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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924423/vegan-diets-practical-advice-for-athletes-and-exercisers
#1
REVIEW
David Rogerson
With the growth of social media as a platform to share information, veganism is becoming more visible, and could be becoming more accepted in sports and in the health and fitness industry. However, to date, there appears to be a lack of literature that discusses how to manage vegan diets for athletic purposes. This article attempted to review literature in order to provide recommendations for how to construct a vegan diet for athletes and exercisers. While little data could be found in the sports nutrition literature specifically, it was revealed elsewhere that veganism creates challenges that need to be accounted for when designing a nutritious diet...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924088/docosapentaenoic-acid-22-5n-3-downregulates-mrna-expression-of-pro-inflammatory-factors-inlps-activated-murine-macrophage-like-raw264-7-cells
#2
Yanzhu Tian, Ami Katsuki, Donato Romanazzi, Matthew R Miller, Serean L Adams, Kazuo Miyashita, Masashi Hosokawa
Docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3, n-3 DPA) is a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) found in fish oil, and has been reported to have health benefits. This study investigated conversion of n-3 DPA, and examined the anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 DPA on activated macrophages. Murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells were incubated in culture media containing n-3 DPA for 72 h. The level of n-3 DPA in the fatty acid composition of the total lipid fraction increased in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were higher in treated cells than in control cells...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924085/an-improved-enzymatic-indirect-method-for-simultaneous-determinations-of-3-mcpd-esters-and-glycidyl-esters-in-fish-oils
#3
Kinuko Miyazaki, Kazuo Koyama
The enzymatic indirect method for simultaneous determinations of 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol fatty acid esters (3-MCPD-Es) and glycidyl fatty acid esters (Gly-Es) make use of lipase from Candida cylindracea (previously referred to as C. rugosa). Because of low substrate specificity of the lipase for esters of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), fish oils high in PUFAs are currently excluded from the range of application of the method. The objective of this study was to make the enzymatic indirect method applicable to fats and oils containing PUFAs...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915388/epa-and-dha-but-not-ala-have-antidepressant-effects-with-17%C3%AE-estradiol-injection-via-regulation-of-a-neurobiological-system-in-ovariectomized-rats
#4
Jeong-Eun Choi, Yongsoon Park
Our previous studies found that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and estrogen had synergistic antidepressant-like effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that three major n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), individually had antidepressant effects combined with 17β-estradiol-3-benzoate (E) through a neurobiological pathway in ovariectomized rats. Rats were fed a modified American Institute of Nutrition-93G diet with 0% n-3 PUFAs and 1% ALA, EPA and DHA relative to total energy intake for 12 weeks and were injected with corn oil or E every 4 days during the last 3 weeks...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912100/influence-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-bovine-luteal-cell-plasma-membrane-dynamics
#5
Michele R Plewes, Patrick D Burns, Richard M Hyslop, B George Barisas
Fish oil is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids which disrupt lipid microdomain structure and affect mobility of the prostaglandin F2α (FP) receptor in bovine luteal cells. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of individual omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on 1) membrane fatty acid composition, 2) lipid microdomain structure, and 3) lateral mobility of the FP receptor in bovine luteal cells. Ovaries were collected from a local abattoir (n=5/experiment)...
September 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903622/maternal-dietary-n-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-deprivation-does-not-exacerbate-post-weaning-reductions-in-arachidonic-acid-and-its-mediators-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#6
Shoug M Alashmali, Alex P Kitson, Lin Lin, R J Scott Lacombe, Richard P Bazinet
OBJECTIVES: The present study examines how lowering maternal dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (starting from pregnancy) compared to offspring (starting from post-weaning) affect the levels of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in phospholipids (PL) and lipid mediators in the hippocampus of mice. METHODS: Pregnant mice were randomly assigned to consume either a deprived or an adequate n-6 PUFA diet during pregnancy and lactation (maternal exposure). On postnatal day (PND) 21, half of the male pups were weaned onto the same diet as their dams, and the other half were switched to the other diet for 9 weeks (offspring exposure)...
September 13, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900017/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-inflammatory-processes-from-molecules-to-man
#7
REVIEW
Philip C Calder
Inappropriate, excessive or uncontrolled inflammation contributes to a range of human diseases. Inflammation involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators and interactions. The present article will describe nutritional and metabolic aspects of omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and explain the roles of bioactive members of those fatty acid families in inflammatory processes. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are n-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements...
