expert opinion publications...
October 5, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053734/an-instrument-to-assess-the-statistical-intensity-of-medical-research-papers
#9
Pentti Nieminen, Jorma I Virtanen, Hannu Vähänikkilä
BACKGROUND: There is widespread evidence that statistical methods play an important role in original research articles, especially in medical research. The evaluation of statistical methods and reporting in journals suffers from a lack of standardized methods for assessing the use of statistics. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate an instrument to assess the statistical intensity in research articles in a standardized way. METHODS: A checklist-type measure scale was developed by selecting and refining items from previous reports about the statistical contents of medical journal articles and from published guidelines for statistical reporting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031270/robust-determination-of-the-chemical-potential-in-the-pole-expansion-and-selected-inversion-method-for-solving-kohn-sham-density-functional-theory
#10
Weile Jia, Lin Lin
Fermi operator expansion (FOE) methods are powerful alternatives to diagonalization type methods for solving Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KSDFT). One example is the pole expansion and selected inversion (PEXSI) method, which approximates the Fermi operator by rational matrix functions and reduces the computational complexity to at most quadratic scaling for solving KSDFT. Unlike diagonalization type methods, the chemical potential often cannot be directly read off from the result of a single step of evaluation of the Fermi operator...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988401/the-trabecular-bone-score-tbs-complements-dxa-and-the-frax-as-a-fracture-risk-assessment-tool-in-routine-clinical-practice
#11
REVIEW
Didier Hans, Emőke Šteňová, Olivier Lamy
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: There is an increasing body of evidence that the trabecular bone score (TBS), a surrogate of bone microarchitecture extracted from spine DXA, could play an important role in the management of patients with osteoporosis or at risk of fracture. The current paper reviews this published body of scientific literature on TBS and answers the most relevant clinical questions. RECENT FINDINGS: TBS has repeatedly been proven to be predictive of fragility fractures, current and future, and this is largely independent of BMD, CRF, and the FRAX, and when used in conjunction with any one of these measures, it consistently enhances their accuracy...
October 7, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987076/potential-facilitators-and-barriers-to-awareness-of-n-of-1-trials-for-physicians-in-traditional-chinese-medicine
#12
Jiang Li, Dang Wei, Junqiang Niu, Min Yang, Long Ge, Xiaoqin Wang, Wenzhen Yuan, Jinhui Tian, Hongcai Shang, Jingbo Zhai, Kehu Yang, Min Dai
Context • N-of-1 trials are multiple crossover trials with randomized and blinded methods, conducted with a single participant to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a therapy. They can be a helpful tool for enriching clinical research for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), but the approach has gained little traction in TCM. Information is needed before supporters of the trials can pursue a change to that status. Objective • The study intended to obtain data needed to support TCM clinicians' adoption of N-of-1 trials...
October 2, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974470/diabetes-alert-dogs-dads-an-assessment-of-accuracy-and-implications
#13
Linda A Gonder-Frederick, Jesse H Grabman, Jaclyn A Shepard
AIMS: To test the accuracy of Diabetes Alert Dogs (DADs) by comparing recorded alerts to continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device readings during waking and sleeping hours. METHODS: 14 individuals (7 adults with type 1 diabetes and 7 youth with type 1 diabetes/parents) who owned DADs for ≥6 mos wore masked CGM devices over a several-week period while recording DAD alerts electronically and in paper diaries. RESULTS: During waking hours, sensitivity scores across participants were 35...
September 30, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971692/reproducing-or-reducing-inequity-considerations-for-school-food-programs
#14
Jessie-Lee D Mcisaac, Kendra Read, Patricia L Williams, Kim D Raine, Paul J Veugelers, Sara F L Kirk
It is important to consider health inequities when exploring the extent to which school food programs may contribute to the stigmatization and social exclusion of families experiencing food insecurity. As part of a broader school-based project, this paper considers evidence derived from a secondary analysis of research in Nova Scotia (NS). In the original research, interviews were conducted with key stakeholders involved in supporting health promotion activities across NS elementary schools. For this article, data were re-examined using tenets of critical discourse analysis to evaluate if school practices were addressing the root social issues by identifying patterns in language and institutional norms...
