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EPA DHA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778015/dietary-ala-epa-and-dha-have-distinct-effects-on-oxylipin-profiles-in-female-and-male-rat-kidney-liver-and-serum
#1
Shan Leng, Tanja Winter, Harold M Aukema
There is much data on the effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on tissue fatty acid compositions, but comparable comprehensive data on their oxygenated metabolites (oxylipins) is limited. The effects of providing female and male rats with diets high in α-linolenic acid (ALA), EPA or DHA for 6 weeks on oxylipins and fatty acids in kidney, liver and serum were therefore examined. The oxylipin profile generally reflected fatty acids, but it also revealed unique effects of individual n-3 fatty acids that were not apparent from fatty acid data alone...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769200/long-chain-n-3-fatty-acids-attenuate-oncogenic-kras-driven-proliferation-by-altering-plasma-membrane-nanoscale-proteolipid-composition
#2
Natividad R Fuentes, Mohamed Mlih, Rola Barhoumi, Yang-Yi Fan, Paul Hardin, Trevor J Steele, Spencer Behmer, Ian A Prior, Jason Karpac, Robert S Chapkin
Ras signaling originates from transient nanoscale compartmentalized regions of the plasma membrane composed of specific proteins and lipids. The highly specific lipid composition of these nanodomains, termed nanoclusters, facilitates effector recruitment and therefore influences signal transduction. This suggests that Ras nanocluster proteolipid composition could represent a novel target for future chemoprevention interventions. There is evidence that consumption of fish oil containing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5Δ5,8,11,14,17) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6Δ4,7,10,13,16,19) may reduce colon cancer risk in humans, yet the mechanism underlying this effect is unknown...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767088/interactive-effect-of-dietary-vitamin-e-and-inorganic-mercury-on-growth-performance-and-bioaccumulation-of-mercury-in-juvenile-olive-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus-treated-with-mercuric-chloride
#3
Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Jun-Ho Lee, Jin-Hyeok Lee, Seonghun Won, Jim H Damusaru, Sungchul C Bai
A 6-week feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate, TA) on growth and mercury (Hg) accumulation in juvenile olive flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus ) treated with mercuric chloride (HgCl2 ). Vitamin E and HgCl2 were added to the semi-purified basal diet. Six semi-purified diets in a 2 × 3 factorial design were formulated to contain 2 levels of Hg (0 or 20 mg HgCl2 /kg diet) and 3 levels of vitamin E (0, 100, or 200 mg TA/kg diet). Experimental fish ( n  = 360, 9...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766165/effects-of-epa-and-lipoic-acid-supplementation-on-circulating-fgf21-and-the-fatty-acid-profile-in-overweight-obese-women-following-a-hypocaloric-diet
#4
Xavier Escoté, Elisa Félix-Soriano, Lucía Gayoso, Ana Elsa Huerta, María Antonella Alvarado, Diana Ansorena, Iciar Astiasarán, J Alfredo Martínez, María Jesús Moreno-Aliaga
FGF21 has emerged as a key metabolism and energy homeostasis regulator. Dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or α-lipoic acid (LIP) has shown beneficial effects on obesity. In this study, we evaluated EPA and/or LIP effects on plasma FGF21 and the fatty acid (FA) profile in overweight/obese women following hypocaloric diets. At the baseline, FGF21 levels were negatively related to the AST/ALT ratio and HMW adiponectin. The weight loss did not cause any significant changes in FGF21 levels, but after the intervention FGF21 increased in EPA-supplemented groups compared to non-EPA-supplemented groups...
May 16, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763471/importance-of-extracellular-matrix-and-growth-state-for-the-ea-hy926-endothelial-cell-response-to-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids
#5
Youjia Du, Carla G Taylor, Harold M Aukema, Peter Zahradka
Consumption of different PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) can induce functional changes in blood vessels via endothelial cells, which interact with dietary factors in the circulation. The basement membrane that separates the endothelium from the smooth muscle cells of the medial layer can also influence the functional state of endothelial cells. However, the effect of basement membrane on the endothelial response to dietary PUFAs in relation to growth state (e.g. proliferation versus quiescence) has never been investigated...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762790/dietary-supplementation-with-clostridium-butyricum-modulates-serum-lipid-metabolism-meat-quality-and-the-amino-acid-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-peking-ducks
#6
Yanhan Liu, Yiyu Li, Xiancheng Feng, Zhong Wang, Zhaofei Xia
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricum (C. butyricum) on the performance, serum lipid metabolism, muscle morphology, meat quality, and fatty acid profiles of Peking ducks. A total of 1,500 Peking ducks were randomly divided into five groups with five replicates and were fed a non-antibiotic basal diet (Control) or a basal diet supplemented with either 200, 400, or 600 mg/kg of C. butyricum (2.0 × 109 CFU/g) or 150 mg of aureomycin/kg for 42 d. Compared with the control group, supplementation with C...
