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The role of iodine

S Maria O'Kane, L Kirsty Pourshahidi, Maria S Mulhern, J J Strain, Emer M Mackle, Duygu Koca, Lutz Schomburg, Sarah Hill, Jennifer O'Reilly, Diana Kmiotek, Christian Deitrich, Sarah C Bath, Alison J Yeates
Background: Recent evidence has highlighted the prevalence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in women of childbearing age and pregnant women, with important public health ramifications due to the role of iodine, which is required for thyroid hormone production, in neurodevelopment. Cow milk contributes the greatest amount to iodine intakes in several countries. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of increased cow milk consumption on iodine status, thyroid hormone concentrations, and selenium status...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Andrew M Harned
The iodine(iii)-mediated oxidative dearomatization of phenols has proven to be a general method for the preparation of cyclohexadienones. While this is a widely used reaction, there is still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the mechanistic pathway followed by these reactions. In part, this is due to the highly unstable nature of many of the key intermediates, which makes their direct detection extremely difficult. In order to gain some insight into these mechanistic questions, DFT calculations [M06-2X/6-31+G(d) for C, H, and O and LANL2DZdp for iodine] were used to evaluate the two most commonly proposed reaction mechanisms...
March 15, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Rui Zhang, Qianlei Zhang, Youxin Ji, Fengmei Su, Lingpu Meng, Zeming Qi, Yuanfei Lin, Xueyu Li, Xiaowei Chen, Fei Lv, Liangbin Li
Fibrillation and the complexation reaction between poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-iodine (i) complexes have been studied with in situ synchrotron radiation small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) during the uniaxial stretching of PVA films in KI/I2 aqueous solution. SAXS results show that stretching induces the formation of nanofibrils, which pack periodically in the later stage of stretching with an average inter-fibrillar distance of around 10 nm. The onset strains for fibrillation and the appearance of periodicity of nanofibrils are located at the beginning and the end of the stress plateau, and decrease with increasing iodine concentration...
March 14, 2018: Soft Matter
Zhineng Hao, Yongguang Yin, Juan Wang, Dong Cao, Jingfu Liu
There are increasing concerns about the adverse effects of released engineered nanoparticles and photochemically formed organohalogen compounds (OHCs) on human health and the environment. Herein, we report that titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) can photocatalytically halogenate dissolved organic matter (DOM) to form a large number of organobromine compounds (OBCs) and organoiodine compounds (OICs), as characterized by negative ion electrospray ionization coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Agnieszka Wendołowicz, Ewa Stefańska, Lucyna Ostrowska
The diet is directly connected not only with the physical status but also with the functioning of the brain and the mental status. The potentially beneficial nutrients with a protective effect on the nervous system function include amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, taurine), glucose and vitamins C, E, D and beta-carotene, B group vitamins (vitamin B12, vitamin B6, vitamin B4, vitamin B1) and minerals (selenium, zinc, magnesium, sodium, iron, copper, manganese, iodine). The presence of antioxidants in the diet protects against oxidative damage to nervous system cells...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Zhi-Bin Zhao, Jie Long, Yang-Yang Zhao, Jing-Bo Yang, Wei Jiang, Qing-Zhi Liu, Kai Yan, Liang Li, Yu-Cai Wang, Zhe-Xiong Lian
Sorafenib is a kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of primary kidney cancer, advanced primary liver cancer, and radioactive iodine resistant advanced thyroid carcinoma. However, sorafenib usually causes serious side effects, which limit its antitumor effect. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems have been widely used to enhance the therapeutic effects and reduce the side effects of this drug by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Herein, to improve the therapeutic effect of sorafenib, we developed poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-PLGA) based nanoparticles by a dialysis method for sorafenib encapsulation...
March 7, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Zeinab Kordestani, Mojgan Sanjari, Moeinadin Safavi, Mahdieh Mashrouteh, Gholamreza Asadikaram, Maryam FekriSoofiAbadi, Ali Mirzazadeh
OBJECTIVE: A direct role of Catenin beta-1(βcat) in the proliferation of human thyroid tumor cells has been identified. This study aimed to determine if there is an association between βcat gene expression and the staging, recurrence, metastasis, and disease free survival of papillary thyroid cancer. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from available information in the medical records and paraffin blocks of 81 of 400 patients referred to the endocrine clinic over a 10-year period...