September 12, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888048/involvement-of-nutrients-and-nutritional-mediators-in-mitochondrial-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa-synthase-gene-expression
#8
Tania Rescigno, Anna Capasso, Mario Felice Tecce
Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase (HMGCS2) catalyses the first step of ketogenesis and is critical in various metabolic conditions. Several nutrient molecules were able to differentially modulate HMGCS2 expression levels. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3), arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4, n-6) and glucose increased HMGCS2 mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 hepatoma cells, while fructose decreased them. The effect of n-6 AA resulted significantly higher than that of n-3 PUFA, but when combined all these molecules were far less efficient...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887275/ffa4-gpr120-as-a-fatty-acid-sensor-involved-in-appetite-control-insulin-sensitivity-and-inflammation-regulation
#9
REVIEW
Dong-Soon Im
Unsaturated long-chain fatty acids have been suggested to be beneficial in the context of cardiovascular disorders based in epidemiologic studies conducted in Greenland and Mediterranean. DHA and EPA are omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are plentiful in fish oil, and oleic acid is an omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acid, rich in olive oil. Dietary intake of these unsaturated long-chain fatty acids have been associated with insulin sensitivity and weight loss, which contrasts with the impairment of insulin sensitivity and weight gain associated with high intakes of saturated long-chain fatty acids...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886690/transcriptome-profiling-of-antiviral-immune-and-dietary-fatty-acid-dependent-responses-of-atlantic-salmon-macrophage-like-cells
#10
Khalil Eslamloo, Xi Xue, Jennifer R Hall, Nicole C Smith, Albert Caballero-Solares, Christopher C Parrish, Richard G Taylor, Matthew L Rise
BACKGROUND: Due to the limited availability and high cost of fish oil in the face of increasing aquaculture production, there is a need to reduce usage of fish oil in aquafeeds without compromising farm fish health. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine if different levels of vegetable and fish oils can alter antiviral responses of salmon macrophage-like cells (MLCs). Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed diets containing 7.4% (FO7) or 5.1% (FO5) fish oil. These diets were designed to be relatively low in EPA + DHA (i...
September 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886129/modulation-of-the-endogenous-omega-3-fatty-acid-and-oxylipin-profile-in-vivo-a-comparison-of-the-fat-1-transgenic-mouse-with-c57bl-6-wildtype-mice-on-an-omega-3-fatty-acid-enriched-diet
#11
Annika I Ostermann, Patrick Waindok, Moritz J Schmidt, Cheng-Ying Chiu, Christopher Smyl, Nadine Rohwer, Karsten-H Weylandt, Nils Helge Schebb
Dietary intervention and genetic fat-1 mice are two models for the investigation of effects associated with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFA). In order to assess their power to modulate the fatty acid and oxylipin pattern, we thoroughly compared fat-1 and wild-type C57BL/6 mice on a sunflower oil diet with wild-type mice on the same diet enriched with 1% EPA and 1% DHA for 0, 7, 14, 30 and 45 days. Feeding led after 14-30 days to a high steady state of n3-PUFA in all tissues at the expense of n6-PUFAs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884844/an-open-label-clinical-trial-assessing-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-bend-skincare-anti-aging-formula-on-minimal-erythema-dose-in-skin
#12
Nancy L Morse, Anna-Jean Reid, Marc St-Onge
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Sunburn and other health risks associated with excess sun exposure place huge economic burdens on societies, and create discomfort and disease within susceptible individuals. Oral supplements that reduce sunburn may be advantageous. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of Bend Skincare Anti-Aging Formula to ameliorate sunburn induced with a solar simulator. METHODS: Subjects (n= 28) with Fitzpatrick skin phototypes I, II or III took four capsules daily of the supplement providing 1400 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)+ docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 120 mg of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), 5 mg of lutein, 2...
September 8, 2017: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878301/epa-dha-6-1-prevents-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-rats-role-of-nadph-oxidase-and-cox-derived-oxidative-stress
#13
Zahid Rasul Niazi, Grazielle C Silva, Thais Porto Ribeiro, Antonio J León-González, Mohamad Kassem, Abdur Mirajkar, Azhar Alvi, Malak Abbas, Faraj Zgheel, Valérie B Schini-Kerth, Cyril Auger
Eicosapentaenoic acid:docosahexaenoic acid (EPA:DHA) 6:1, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid formulation, has been shown to induce a sustained formation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase-derived NO, a major vasoprotective factor. This study examined whether chronic intake of EPA:DHA 6:1 prevents hypertension and endothelial dysfunction induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) in rats. Male Wister rats received orally corn oil or EPA:DHA 6:1 (500 mg kg(-1) per day) before chronic infusion of Ang II (0...
September 7, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875399/interplay-between-n-3-and-n-6-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-brain-protection-and-repair
#14
REVIEW
Simon C Dyall
The brain is enriched in arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) of the n-6 and n-3 series, respectively. Both are essential for optimal brain development and function. Dietary enrichment with DHA and other long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), has shown beneficial effects on learning and memory, neuroinflammatory processes, and synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. ARA, DHA and EPA are precursors to a diverse repertoire of bioactive lipid mediators, including endocannabinoids...
