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Ang 2 AND nitric oxide

Andrea L Conroy, Michael T Hawkes, Robyn Elphinstone, Robert O Opoka, Sophie Namasopo, Christopher Miller, Chandy C John, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Chitinase-3-like 1 (CHI3L1) is a glycoprotein elevated in paediatric severe malaria, and an emerging urinary biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI). Based on the hypothesis that elevated CHI3L1 levels in malaria are associated with disease severity, the relationship between plasma CHI3L1 levels, AKI and mortality was investigated in Ugandan children enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) as an adjunctive therapy for severe malaria. METHODS: Plasma CHI3L1 levels were measured daily for 4 days in children admitted to hospital with severe malaria and at day 14 follow up...
February 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
Juan-Juan Li, Shun-Jin Liu, Xiao-Yu Liu, Eng-Ang Ling
BACKGROUND: Activated microglia play a pivotal role neurodegenerative diseases by producing a variety of proinflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1bea (IL-1β) and nitric oxide (NO) that are toxic to neurons and oligodendrocytes. METHODS: In view of the above, suppression of microglia mediated neuroinflammation is deemed a therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases. Several potential Chinese herbal extracts have been reported to exert neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative diseases targeting specifically at the activated microglia...
February 14, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Padma Madiraju, Ekhtear Hossain, Madhu B Anand-Srivastava
We showed previously that natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPR-C) agonist, C-ANP4-23, attenuated the enhanced expression of Giα proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) through the inhibition of enhanced oxidative stress. Since the enhanced levels of endogenous angiotensin II (Ang II) contribute to the overexpression of Giα proteins and augmented oxidative stress in VSMC from SHR, the present study was undertaken to investigate if C-ANP4-23 could also attenuate angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced oxidative stress and associated signaling...
February 7, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Alamzeb Khan, Hazem Dawoud, Tadeusz Malinski
Background: Clinical studies indicate that vitamin D3 improves circulation and may have beneficial effects in hypertension. This study uses nanomedical systems to investigate the role of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 in the preservation/restoration of endothelial function in an angiotensin II (Ang II) cellular model of hypertension. Methods: 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) concentrations were measured in situ with nanosensors (200-300 mm diameter with a detection limit of 1 nM) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells of African American (AA) and Caucasian American (CA) donors exposed to Ang II...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Eun Nim Kim, Min Young Kim, Ji Hee Lim, Yaeni Kim, Seok Joon Shin, Cheol Whee Park, Yong-Soo Kim, Yoon Sik Chang, Hye Eun Yoon, Bum Soon Choi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study evaluated the effects of resveratrol on arterial aging and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in mice and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). METHODS: Aging mice were divided into control and resveratrol groups. Histological changes, inflammation, oxidative stress, RAS components, and the expression of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), and anti-oxidative enzymes was measured in thoracic aortas of 24-month-old mice...
February 2, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Karima Ait-Aissa, Andrew O Kadlec, Joseph Hockenberry, David D Gutterman, Andreas M Beyer
A rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) may contribute to cardiovascular disease by reducing nitric oxide (NO) levels, leading to loss of NO's vasodilator and anti-inflammatory effects. Although primarily studied in the larger conduit arteries, excess ROS release and a corresponding loss of NO also occurs in the smaller resistance arteries of the microcirculation, but underlying mechanisms and therapeutic targets have not been fully characterized. We examined whether either of the two subunits of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) or telomerase RNA component (TERC), affect microvascular ROS production and peak vasodilation at baseline and in response to in vivo administration to angiotensin II (ANG II)...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Francesca Schinzari, Manfredi Tesauro, Augusto Veneziani, Nadia Mores, Nicola Di Daniele, Carmine Cardillo
Obese patients have vascular dysfunction related to impaired insulin-stimulated vasodilation and increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstriction. In contrast to the harmful vascular actions of angiotensin (Ang) II, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 product Ang-(1-7) has shown to exert cardiovascular and metabolic benefits in experimental models through stimulation of the Mas receptor. We, therefore, examined the effects of exogenous Ang-(1-7) on vasodilator tone and endothelin-1-dependent vasoconstriction in obese patients...