October 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953843/what-are-the-risks-associated-with-different-selective-serotonin-re-uptake-inhibitors-ssris-to-treat-depression-and-anxiety-in-pregnancy-an-evaluation-of-current-evidence
#15
Kate Womersley, Katherine Ripullone, Mark Agius
A literature review was conducted to elucidate the respective reproductive safety profiles of different SSRIs to inform the prescribing practices of doctors treating pregnant women with anxiety and depression. BACKGROUND: Women are most likely to be diagnosed with depression or anxiety between the ages of 25 and 44 years, which are also the years of childbearing potential (Burke et al., 1991). Therefore a substantial number of women face a decision about whether or not to take an antidepressant or anxiolytic during pregnancy...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953765/when-asperger-s-disorder-came-out
#16
Chloe Gamlin
BACKGROUND: In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association removed Asperger's Disorder from the DSM, offering instead the new DSM-5 diagnosis: Autism Spectrum Disorder. This change has been hailed the most controversial exclusion from the DSM, yet unlike the 1973 removal of homosexuality from DSM-III, Asperger's disorder has not been demedicalised. Rather, the disorder has simply been reclassified as part of the DSM-5 Autism Spectrum and therefore retains its fundamental characteristic as a mental disorder owing to its inclusion within the sphere of the DSM...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933994/decision-making-for-people-living-with-dementia-by-their-carers-at-the-end-of-life-a-rapid-scoping-review
#17
Sue Barker, Mary Lynch, Jane Hopkinson
BACKGROUND: There are an increasing number of people living with dementia, as well as an expectation that care decisions are made collaboratively with those with the disease entering the end stage and their families. This has increased the burden on family carers. AIM: To explore the evidence on the decisional support needs of informal carers of people with end-stage dementia. DESIGN: A rapid scoping review was undertaken of peer-reviewed publications between 2000 and 2016, which included all health-care settings and the person's own home...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Palliative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932018/measuring-orthographic-transparency-and-morphological-syllabic-complexity-in-alphabetic-orthographies-a-narrative-review
#18
REVIEW
Elisabeth Borleffs, Ben A M Maassen, Heikki Lyytinen, Frans Zwarts
This narrative review discusses quantitative indices measuring differences between alphabetic languages that are related to the process of word recognition. The specific orthography that a child is acquiring has been identified as a central element influencing reading acquisition and dyslexia. However, the development of reliable metrics to measure differences between language scripts hasn't received much attention so far. This paper therefore reviews metrics proposed in the literature for quantifying orthographic transparency, syllabic complexity, and morphological complexity of alphabetic languages...
2017: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913645/local-analgesia-in-paediatric-dentistry-a-systematic-review-of-techniques-and-pharmacologic-agents
#19
REVIEW
G Klingberg, K Ridell, S Brogårdh-Roth, M Vall, H Berlin
PURPOSE: To evaluate the evidence supporting effects and adverse effects of local analgesia using different pharmacological agents and injection techniques during dental treatment in children and adolescents aged 3-19 years. METHODS: A systematic literature search of databases including PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus was conducted in November 2016. The PRISMA-statement was followed. Two review authors independently assessed the selected randomised control trials for risk of bias and quality...
October 2017: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905677/ethical-tensions-a-qualitative-systematic-review-of-new-graduate-perceptions
#20
Tori Hazelwood, Carolyn M Murray, Amy Baker, Mandy Stanley
BACKGROUND: New graduate transition into the workforce is challenging and can involve managing ethical tensions. Ethical tensions cause new graduates to doubt their capabilities due to their lack of experience. To support new graduates, we need to know what these ethical tensions are. OBJECTIVES: To explore the ethical tensions perceived to occur in practice for new graduate health professionals. RESEARCH DESIGN: This qualitative systematic review involved a search of five databases (Medline, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL and Scopus) which resulted in the retrieval of 3554 papers...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
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