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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333689/computational-modelling-of-the-cerebral-cortical-microvasculature-effect-of-x-ray-microbeams-versus-broad-beam-irradiation
#1
Andreas Merrem, Stefan Bartzsch, Jean Laissue, Uwe Oelfke
Microbeam Radiation Therapy is an innovative pre-clinical strategy which uses arrays of parallel, tens of micrometre wide kilo-voltage photon beams to treat tumours. These X-ray beams are typically generated on a synchrotron source. It was shown that these beam geometries allow exceptional normal tissue sparing from radiation damage while still being effective in tumour ablation. A final biological explanation for this enhanced therapeutic ratio has still not been found, some experimental data support an important role of the vasculature...
March 23, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333413/extramedullary-leukemia-in-children-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-a-population-based-cohort-study-from-the-nordic-society-of-pediatric-hematology-and-oncology-nopho
#2
Heidi Kristine Støve, Julie Damgaard Sandahl, Jonas Abrahamsson, Peter H Asdahl, Erik Forestier, Shau-Yin Ha, Kirsi Jahnukainen, Ólafur G Jónsson, Birgitte Lausen, Josefine Palle, Bernward Zeller, Henrik Hasle
BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of extramedullary leukemia (EML) in childhood acute myeloid leukemia is not clarified. PROCEDURE: This population-based study included 315 children from the NOPHO-AML 2004 trial. RESULTS: At diagnosis, 73 (23%) patients had EML: 39 (12%) had myeloid sarcoma, 22 (7%) had central nervous system disease, and 12 (4%) had both. EML was associated with young age (median age: 2.6 years), a high white blood cell count (median: 40 × 10(9) /l), M5 morphology (40%), and 11q23/MLL (KMT2A) rearrangements (34%)...
March 23, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333411/utility-of-peripheral-blood-immunophenotyping-by-flow-cytometry-in-the-diagnosis-of-pediatric-acute-leukemia
#3
Laura K Metrock, Ryan J Summers, Sunita Park, Scott Gillespie, Sharon Castellino, Glen Lew, Frank G Keller
BACKGROUND: Childhood acute leukemia is traditionally diagnosed from a bone marrow aspirate (BMA). New-onset acute leukemia patients do not always have visible circulating blasts in the peripheral blood (PB) at diagnosis. While the role of bone marrow flow cytometry for the diagnosis of acute leukemia is well established, the utility of PB flow cytometry (PBFC) is unknown. We performed a single-institution retrospective analysis to compare PBFC versus BMA in establishing or excluding a diagnosis of childhood acute leukemia...
March 23, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333371/structure-dependent-behaviours-of-skin-layers-studied-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#4
A C Chang, B H Liu, P L Shao, J D Liao
The multilayer skin provides the physical resistance and strength against the environmental attacks, and consequently plays a significant role in maintaining the mammalian health. Currently, optical microscopy (OM) is the most common method for the research related to skin tissues while with the drawbacks including the possibility of changing the native morphology of the sample with the addition of the chemical or immunological staining and the restricted resolution of images for the direct observation of the tissue structures...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333368/morphological-specializations-of-the-yolk-sac-for-yolk-processing-in-embryonic-corn-snakes-pantherophis-guttatus-colubridae
#5
Kathryn G Powers, Daniel G Blackburn
Non-avian reptiles commonly are assumed to be like birds in their overall patterns of development. However, colubrid corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) have mechanisms of yolk cellularization and processing that are entirely different from the avian pattern. In birds, a vascular "yolk sac" surrounds and digests the liquid yolk. In contrast, in corn snakes, the yolk material is converted into vascularized cords of yolk-filled cells. In this study, we used stereomicroscopy, histology, and scanning electron microscopy to analyze this unusual developmental pattern in corn snakes...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331802/molecular-epidemiology-and-pathology-of-spirorchiid-infection-in-green-sea-turtles-chelonia-mydas
#6
Phoebe A Chapman, Helen Owen, Mark Flint, Ricardo J Soares Magalhães, Rebecca J Traub, Thomas H Cribb, Myat T Kyaw-Tanner, Paul C Mills
Spirorchiid blood fluke infections affect endangered turtle populations globally, and are reported as a common cause of mortality in Queensland green sea turtles. Both the flukes and their ova are pathogenic and can contribute to the stranding or death of their host. Of particular interest are ova-associated brain lesions, which have been associated with host neurological deficits. Accurate estimations of disease frequency and the relative effect of infection relating to different spirorchiid species are made difficult by challenges in morphological identification of adults of some genera, and a lack of species-level identifying features for ova...