January 2018: Hypertension
Cheng Wang, Zaiming Luo, Gabriella Carter, Anton Wellstein, Pedro A Jose, James Tomlinson, James Leiper, William J Welch, Christopher S Wilcox, Dan Wang
Nuclear factor erythyroid factor 2 (Nrf2) transcribes genes in cultured endothelial cells that reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and generate nitric oxide (NO) or metabolize asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) that inhibits NO synthase (NOS). Therefore, we undertook a functional study to test the hypothesis that activation of Nrf2 by tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) preserves microvascular endothelial function during oxidative stress. Wild-type CB57Bl/6 (wt), Nrf2 wt (+/+), or knockout (-/-) mice received vehicle (Veh) or tBHQ (0...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Patrícia L Moraes, Lucas M Kangussu, Luiz Gonzaga da Silva, Carlos H Castro, Robson A S Santos, Anderson J Ferreira
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a unique hormonal cascade which is composed by multiple enzymes and effector peptides. Recently, new peptides presenting biological activity have been discovered, increasing the complexity of the RAS Here, we evaluated the effects of small peptides of the RAS in coronary bed of rats. Firstly, we examined the direct effect of small angiotensinergic peptides [Angiotensin (Ang) -(1-5), Ang-(1-4) Ang-(1-3), and Ang-(1-2)] in coronary vessels. Noteworthy, it was observed that Ang-(1-4), Ang-(1-3), and Ang-(1-2) caused a significant reduction in pressure perfusion...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
Abdul J Shah, Tamas Kriska, Kathryn M Gauthier, John R Falck, William B Campbell
Angiotensin II (Ang II) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) regulate adrenal vascular tone in vitro through endothelial and/or zona glomeulosa cell-derived mediators. The role of these mediators in regulating adrenal blood flow (ABF) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was examined in anesthetized rats. Ang II (0.01-100 ng/kg) increased ABF (maximal increase of 97.2 ± 6.9 perfusion units (PU) at 100 ng/kg) and MAP (basal, 115 ± 7 mm Hg; Ang II, 163 ± 5 mm Hg). ACTH (0.1-1000 ng/kg) also increased ABF (maximum increase of 91...
November 13, 2017: Endocrinology
Oleg Palygin, Daria V Ilatovskaya, Vladislav Levchenko, Bradley T Endres, Aron M Geurts, Alexander Staruschenko
Nitric Oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator and vital signaling molecule, has been shown to contribute to the regulation of glomerular ultrafiltration. However, whether changes in NO occur in podocytes during the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension has not yet been thoroughly examined. We showed here that podocytes produce NO, and further hypothesized that hypertensive animals would exhibit reduced NO production in these cells in response to various paracrine factors, which might contribute to the damage of glomeruli filtration barrier and development of proteinuria...
January 30, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Jiayang Wan, Haofang Wan, Rongbin Yang, Haitong Wan, Jiehong Yang, Yu He, Huifen Zhou
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Danhong Injection (DHI) and Naoxintong Capsule (NXT) are renowned traditional Chinese medicine in China. The drug combination of DHI and NXT is frequently applied for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in clinic. However, there had been no pharmacological experiment studies of interaction between DHI and NXT. Due to the drug interactions, exploring their interaction profile is of great importance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, focal cerebral I/R injury in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 1h followed by reperfusion...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Zhen-Zhou Zhang, Wang Wang, Hai-Yan Jin, Xueyi Chen, Yu-Wen Cheng, Ying-Le Xu, Bei Song, Josef M Penninger, Gavin Y Oudit, Jiu-Chang Zhong
The apelin pathway has emerged as a critical regulator of cardiovascular homeostasis and disease. However, the exact role of pyr1-apelin-13 in angiotensin (Ang) II-mediated heart disease remains unclear. We used apelin-deficient (APLN-/y ) and apolipoprotein E knockout mice to evaluate the regulatory roles of pyr1-apelin-13. The 1-year aged APLN-/y mice developed myocardial hypertrophy and dysfunction with reduced angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 levels. Ang II infusion (1.5 mg kg-1 d-1 ) for 4 weeks potentiated oxidative stress, pathological hypertrophy, and myocardial fibrosis in young APLN-/y hearts resulting in exacerbation of cardiac dysfunction...
