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Nicholas G Larkins, Jonathan C Craig, Armando Teixeira-Pinto
Missing data is an important and common source of bias in clinical research. Readers should be alert to and consider the impact of missing data when reading studies. Beyond preventing missing data in the first place, through good study design and conduct, there are different strategies available to handle data containing missing observations. Complete case analysis is often biased unless data are missing completely at random. Better methods of handling missing data include multiple imputation and models using likelihood-based estimation...
March 13, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Ulrike H Taron, Moritz Lell, Axel Barlow, Johanna L A Paijmans
High-throughput sequence data retrieved from ancient or other degraded samples has led to unprecedented insights into the evolutionary history of many species, but the analysis of such sequences also poses specific computational challenges. The most commonly used approach involves mapping sequence reads to a reference genome. However, this process becomes increasingly challenging with an elevated genetic distance between target and reference or with the presence of contaminant sequences with high sequence similarity to the target species...
March 13, 2018: Genes
Sangeeta Chattoo
This paper engages critically with the global assemblage framing sickle cell and thalassaemia disorders as a 'global health crisis'; and the promise of genomics, largely DNA-based carrier/pre-conceptual screening, prenatal diagnosis with a view to terminations, deployed in framing a solution to these historically racialised spectrum of diseases as essentially preventable. Sickle cell and thalassaemia are recessively inherited, potentially life-threatening haemoglobin disorders with significant variation of severity, often needing life-long treatment...
April 2018: Anthropology & Medicine
Denys N Wheatley
Rediscoveries are not uncommon. However, sometimes they can be more significant than confirmatory or extensions of existing findings, although many authors today refer to them as discoveries in their own right. This has led to papers repeatedly rehearsing the expression "we show here for the first time…". When a finding has opened up a whole new field of research, this is more in line with a true discovery. When particular attention is drawn to such an event by editorials in widely read journals, such as Nature , its importance is bolstered...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
Durga Prasanna Misra, Aman Sharma, Vikas Agarwal
Guidelines or recommendations help to provide uniform standards in medical practice. The development of guidelines requires adherence to pre-defined norms prescribed by different international organizations such as the European League against Rheumatism (EULAR). We searched Pubmed and LILACS to identify published papers in five major rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, spondyloarthropathies, osteoarthritis, and scleroderma) from different countries based on their economic prosperity and could find a lack of published literature from most economically weaker regions...
February 14, 2018: Rheumatology International
Duncan V Neuhauser, Jennifer Chu
Randomised clinical trials are designed to determine whether a particular treatment is appropriate to make a significant difference to the health of a defined population and to aid its approval for use. For an accurate, cheap and simple assessment to see if a treatment benefits an individual person, all that is needed is a pen, paper, simple pocket calculator and daily recording of a few variables. It requires the ability to read and write and to understand addition and division. Factorial design of experiments is used to show the impact of several variables and their interaction on the person's health status...
July 2017: BMJ Innovations
Alireza Atashi, Ilona W Verburg, Hesam Karim, Mirmohammad Miri, Ameen Abu-Hanna, Evert de Jonge, Nicolette F de Keizer, Saeid Eslami
INTRODUCTION: ICU Length of stay (LoS) prediction models are used to compare different institutions and surgeons on their performance, and is useful as an efficiency indicator for quality control. There is little consensus about which prediction methods are most suitable to predict (ICU) length of stay. The aim of this study is to systematically review models for predicting ICU LoS after coronary artery bypass grafting and to assess the reporting and methodological quality of these models to apply them for benchmarking...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Xuelin Wang, Feng Cheng, Dekai Rohlsen, Changwei Bi, Chunyan Wang, Yiqing Xu, Suyun Wei, Qiaolin Ye, Tongming Yin, Ning Ye
Although organellar genomes (including chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes) are smaller than nuclear genomes in size and gene number, organellar genomes are very important for the investigation of plant evolution and molecular ecology mechanisms. Few studies have focused on the organellar genomes of horticultural plants. Approximately 1193 chloroplast genomes and 199 mitochondrial genomes of land plants are available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), of which only 39 are from horticultural plants...
2018: Horticulture Research
Matthias T Banet, Mark F Spencer, Robert A Raynor
This paper uses wave-optics and signal-to-noise models to explore the estimation accuracy of digital-holographic detection in the off-axis pupil plane recording geometry for deep-turbulence wavefront sensing. In turn, the analysis examines three important parameters: the number of pixels across the width of the focal-plane array, the window radius in the Fourier plane, and the signal-to-noise ratio. By varying these parameters, the wave-optics and signal-to-noise models quantify performance via a metric referred to as the field-estimated Strehl ratio, and the analysis leads to a method for optimal windowing of the turbulence-limited point spread function...
January 20, 2018: Applied Optics
M Akdeniz, T Tomova-Simitchieva, G Dobos, U Blume-Peytavi, J Kottner
BACKGROUND: Associations between daily amounts of drinking water and skin hydration and skin physiology receive increasingly attention in the daily life and in clinical practice. However, there is a lack of evidence of dermatological benefits from drinking increased amounts of water. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pubmed and Web of Science were searched without any restrictions of publication dates. References of included papers and related reviews were checked. Eligibility criteria were primary intervention and observational studies investigating the effects of fluid intake on skin properties in English, German, Spanish or Portuguese language, including subjects being healthy and 18+ years...