September 5, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873537/extraction-and-detailed-characterization-of-phospholipid-enriched-oils-from-six-species-of-edible-clams
#15
Zhong-Yuan Liu, Da-Yong Zhou, Zi-Xuan Wu, Fa-Wen Yin, Qi Zhao, Hong-Kai Xie, Jian-Run Zhang, Lei Qin, Fereidoon Shahidi
Phospholipid (PL)-enriched oils were recovered from six species of edible clams, namely Cyclina sinensis, Mactra chinensis Philippi, Mactra veneriformis Reeve, Meretrix meretrix, Ruditapes phliippinarum and Saxidomus purpurata, using a mixture of ethanol and hexane (1:1, v/v). The oils contained a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (26.78-45.36% of total FAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (8.17-10.48% of total FAs) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (7.83-21.34% of total FAs). The oils also contained a high percentage of PL (39...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871832/adding-fish-oil-to-whey-protein-leucine-and-carbohydrate-over-a-6-week-supplementation-period-attenuates-muscle-soreness-following-eccentric-exercise-in-competitive-soccer-players
#16
Jordan D Philpott, Chris Donnelly, Ian H Walshe, James Dick, Stuart D R Galloway, Kevin D Tipton, Oliver C Witard
Soccer players often experience eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage given the physical demands of soccer match-play. Since long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) enhance muscle sensitivity to protein supplementation, dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil-derived n-3PUFA, protein and carbohydrate may promote exercise recovery. This study examined the influence of adding n-3PUFA to a whey protein, leucine and carbohydrate containing beverage over a 6 week supplementation period on physiological markers of recovery measured over 3 days following eccentric exercise...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870372/dha-and-epa-in-red-blood-cell-membranes-are-associated-with-dietary-intakes-of-omega-3-rich-fish-in-healthy-children
#17
Colleen A Parks, Neil R Brett, Sherry Agellon, Paula Lavery, Catherine A Vanstone, Jonathon L Maguire, Frank Rauch, Hope A Weiler
Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) are important in child development. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the associations between dietary intakes of n-3 LCPUFA and red blood cell (RBC) n-3 LCPUFA in young children. Healthy children, (2-8y) underwent RBC fatty acid profiling. Dietary intakes were parent-reported over 6 mo using three 24h dietary intake assessments and three 30 d food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Participants (n = 49, 5.6 ± 1.9y), were 59% male, and had a body mass index (BMI) z-score of 0...
September 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869529/different-covalent-immobilizations-modulate-lipase-activities-of-hypocrea-pseudokoningii
#18
Marita G Pereira, Susana Velasco-Lozano, Sonia Moreno-Perez, Aline M Polizeli, Paulo R Heinen, Fernanda D A Facchini, Ana C Vici, Mariana Cereia, Benevides C Pessela, Gloria Fernandez-Lorente, Jose M Guisan, João A Jorge, Maria de Lourdes T M Polizeli
Enzyme immobilization can promote several advantages for their industrial application. In this work, a lipase from Hypocrea pseudokoningii was efficiently linked to four chemical supports: agarose activated with cyanogen bromide (CNBr), glyoxyl-agarose (GX), MANAE-agarose activated with glutaraldehyde (GA) and GA-crosslinked with glutaraldehyde. Results showed a more stable lipase with both the GA-crosslinked and GA derivatives, compared to the control (CNBr), at 50 °C, 60 °C and 70 °C. Moreover, all derivatives were stabilized when incubated with organic solvents at 50%, such as ethanol, methanol, n-propanol and cyclohexane...
September 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867781/low-docosahexaenoic-acid-dihomo-gamma-linolenic-acid-and-arachidonic-acid-levels-associated-with-long-term-mortality-in-patients-with-acute-decompensated-heart-failure-in-different-nutritional-statuses
#19
Shohei Ouchi, Tetsuro Miyazaki, Kazunori Shimada, Yurina Sugita, Megumi Shimizu, Azusa Murata, Takao Kato, Tatsuro Aikawa, Shoko Suda, Tomoyuki Shiozawa, Masaru Hiki, Shuhei Takahashi, Hiroshi Iwata, Takatoshi Kasai, Katsumi Miyauchi, Hiroyuki Daida
The clinical significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) in various nutritional statuses remains unclear. For this study, we enrolled 267 patients with ADHF admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit at Juntendo University hospital between April 2012 and March 2014. The association between long-term mortality, the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), and levels of PUFAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), and arachidonic acid (AA) was investigated...
August 30, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862289/lipid-droplet-formation-in-hela-cervical-cancer-cells-depends-on-cell-density-and-the-concentration-of-exogenous-unsaturated-fatty-acids
#20
Ema Guštin, Eva Jarc, Ana Kump, Toni Petan
Cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs) store excess fatty acids (FAs) in the form of neutral lipids and prevent starvation-induced cancer cell death. Here we studied the ability of mono- and polyunsaturated FAs to affect LD formation and survival in HeLa cervical cancer cells. We found that the LD content in HeLa cells increases with cell density, but it decreases in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Exogenously-added unsaturated FAs, including oleic (OA), linoleic (LA), arachidonic (AA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) displayed a similar ability to alter LD formation in HeLa cells...
September 2017: Acta Chimica Slovenica
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