December 2017: Hypertension
Azam Abareshi, Fatemeh Norouzi, Fereshteh Asgharzadeh, Farimah Beheshti, Mahmoud Hosseini, Mehdi Farzadnia, Majid Khazaei
BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin (Ang)-aldosterone system not only plays a key role in the regulation of circulatory homeostasis, but also it acts as a powerful pro-inflammatory mediator. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of captopril (Cap), a known Ang-converting enzyme inhibitor, on inflammation-induced cardiac fibrosis, and heart oxidative stress status in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in male rats. METHODS: Fifty male rats were randomly divided into five groups control, LPS (1 mg/kg/day), LPS + Cap 10 mg/kg, LPS + Cap 50 mg/kg and LPS + Cap 100 mg/kg...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Yue-Hua Jiang, Jin-Hao Guo, Sai Wu, Chuan-Hua Yang
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is involved in endothelium injury during the development of hypertension. Tribulus terrestris (TT) is used to treat hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and post-stroke syndrome in China. The present study aimed to determine the effects of aqueous TT extracts on endothelial injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and its protective effects against Ang II-induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). SHRs were administered intragastrically with TT (17.2 or 8.6 g·kg-1·d-1) for 6 weeks, using valsartan (13...
August 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Dalton V Vassallo, Camila C P Almenara, Gilson Brás Broseghini-Filho, Ariane Calazans Teixeira, David Chaves F da Silva, Jhuli K Angeli, Alessandra S Padilha
Cadmium is an environmental pollutant closely linked with cardiovascular diseases that seems to involve endothelium dysfunction and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Knowing that NO causes dilatation through the activation of potassium channels and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, we aimed to determine whether acute cadmium administration (10 μM) alters the participation of K(+) channels, voltage-activated calcium channel, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in vascular function of isolated aortic rings of rats. Cadmium did not modify the acetylcholine-induced relaxation...
September 13, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
Zahid Rasul Niazi, Grazielle C Silva, Thais Porto Ribeiro, Antonio J León-González, Mohamad Kassem, Abdur Mirajkar, Azhar Alvi, Malak Abbas, Faraj Zgheel, Valérie B Schini-Kerth, Cyril Auger
Eicosapentaenoic acid:docosahexaenoic acid (EPA:DHA) 6:1, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid formulation, has been shown to induce a sustained formation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase-derived NO, a major vasoprotective factor. This study examined whether chronic intake of EPA:DHA 6:1 prevents hypertension and endothelial dysfunction induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) in rats. Male Wister rats received orally corn oil or EPA:DHA 6:1 (500 mg kg-1 per day) before chronic infusion of Ang II (0...
December 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Na He, Qi-Hai Gong, Feng Zhang, Jing-Yi Zhang, Shu-Xian Lin, Hua-Hua Hou, Qin Wu, An-Sheng Sun
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of evodiamine (Evo), a component of Evodiaminedia rutaecarpa Juss.) Benth, on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and further explore the potential mechanisms. METHODS: Cardiomyocytes from neonatal Sprague Dawley rats were isolated and characterized, and then the cadiomyocyte cultures were randomly divided into control, model (Ang II 0.1 μmol/L), and Evo (0.03, 0.3, 3 μmol/L) groups. The cardiomyocyte surface area, protein level, intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) concentration, activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and content of nitric oxide (NO) were measured, respectively...
September 5, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Angela E Vinturache, Francine G Smith
Renin-angiotensin (RAS) and nitric oxide (NO) systems and the balance and interaction between them are considered of primary importance in maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. It has been suggested that the effects of NO may be modulated at least in part by the angiotensin (Ang) II, yet the roles of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) are not well understood. Even though both Ang II and NO are elevated at birth and during the newborn period, their contribution to the adaptation of the newborn to life after birth as well as their physiological roles during development are poorly understood...
August 31, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Rashidul Haque, P Michael Iuvone, Li He, Elizabeth H Hur, Kimberly Su Chung Choi, Daniel Park, Annie N Farrell, Ashley Ngo, Samantha Gokhale, Madiha Aseem, Bhavna Kumar
The stimulation of angiotensin II (Ang II), the effector peptide of renin-angiotensin system, has been reported to increase the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) through the activation of the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R). In this study, we investigated whether hyperglycemia (HG, 33 mM glucose) in ARPE-19 cells could promote the expression of VEGF independently of Ang II through prorenin receptor (PRR), via an NADPH oxidase (Nox)-dependent mechanism. ARPE-19 cells were treated with the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor perindopril to block the synthesis of Ang II...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
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