April 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331062/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-activation-improves-renal-oxygenation-and-mitochondrial-function-in-early-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
Joanna L Thomas, Hai Pham, Ying Li, Elanore Hall, Guy A Perkins, Sameh S Ali, Hemal H Patel, Prabhleen Singh
Pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is driven by alterations in surviving nephrons to sustain renal function with ongoing nephron loss. Oxygen supply-demand mismatch, due to hemodynamic adaptations, with resultant hypoxia, plays an important role in the pathophysiology in early CKD. We sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this mismatch. We utilized the subtotal nephrectomy (STN) model of CKD to investigate the alterations in renal oxygenation linked to sodium (Na) transport and mitochondrial function in the surviving nephrons...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330501/intraarterial-transplantation-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-hyperacute-stroke-improves-vascular-function
#8
Lei Huang, Yichu Liu, Jianfei Lu, Bianca Cerqueira, Vivek Misra, Timothy Q Duong
BACKGROUND: Human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) cell therapy is a promising treatment for ischemic stroke. The effects of hyperacute stem cell transplantation on cerebrovascular function in ischemic stroke are, however, not well understood. This study evaluated the effects of hyperacute intraarterial transplantation of hUCB mononuclear cells (MNCs) on cerebrovascular function in stroke rats using serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: HUCB MNCs or vehicle were administered to stroke rats via the internal carotid artery immediately after reperfusion at 60 min following ischemia onset...
March 22, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329397/resveratrol-improves-vascular-function-and-mitochondrial-number-but-not-glucose-metabolism-in-older-adults
#9
Rena M Pollack, Nir Barzilai, Valentin Anghel, Ameya S Kulkarni, Aaron Golden, Pilib O'Broin, David A Sinclair, Michael S Bonkowski, Alexander J Coleville, Danielle Powell, Sharon Kim, Ruin Moaddel, Daniel Stein, Kehao Zhang, Meredith Hawkins, Jill P Crandall
Background: Resveratrol, a plant-derived polyphenol, has been reported to improve glucose metabolism and vascular function and to extend life span in animal models, but studies in humans have been inconclusive. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, we treated older glucose-intolerant adults (n = 30) with resveratrol (2-3 g/daily) or placebo, each for 6 weeks. A standard mixed-meal test was used to assess insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and secretion (C-peptide deconvolution) and vascular function by reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry...
March 16, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328988/molecular-mechanisms-of-thermal-resistance-of-the-insect-trypanosomatid-crithidia-thermophila
#10
Aygul Ishemgulova, Anzhelika Butenko, Lucie Kortišová, Carolina Boucinha, Anastasiia Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Karina A Morelli, Martina Tesařová, Natalya Kraeva, Danyil Grybchuk, Tomáš Pánek, Pavel Flegontov, Julius Lukeš, Jan Votýpka, Márcio Galvão Pavan, Fred R Opperdoes, Viktoria Spodareva, Claudia M d'Avila-Levy, Alexei Yu Kostygov, Vyacheslav Yurchenko
In the present work, we investigated molecular mechanisms governing thermal resistance of a monoxenous trypanosomatid Crithidia luciliae thermophila, which we reclassified as a separate species C. thermophila. We analyzed morphology, growth kinetics, and transcriptomic profiles of flagellates cultivated at low (23°C) and elevated (34°C) temperature. When maintained at high temperature, they grew significantly faster, became shorter, with genes involved in sugar metabolism and mitochondrial stress protection significantly upregulated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327452/sensitive-detection-of-l-5-hydroxytryptophan-based-on-molecularly-imprinted-polymers-with-graphene-amplification
#11
Lu Chen, Hui-Ting Lian, Xiang-Ying Sun, Bin Liu
A novel electrochemical sensor was presented for the determination of L-5-hydroxytryptophan (L-5-HTP) based on a graphene-chitosan molecularly imprinted film modified on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GR-MIP/GCE). The morphology and composition of the imprinted film were observed in field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), raman spectroscopy and fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The properties of the sensor were evaluated by electrochemical techniques. Under the optimal conditions, the peak currents of L-5-HIP were found to be linear in the concentration range of 0...
March 19, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325999/natural-sea-salt-consumption-confers-protection-against-hypertension-and-kidney-damage-in-dahl-salt-sensitive-rats
#12
Bog-Hieu Lee, Ae-Ri Yang, Mi Young Kim, Sara McCurdy, William A Boisvert
Although sea salts are widely available to consumers nowadays, whether its consumption over refined salt has any real health benefits is largely unknown. This study was conducted to compare hypertension-inducing propensity of natural sea salt (SS) to refined salt (RS) in a well-established animal model of hypertension. Five groups of male Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed rat chow diet supplemented with various amounts of salt for 15 weeks. The groups were: control (CON, n = 10), 4% RS (RS4), 4% SS (SS4), 8% RS (RS8), 8% SS (SS8) (n = 12 for each group)...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325614/gothic-aortic-arch-and-cardiac-mechanics-in-young-patients-after-arterial-switch-operation-for-d-transposition-of-the-great-arteries
#13
Giovanni Di Salvo, Ziad Bulbul, Valeria Pergola, Ziad Issa, Ghassan Siblini, Nisreen Muhanna, Domenico Galzerano, Bahaa Fadel, Mansour Al Joufan, Majid Al Fayyadh, Zohair Al Halees
BACKGROUND: In patients who have undergone arterial switch operation (ASO) for d-transposition of the great arteries a gothic aortic arch (GA) morphology has been found and it has been associated with abnormal aortic bio-elastic properties. HYPOTHESIS: GA is frequent in ASO patients and may have an impact on cardiac mechanics. Our study aims were to assess 1- the occurrence of GA in a large sample of patients after ASO; 2- the association between GA and aortic bio-elastic properties; and 3- the impact of GA on left ventricular (LV) function using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE)...
