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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227295/an-unusual-presentation-of-pituitary-gland-apoplexy-with-noninfectious-meningitis
#1
Margaret LaPorte, Jenna Pollock, Michael Ward, James Fulcher
Pituitary adenomas make up 10% of intracranial tumors, but because of their location, they may go undetected for long periods. In this article, we report the case of a 68-year-old white man found deceased in his residence, who died of acute pituitary tumor apoplexy. He was known to have severe symptoms including acute headache, vision loss, and altered behavior. When found, his home was in extreme disarray, mimicking a possible assault. At autopsy, the decedent had multiple superficial abrasions about the upper and lower extremities, as well as a 2...
December 7, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226469/surgical-anatomy-of-the-superficial-temporal-artery-to-prevent-facial-nerve-injury-during-arterial-biopsy
#2
Kang-Jae Shin, Hyun Jin Shin, Shin-Hyo Lee, Ki-Seok Koh, Wu-Chul Song
PURPOSE: To investigate the topographical relationship between the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery (FSTA) and the temporal branch of the facial nerve (TFN) with the aim of preventing nerve injury during FSTA biopsy. METHODS: Fifty-seven hemifaces of 33 cadavers were dissected. Vertical lines drawn to the lateral orbital margin (LOM) and the superior root of the helix were used as the anterior and posterior reference positions, respectively. Horizontal lines drawn through the supraorbital margin and lateral canthus were used as the superior and inferior reference points, respectively...
December 11, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217027/optic-disc-hemorrhages-in-glaucoma-and-common-clinical-features
#3
Zeynep Kayaarasi Ozturker, Kristen Munro, Neeru Gupta
OBJECTIVE: To analyze optic nerve head stereophotographs for the presence of optic disc hemorrhages, and to describe bleeding patterns and patient characteristics. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: 1113 optic nerve stereophotograph pairs of 562 consecutive patients. METHODS: Stereophotographs were systematically reviewed for the presence of a disc hemorrhage with careful documentation of optic nerve head features...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214093/should-skin-biopsies-be-performed-in-patients-suspected-of-having-parkinson-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Timo Siepmann, Ana Isabel Penzlin, Ben Min-Woo Illigens, Heinz Reichmann
In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), the molecularly misfolded form of α-synuclein was recently identified in cutaneous autonomic nerve fibers which displayed increased accumulation even in early disease stages. However, the underlying mechanisms of synucleinopathic nerve damage and its implication for brain pathology in later life remain to be elucidated. To date, specific diagnostic tools to evaluate small fiber pathology and to discriminate neurodegenerative proteinopathies are rare. Recently, research has indicated that deposition of α-synuclein in cutaneous nerve fibers quantified via immunohistochemistry in superficial skin biopsies might be a valid marker of PD which could facilitate early diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213346/safe-plastic-surgery-of-the-breast-ii-saving-nipple-sensation
#5
Steven Schulz, Matthew R Zeiderman, J Stephen Gunn, Charles A Riccio, Saeed Chowdhry, Ronald Brooks, Joshua H Choo, Bradon J Wilhelmi
Background: Since its inception, reduction mammoplasty has matured considerably. Primary evolution in clinical research and practice initially focused on developing techniques to preserve tissue viability; breast parenchyma, skin, and nipple tissue that has expanded to include sensation and erectile function play a large role in the physical intimacy of women. Studies regarding primary innervation to the nipple are few and often contradictory. Our past anatomical study demonstrated that primary innervation to the nipple to come from the lateral branch of the fourth intercostal nerve...
2017: Eplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212917/rhythmic-arm-cycling-training-improves-walking-and-neurophysiological-integrity-in-chronic-stroke-the-arms-can-give-legs-a-helping-hand-in-rehabilitation
#6
Chelsea Kaupp, Gregory Ep Pearcey, Taryn Klarner, Yao Sun, Trevor S Barss, Hilary Cullen, E Paul Zehr
Training locomotor pattern generating networks (CPGs) through arm and leg cycling improves walking in chronic stroke. These outcomes are presumed to result from enhanced interlimb connectivity and CPG function. The extent to which rhythmic arm training activates interlimb CPG networks for locomotion remains unclear and was assessed by studying chronic stroke participants before and after 5-weeks of arm cycling training. Strength was assessed bilaterally via maximal voluntary isometric contractions in the legs and hands...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208731/misleading-signs-in-acute-vertigo
#7
Sean Lance, Stuart Scott Mossman
The acute vestibular syndrome is common and usually has a benign cause. Sometimes, however, even experienced neurologists can find it difficult to determine the cause clinically. Furthermore, neuroimaging is known to be insensitive.We describe two cases of acute vestibular syndrome where conflicting clinical findings contributed to a delay in making the correct diagnosis. The first patient with symptomatic vertigo had signs consistent with horizontal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo but also had an abnormal horizontal head impulse test, superficially suggesting acute vestibular neuritis but later accounted for by the finding of a vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma)...