March 2, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Hai-Jing Zhang, Rong-Chang Chen, Gui-Bo Sun, Long-Po Yang, Yin-di Zhu, Xu-Dong Xu, Xiao-Bo Sun
BACKGROUND: Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Ktze is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which comprises the plant's total flavonoids. TFCC plays an important role in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to study the protective effects and possible mechanism of TFCC against isoproterenol (ISO)-mediated myocardial injury in vivo and anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R)-induced H9c2 cell injury in vitro. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were intragastrically pretreated with TFCC for 15 days...
February 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Agathocles Tsatsoulis
Thyroid follicular cells, as well as adrenocortical cells, are endowed by an intrinsic heterogeneity regarding their growth potential, in response to various stimuli. This heterogeneity appears to constitute the underlying cause for the focal cell hyperplasia and eventually the formation of thyroid and adrenal nodules, under the influence of growth stimulatory factors. Among the main stimulatory factors are the pituitary tropic hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which regulate the growth and function of their respective target cells, and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor system, that, through its mitogenic effects, can stimulate the proliferation of these cells...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Inés Velasco, Sarah C Bath, Margaret P Rayman
Iodine is an essential micronutrient incorporated into thyroid hormones. Although iodine deficiency can lead to a broad spectrum of disorders throughout life, it is most critical in the early stages of development, as the foetal brain is extremely dependent on iodine supply. During the last two decades, our understanding of thyroid physiology during gestation has substantially improved. Furthermore, thyroid hormone receptors have been identified and characterised in placental and embryonic tissues, allowing us to elucidate the maternal-foetal transfer of thyroid hormones...
March 1, 2018: Nutrients
Chris A Campbell
Implant-based breast reconstruction accounts for more than 70% of all breast reconstructions, and breast augmentation is the most commonly performed cosmetic operation annually. The clinically significant impact of infection and capsular contracture after breast implant surgery has brought clinicians to create infection reduction protocols for both oncologic and cosmetic operations alike. The use of triple-antibiotic saline irrigation has become a recommended intraoperative maneuver within these protocols to minimize surgical site infections, but the constituents of the irrigation, its individual efficacy, and the acceptability of including povidone-iodine within irrigation recipes have been debated...
February 23, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Najeeb Ahmed, Kashif Niyaz, Aditya Borakati, Fahad Marafi, Rubinder Birk, Sharjeel Usmani
Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has a good prognosis overall; however, lifelong follow-up is required for many cases. Radioiodine planar imaging with iodine-123 (I-123) or radioiodine-131 (I-131) remains the standard in the follow-up after initial surgery and ablation of residual thyroid tissue using I-131 therapy. Radioiodine imaging is also used in risk-stratifying and for staging of thyroid cancer, and in long-term follow-up. Unfortunately, the lack of anatomical detail on planar gamma camera imaging and superimposition of areas presenting with increased radioiodine uptake can make accurate diagnosis and localization of radioiodine-avid metastatic disease challenging, leading to false positive results and potentially to over-treatment of patients...