March 11, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325446/segmentation-of-elastic-fibres-in-images-of-vessel-wall-sections-stained-with-weigert-s-resorcin-fuchsin
#14
Pablo Hernández-Morera, Carlos M Travieso-González, Irene Castaño-González, Blanca Mompeó-Corredera, Francisco Ortega-Santana
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The elastic fibres are an essential component of the extracellular matrix in blood vessel walls that allows a long-range of deformability and passive recoil without energy input. The quantitative determination of elastic fibres will provide information on the state of the vascular wall and to determine the role and behaviour of this key structural element in different physiological and pathological vascular processes. METHODS: We present a segmentation method to identify and quantify elastic fibres based on a local threshold technique and some morphological characteristics measured on the segmented objects that facilitate the discrimination between elastic fibres and other image components...
April 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324630/morphological-and-neurochemical-differences-in-peptidergic-nerve-fibres-of-the-mouse-vagina
#15
Christine Barry, Esther Ji, Harman Sharma, Lara Beukes, Pat Vilimas, Yvette DeGraaf, Dusan Matusica, Rainer V Haberberger
The vagina is innervated by a complex arrangement of sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibres that contain classical transmitters plus an array of neuropeptides and enzymes known to regulate diverse processes including blood flow and nociception. The neurochemical characteristics and distributions of peptide-containing nerves in the mouse vagina are unknown. This study used multiple labelling immunohistochemistry, confocal imaging and analysis to investigate the presence and colocalization of the peptides vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and the nitric oxide synthesizing enzyme neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in nerve fibres of the murine vaginal wall...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324193/hemodynamic-characterization-of-peripheral-arterio-venous-malformations
#16
Sabrina Frey, A Haine, R Kammer, H von Tengg-Kobligk, D Obrist, I Baumgartner
Peripheral arterio-venous malformations (pAVMs) are congenital vascular anomalies that require treatment, due to their severe clinical consequences. The complexity of lesions often leads to misdiagnosis and ill-planned treatments. To improve disease management, we developed a computational model to quantify the hemodynamic effects of key angioarchitectural features of pAVMs. Hemodynamic results were used to predict the transport of contrast agent (CA), which allowed us to compare our findings to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) recordings of patients...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323392/influence-of-steel-implant-surface-microtopography-on-soft-and-hard-tissue-integration
#17
J S Hayes, H Klöppel, R Wieling, C M Sprecher, R G Richards
After implantation of an internal fracture fixation device, blood contacts the surface, followed by protein adsorption, resulting in either soft-tissue adhesion or matrix adhesion and mineralization. Without protein adsorption and cell adhesion under the presence of micro-motion, fibrous capsule formation can occur, often surrounding a liquid filled void at the implant-tissue interface. Clinically, fibrous capsule formation is more prevalent with electropolished stainless steel (EPSS) plates than with current commercially pure titanium (cpTi) plates...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321971/risk-factors-for-perioperative-mortality-and-transfusion-in-sacrococcygeal-teratoma-resections
#18
Rebecca S Isserman, Olivia Nelson, Kha M Tran, Lingyu Cai, Marcia Polansky, Julia M Rosenbloom, Theodora K Goebel, Elaina E Lin
BACKGROUND: Sacrococcygeal teratomas are a common congenital tumor. Surgical resection can occur in utero, in the neonatal period, or in the postneonatal period. AIMS: We describe patient and tumor factors associated with mortality and transfusion in this population. METHODS: We did a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent sacrococcygeal teratoma resection between January 1998 and March 2016. Demographic data, transfusion data, and tumor characteristics were collected...
March 21, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321644/vinpocetine-attenuates-pathological-cardiac-remodeling-by-inhibiting-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-fibrosis
#19
Mei-Ping Wu, Yi-Shuai Zhang, Xiangbin Xu, Qian Zhou, Jian-Dong Li, Chen Yan
PURPOSE: Pathological cardiac remodeling, characterized by cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, is a pathological feature of many cardiac disorders that leads to heart failure and cardiac arrest. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has been used for enhancing cerebral blood flow to treat cognitive impairment. However, its role in pathological cardiac remodeling remains unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of vinpocetine on pathological cardiac remodeling induced by chronic stimulation with angiotensin II (Ang II)...
March 20, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321233/heterogeneity-of-the-pancreatic-beta-cell
#20
REVIEW
Giselle Dominguez Gutierrez, Jesper Gromada, Lori Sussel
The pancreatic beta cell functions as a key regulator of blood glucose levels by integrating a variety of signals in response to changing metabolic demands. Variations in beta cell identity that translate into functionally different subpopulations represent an interesting mechanism to allow beta cells to efficiently respond to diverse physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Recently, there is emerging evidence that morphological and functional differences between beta cells exist. Furthermore, the ability of novel single cell technologies to characterize the molecular identity of individual beta cells has created a new era in the beta cell field...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
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