December 5, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206758/early-microvascular-and-neural-changes-in-patients-with-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-without-clinical-signs-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#8
Stela Vujosevic, Andrea Muraca, Micol Alkabes, Edoardo Villani, Fabiano Cavarzeran, Luca Rossetti, Stefano De Cillaʼ
PURPOSE: To assess and compare early modifications in inner retinal layer thickness and optical coherence tomography angiography parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) Types 1 and 2 without clinical signs of diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Ninety eyes of 90 subjects (24 Type 1 DM, 36 Type 2 DM, and 30 healthy controls) were prospectively evaluated with spectral domain OCT, swept-source OCT angiography, and color fundus photography (on the same day). Retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer (GCL+), and nerve fiber layer + GCL+ (GCL++) thickness were automatically determined by the instrument in the 1, 3, and 6 central mm...
December 4, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201834/correction-nerve-conduction-study-of-the-distal-branches-of-the-superficial-radial-nerve
#9
Hye Ryoung Bun, Mi Ryoung Hwang, Dong Hwee Kim, Eu Ha Kwon
[This corrects the article on p. 557 in vol. 31.].
October 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200885/treatment-of-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-using-free-flap-surgery-a-case-report
#10
Dong-Kyo Seo, Ho-Seong Lee, Joon Pio Hong, Jeong-Ho Seo, Jin Woo Shin
Complex regional pain syndrome is a chronic progressive illness with sensory, autonomic, trophic, and motor abnormalities. Treatment is difficult and controversial. We report the results of free-flap and vein wrapping of the superficial peroneal nerve surgery to treat complex regional pain syndrome.
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191377/distally-based-sural-neuro-fasciocutaneous-perforator-flap-for-foot-and-ankle-reconstruction-surgical-modifications-for-flap-pedicle-and-donor-site-closure-without-skin-graft
#11
Zhenglin Chi, Yiheng Chen, Tinggang Chu, Weiyang Gao, Zhijie Li, Hede Yan, Yonghuan Song
BACKGROUND: The conventional procedure of the sural neuro-fasciocutaneous flap enables the supply of blood and venous drainage by increasing the width of the adipofascial tissue and preserving tiny venous return routes. Moreover, skin graft is a common method for donor site closure, which may lead to some complications and influence the aesthetic appearance. We report modifications for a distally based sural neuro-fasciocutaneous perforator flap and a relaying flap for donor site closure without skin graft...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190962/wu-tou-decoction-attenuates-neuropathic-pain-via-suppressing-spinal-astrocytic-il-1r1-traf6-jnk-signaling
#12
Chao Wang, Xiangying Kong, Chunyan Zhu, Chunfang Liu, Danni Sun, Qionghong Xu, Zhiyun Mao, Qingxia Qin, Hongchang Su, Danqiao Wang, Xiaoliang Zhao, Na Lin
Neuropathic pain (NP) caused by nerve injuries continues to be an intractable challenge due to inadequate therapeutic strategies. Recent study demonstrated glia-induced neuro-inflammation in the spinal cord, especially the activation of astrocytes, plays an essential role in the development of NP, which opens new avenues for NP treatment. In this study, we explored the anti-hyperalgesia properties of Wu-tou decoction (WTD) and showed that WTD potently attenuates mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia in lumbar 5 (L5) spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced NP without noticeable side effect or affecting basal pain perception of mice...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186007/anatomically-realistic-ultrasound-phantoms-using-gel-wax-with-3d-printed-moulds
#13
Efthymios Maneas, Wenfeng Xia, Daniil I Nikitichev, Batol Daher, Maniragav Manimaran, Rui Yen J Wong, Chia-Wei Chang, Benyamin Rahmani, Claudio Capelli, Silvia Schievano, Gaetano Burriesci, Sebastien Ourselin, Anna L David, Malcolm Finlay, Simeon J West, Tom Vercauteren, Adrien E Desjardins
Here we describe methods for creating tissue-mimicking ultrasound phantoms based on patient anatomy using a soft material called gel wax. To recreate acoustically realistic tissue properties, two additives to gel wax were considered: paraffin wax to increase acoustic attenuation, and solid glass spheres to increase backscattering. The frequency dependence of ultrasound attenuation was well described with a power law over the measured range of 3 to 10 MHz. With the addition of paraffin wax in concentrations of 0 to 8 w/w%, attenuation varied from 0...