February 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Lixia Zhang, Jinyan Chen, Caiyun Xu, Lili Qi, Yan Ren
T helper 17 (Th17), T cytotoxic 17 (Tc17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells serve important roles in a number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the distribution of Th17, Tc17 and Treg cells in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) prior to as well as 7, 30 and 90 days following radioactive iodine-131 (131 I) therapy, and to elucidate the probable effects of131 I therapy on Th17/Tc17 and Treg/Th17 cells in patients with DTC. A total of 40 patients with DTC (26 female; 14 male) between the ages of 24 and 72 years, as well as 13 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were included in this study...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Dorra Khiri, Majdi Hochlaf, George Maroulis, Gilberte Chambaud
Highly correlated ab-initio calculations have been performed to describe the poten- tial energy curves (PECs) and the spectroscopic properties of the X2Π state and of the first excited state of the CI radical. Multi Reference configuration interaction cal- culations with Davidson correction (MRCI+Q) and relativistic effective core potential for the iodine atom have been performed. It is found that the two lowest electronic states, the X2Π and the a4Σ- states, are stable against dissociation and well separated from the other electronic states...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
George E Naoum, Michael Morkos, Brian Kim, Waleed Arafat
Thyroid cancer is a frequently encountered endocrine malignancy. Despite the favorable prognosis of this disease, 15-20% of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) cases and most anaplastic types, remain resistant to standard treatment options, including radioactive iodine (RAI). In addition, around 30% of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show resistance after surgery. The evolving understanding of disease-specific molecular therapeutic targets has led to the approval of two targeted therapies (Sorafenib and Lenvatinib) for RAI refractory DTC and another two drugs (Vandetanib and Cabozantinib) for MTC...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
Juan Li, Jin Jiang, Su-Yan Pang, Yang Zhou, Yuan Gao, Yi Yang, Shaofang Sun, Guanqi Liu, Jun Ma, Chengchun Jiang, Lihong Wang
This work investigated impacts of iodide (I- ) on the transformation of the widely used phenolic preservative methylparaben (MeP) as well as 11 other phenolic compounds by potassium permanganate (KMnO4 ). It was found that KMnO4 showed a low reactivity towards MeP in the absence of I- with apparent second-order rate constants (kapp ) ranging from 0.065 ± 0.0071 to 1.0 ± 0.1 M-1 s-1 over the pH range of 5-9. The presence of I- remarkably enhanced the transformation rates of MeP by KMnO4 via the contribution of hypoiodous acid (HOI) in situ formed, which displayed several orders of magnitude higher reactivity towards MeP than KMnO4 ...
February 10, 2018: Water Research
Nancy G Prouty, E Brendan Roark, Leslye M Mohon, Ching-Chih Chang
Understanding iodine concentration, transport, and bioavailability is essential in evaluating iodine's impact to the environment and its effectiveness as an environmental biogeotracer. While iodine and its radionuclides have proven to be important tracers in geologic and biologic studies, little is known about transport of this element to the deep sea and subsequent uptake in deep-sea coral habitats. Results presented here on deep-sea black coral iodine speciation and iodine isotope variability provides key information on iodine behavior in natural and anthropogenic environments, and its geochemical pathway in the Gulf of Mexico...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
J Tapia, R González, B Townley, V Oliveros, F Álvarez, G Aguilar, A Menzies, M Calderón
The Atacama Desert, the driest of its kind on Earth, hosts a number of unique geological and geochemical features that make it unlike any other environment on the planet. Considering its location on the western border of South America, between 17 and 28 °S, its climate has been characterized as arid to hyperarid for at least the past 10 million years. Notably dry climatic conditions of the Atacama Desert have been related to uplift of the Andes and are believed to have played an important role in the development of the most distinctive features of this desert, including: (i) nitrates and iodine deposits in the Central Depression, (ii) secondary enrichment in porphyry copper deposits in the Precordillera, (iii) Li enrichment in salt flats of the Altiplano, and (iv) life in extreme habitats...
February 14, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Li Zhang, Guilan Zou
BACKGROUND: To study the application value of thyroid ultrasound combined with thyroglobulin (Tg) in the diagnosis of postoperative recurrence of thyroid cancer, so as to provide a reference for clinical practice. METHODS: 80 patients with thyroid cancer who underwent operative treatment for more than 2 times in our hospital from January 2014 to December 2016 were selected as the objects of study. After operation, residual thyroid tissues were removed via131 iodine (131 I)treatment, the serum Tg and thyroid globulin antibody (TgAb) were detected, and the cervical ultrasound was performed...
February 13, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Kathryn E Stanchak, Sharlene E Santana
The striking postcranial anatomy of bats reflects their specialized ecology; they are the only mammals capable of powered flight. Bat postcranial adaptations include a series of membranes that connect highly-modified, or even novel, skeletal elements. While most studies of bat postcranial anatomy have focused on their wings, bat hindlimbs also contain many derived and functionally important, yet less studied, features. In this study, we investigate variation in the membrane and limb musculature associated with the calcar, a neomorphic skeletal structure found in the hindlimbs of most bats...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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