February 2, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
Øyvind Nordvik, Peder O Laugen Heggdal, Jonas Brännström, Flemming Vassbotn, Anne Kari Aarstad, Hans Jørgen Aarstad
Background: To the best of our knowledge, no empirically based consensus has been reached as to if, and to what extent, persons with hearing loss (HL) have reduced generic Quality of life (QoL). There seems to be limited knowledge regarding to what extent a hearing aid (HA) would improve QoL. The main aim of the present study was to review studies about the relationship between HL and QoL. A supporting aim was to study the association between distress and HL. Methods: Literature databases (Cinahl, Pub Med and Web of Science) were searched to identify relevant journal articles published in the period from January 2000 to March 17, 2016...
2018: BMC Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders
Carolina Santezi, Bárbara Donadon Reina, Lívia Nordi Dovigo
BACKGROUND: Recent evidences show the promising applications of Curcumin (CUR) against different diseases, including some of the main oral pathologies. The objective of this revision paper was to catalog articles that investigated the photodynamic effect of CUR for oral diseases in the last 15 years. METHODS: The establishment of defined criteria for data collection was proposed and a total of 173 articles were identified, but only 26 were eligible for full text reading...
January 25, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Patrik Hummel, Abha Saxena, Corinna Klingler
Purpose: This article describes, categorizes, and discusses the results of a rapid literature review aiming to provide an overview of ethical issues and corresponding solutions surrounding pregnancies in epidemic outbreaks. The review was commissioned by the World Health Organization to inform responses to the Zika outbreak that began in 2015. Methods: Due to the urgency of response efforts which needed to be informed by the literature search, a rapid qualitative review of literature published in PubMed was conducted...
January 23, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Chayanika Biswas, Sharon C-A Chen, Catriona Halliday, Elena Martinez, Rebecca J Rockett, Qinning Wang, Verlaine J Timms, Rajat Dhakal, Rosemarie Sadsad, Karina J Kennedy, Geoffrey Playford, Deborah J Marriott, Monica A Slavin, Tania C Sorrell, Vitali Sintchenko
Candida glabrata can rapidly acquire mutations that result in drug resistance, especially to azoles and echinocandins. Identification of genetic mutations is essential, as resistance detected in vitro can often be correlated with clinical failure. We examined the feasibility of using whole genome sequencing (WGS) for genome-wide analysis of antifungal drug resistance in C. glabrata. The aim was torecognize enablers and barriers in the implementation WGS and measure its effectiveness. This paper outlines the key quality control checkpoints and essential components of WGS methodology to investigate genetic markers associated with reduced susceptibility to antifungal agents...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Tim G Adams, Rocco Casagrande
During the aftermath of a radiological accident or attack, the rapid identification of individuals who have internalized medically significant amounts of material is paramount to guide medical and public health decisions. This paper explores the utility of hand-held, pancake GM detectors to determine if an individual has inhaled Sr, Cs, Pu, Pu, or Am in quantities requiring treatment. Additionally, ingestion of Sr or Cs was considered. Both Sr and Cs were modeled in equilibrium with their progeny, but the progeny of Pu, Pu, and Am were excluded...
March 2018: Health Physics
Margaret O'Connor, Samar M Aoun, Lauren J Breen
While the experiences of family members supporting a person with a terminal illness are well documented, less is known about the needs of carers of people with neurological diseases, in particular, Motor Neurone Disease (MND). This paper describes the qualitative data from a large Australian survey of family carers of people with MND, to ascertain their experiences of receiving the diagnosis. The aim of the study was to describe the experiences of family carers of people with MND in receiving the diagnosis in order to inform and improve ways in which the diagnosis is communicated...
January 22, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Masaaki Hashimoto, Yoshihiro Taguchi
We propose a motion-robust laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) system that can be used as a non-contact blood perfusion sensor for medical diagnosis. Endoscopic LDF systems are typically limited in their usefulness in clinical contexts by the need for the natural organs to be immobilized, as serious motion artifacts due to the axial surface displacement can interfere with blood perfusion measurements. In our system, the focusing lens moves to track the motion of the target using a low-frequency reference signal in the optical data, enabling the suppression of these motion artifacts in the axial direction...
January 18, 2018: Sensors
Michael J Hayes, Victoria Kaestner, Sham Mailankody, Vinay Prasad
BACKGROUND: In a 2003 paper in BMJ, the authors made the tongue-in-cheek observation that there are no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of parachutes. This paper has been widely read, cited and used to argue that RCTs are impractical or unnecessary for some medical practices. We performed a study to identify and evaluate claims that a medical practice is akin to a parachute. METHODS: Using Google Scholar, we identified all citations to the 2003 paper. We searched for claims that a specific practice was akin to a parachute...
January 15, 2018: CMAJ Open
Christiane Grünloh, Gunilla Myreteg, Åsa Cajander, Hanife Rexhepi
BACKGROUND: Roles in the doctor-patient relationship are changing and patient participation in health care is increasingly emphasized. Electronic health (eHealth) services such as patient accessible electronic health records (PAEHRs) have been implemented to support patient participation. Little is known about practical use of PAEHR and its effect on roles of doctors and patients. OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study aimed to investigate how physicians view the idea of patient participation, in particular in relation to the PAEHR system...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Vivian Bee Chin Lee, Noor Faizah Mohd-Naim, Eiichi Tamiya, Minhaz Uddin Ahmed
Electrochemical bio-sensing using paper-based detection systems is the main focus of this review. The different existing designs of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional sensors, and fabrication techniques are discussed. This review highlights the effect of adopting different sensor designs, distinct fabrication techniques, as well as different modification methods, in order to produce reliable and reproducible reading. The use of various nanomaterials have been demonstrated in order to modify the surface of electrodes during fabrication to further enhance the signal for subsequent analysis...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
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