November 29, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184599/-lipoma-of-the-deep-lobe-of-the-parotid-gland
#14
Hicham Attifi, Mehdi Lagtoubi
Lipomas of the parotid gland are benign tumors developing from the fatty tissue in the gland. They are rare, accounting for 0.6-4.4% of all benign tumors. Those located in the deep lobe of the gland are uncommon. Clinically, they are very difficult to diagnose. CT scan and especially MRI can support the diagnosis. Surgery is the treatment of choice but its modalities remain controversial. We report the case of a 52-year old female patient, with no particular past medical history, presenting with asymptomatic left preauricular mass evolving over 1 year and gradually increasing in volume...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174073/lumbar-medial-branch-block-volume-dependent-dispersion-patterns-as-a-predictor-for-ablation-success-a-cadaveric-study
#15
Sayed E Wahezi, Edward Alexeev, John S Georgy, Nogah Haramati, Stephen A Erosa, Jay M Shah, Sherry Downie
BACKGROUND: Lumbar facet arthropathy is a common cause of low back pain. Literature supports treatment with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of associated nerves that innervate lumbar facets when alternative conservative therapies have failed. Diagnostic local anesthetic blocks precede therapeutic ablation, but have a false positive rate of 27-63%, and some have questioned their utility in predicting therapeutic response to RFA. The authors believe that injectate volume may be a contributing factor to false positivity...
November 22, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173667/ultrasound-guided-interventions-of-the-cervical-spine-and-nerves
#16
REVIEW
Ke-Vin Chang, Wei-Ting Wu, Levent Özçakar
High-resolution ultrasound (US) enables prompt depiction of muscles, tendons, ligaments, and peripheral nerves. It seems to be the best imaging modality for guiding perineural injections. The most complicated neurovascular network of the musculoskeletal system surrounds the cervical spine; so injection to that region is never an easy task. This article elaborates the regional anatomy and the use of US scanning and guidance for cervical interventions; for example, cervical root, superficial cervical plexus, stellate ganglion, cervical medial branch, greater occipital nerve, and third occipital nerve...
February 2018: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171726/factors-associated-with-deep-circulation-in-the-peripapillary-chorioretinal-atrophy-zone-in-normal-tension-glaucoma-with-myopic-disc
#17
Naoki Kiyota, Hiroshi Kunikata, Seri Takahashi, Yukihiro Shiga, Kazuko Omodaka, Toru Nakazawa
PURPOSE: To investigate factors associated with choroidal microcirculation in the peripapillary chorioretinal atrophy (PPA) zone in eyes with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and myopic disc. METHODS: In 100 eyes of 100 NTG patients with myopic disc and 20 eyes of 20 age-matched myopic controls, 4.5 × 4.5 mm scans were made of the optic nerve head with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Peripapillary chorioretinal atrophy (PPA) area and PPA superficial choroidal image intensity (PPA-CI) were calculated with image j software...
November 24, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168108/the-malaris-muscle-its-morphological-significance-for-sustaining-the-intraorbital-structures
#18
Natnicha Kampan, Masahiro Tsutsumi, Itsuko Okuda, Hisayo Nasu, Mi-Sun Hur, Kumiko Yamaguchi, Keiichi Akita
The orbicularis oculi muscle, an important mimetic muscle, was investigated to ascertain its anatomical relation to facial aging-especially its orbital part (Oo). Previous studies of the distinct muscle bundles frequently found inferior to the Oo have provided various definitions, including that of the malaris muscle. This study aimed to examine these muscle bundles and clarify their function in facial aging. Twelve heads of Japanese cadavers (average age: 82.5 years old) were dissected to observe the muscles, focusing in particular on those in the periorbital region...
November 22, 2017: Anatomical Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159513/molybdenum-coated-su-8-microneedle-electrodes-for-transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation
#19
Ramin Soltanzadeh, Elnaz Afsharipour, Cyrus Shafai, Neda Anssari, Behzad Mansouri, Zahra Moussavi
Electrophysiological devices are connected to the body through electrodes. In some applications, such as nerve stimulation, it is needed to minimally pierce the skin and reach the underneath layers to bypass the impedance of the first layer called stratum corneum. In this study, we have designed and fabricated surface microneedle electrodes for applications such as electrical peripheral nerve stimulation. We used molybdenum for microneedle fabrication, which is a biocompatible metal; it was used for the conductive layer of the needle array...
November 21, 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149238/diabetic-neuroglial-changes-in-the-superficial-and-deep-nonperfused-areas-on-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#20
Yoko Dodo, Tomoaki Murakami, Kiyoshi Suzuma, Shin Yoshitake, Tatsuya Yoshitake, Kenji Ishihara, Masahiro Fujimoto, Yuko Miwa, Akitaka Tsujikawa
Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between lamellar capillary nonperfusion on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images and neuroglial changes on structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) images in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 101 consecutive eyes of 69 patients with DR. OCTA and OCT images within a 3 × 3-mm square centered on the fovea were acquired simultaneously. The nonperfused areas (NPAs) in the superficial capillary layer (sNPA) (from the nerve fiber layer [NFL] to the inner plexiform layer [IPL]), the deep layer (dNPA) (corresponding mainly to the inner nuclear layer [INL]), or both layers (bNPA) were measured individually along 10 transverse lines...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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