May 14, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755487/enhancing-epa-content-in-an-arctic-diatom-a-factorial-design-study-to-evaluate-interactive-effects-of-growth-factors
#7
Pia Steinrücken, Svein A Mjøs, Siv K Prestegard, Svein R Erga
Microalgae with a high content of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are of great demand for microalgae-based technologies. An Arctic strain of the diatom Attheya septentrionalis was shown in previous experiments to increase its EPA content from 3.0 to 4.6% of dry weight (DW) in the nutrient-replete exponential phase and nutrient-depleted stationary phase, respectively. In the present study, a factorial-design experiment was used, to investigate this effect in more detail and in combination with varying salinities and irradiances...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752179/the-effect-of-eicosapentaenoic-and-docosahexaenoic-acids-on-physical-function-exercise-and-joint-replacement-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Abdulhamied Alfaddagh, Tarec K Elajami, Mohamad Saleh, Mohamad Elajami, Bruce R Bistrian, Francine K Welty
BACKGROUND: Poor physical function impairs fitness and exercise and is associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality. Joint pain and stiffness limit physical function. OBJECTIVE: To determine if eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation improves physical function and exercise in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. METHODS: A total of 291 subjects with stable CAD were randomized to either Lovaza (1...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746616/a-regulatory-insertion-deletion-polymorphism-in-the-fads-gene-cluster-influences-pufa-and-lipid-profiles-among-chinese-adults-a-population-based-study
#9
Peiqin Li, Jing Zhao, Kumar S D Kothapalli, Xiang Li, Hui Li, Yuxuan Han, Shengquan Mi, Wenhua Zhao, Qizhai Li, Hong Zhang, Yiqing Song, J Thomas Brenna, Ying Gao
Background: Arachidonic acid (AA) is the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) substrate for potent eicosanoid signaling to modulate inflammation and thrombosis and is controlled in part by tissue abundance. Fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) catalyzes synthesis of omega-6 (n-3) AA and n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The rs66698963 polymorphism, a 22-base pair (bp) insertion-deletion 137 bp downstream of a sterol regulatory element in FADS2 intron 1, mediates expression of FADS1 in vitro, as well as exerting positive selection in several human populations...
May 9, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741213/alpha-linolenic-acid-but-not-palmitic-acid-negatively-impacts-survival-asexual-reproductive-rate-and-clonal-offspring-size-in-hydra-oligactis
#10
Anita Kaliszewicz, Karolina Jarząbek, Justyna Szymańska, Kamil Karaban, Maciej Sierakowski
Hydra, as sit-and-wait predators with limited food selectivity, could serve as model organisms for the analysis of the effect of a particular dietary component on growth and reproduction. We investigated the effect of food quality and of diets enriched with palmitic (PAM) or α-linolenic acid (ALA) on the life history traits of two hydra species: Hydra oligactis and Hydra vulgaris. We tested the hypothesis that a diet enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) can stimulate growth and reproduction in simple metazoans with a sit-and-wait type of predatory strategy...
May 9, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740045/exosome-markers-associated-with-immune-activation-and-oxidative-stress-in-hiv-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#11
Sukrutha Chettimada, David R Lorenz, Vikas Misra, Simon T Dillon, R Keith Reeves, Cordelia Manickam, Susan Morgello, Gregory D Kirk, Shruti H Mehta, Dana Gabuzda
Exosomes are nanovesicles released from most cell types including immune cells. Prior studies suggest exosomes play a role in HIV pathogenesis, but little is known about exosome cargo in relation to immune responses and oxidative stress. Here, we characterize plasma exosomes in HIV patients and their relationship to immunological and oxidative stress markers. Plasma exosome fractions were isolated from HIV-positive subjects on ART with suppressed viral load and HIV-negative controls. Exosomes were characterized by electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking, immunoblotting, and LC-MS/MS proteomics...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738112/high-fat-diet-dysregulates-hypothalamic-pituitary-axis-gene-expression-levels-which-are-differentially-rescued-by-epa-and-dha-ethyl-esters
#12
Saame Raza Shaikh, Patti R Shaver, Brian M Shewchuk
SCOPE: Dietary fat composition can modulate gene expression in peripheral tissues in obesity. Observations of the dysregulation of growth hormone (GH) in obesity indicate that these effects extend to the hypothalamic-pituitary (H-P) axis. We thus determined whether specific high fat (HF) diets influenced the levels of Gh and other key gene transcripts in the H-P axis. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were fed a lean control diet or a HF diet in the absence or presence of OA, EPA or DHA ethyl esters...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735019/supplementation-with-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-reduces-high-levels-of-circulating-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-aging-adults-a-randomized-controlled-study
#13
Alai Tan, Brent Sullenbarger, Ruchika Prakash, Jodi C McDaniel
BACKGROUND: High levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines are characteristic of inflammaging, a term coined to describe age-related chronic systemic inflammation involved in the etiology of many age-related disorders including nonhealing wounds. Some studies have shown that supplementing diets with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) lowers systemic levels of key proinflammatory cytokines associated with inflammaging. However, findings from the few studies that have focused exclusively on older adults are inconclusive...
May 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734115/transcriptional-and-posttranscriptional-repression-of-histone-deacetylases-by-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-macrophages
#14
Tho X Pham, Minkyung Bae, Yoojin Lee, Young-Ki Park, Ji-Young Lee
Histone deacetylation is one of the posttranslational modifications of histones by which eukaryotic cells alter gene transcription. Although fatty acids are the best known macronutrients that modulate gene expression in inflammatory pathways, it is unclear whether common fatty acids in diets can regulate the expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in macrophages. We determined the effects of fatty acids, including palmitic acid (PA), oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on the expression of HDAC isoforms in RAW 264...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729672/association-of-oily-fish-intake-sex-age-bmi-and-apoe-genotype-with-plasma-long-chain-n-3-fatty-acid-composition
#15
Helena L Fisk, Michael Irvine, Elizabeth A Miles, Georg Lietz, John C Mathers, Chris J Packard, Christopher K Armah, Bettina M Kofler, Peter J Curtis, Anne M Minihane, Philip C Calder
n-3 Fatty acids are associated with better cardiovascular and cognitive health. However, the concentration of EPA, DPA and DHA in different plasma lipid pools differs and factors influencing this heterogeneity are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate the association of oily fish intake, sex, age, BMI and APOE genotype with concentrations of EPA, DPA and DHA in plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC), NEFA, cholesteryl esters (CE) and TAG. Healthy adults (148 male, 158 female, age 20-71 years) were recruited according to APOE genotype, sex and age...
May 6, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725824/a-low-fat-spread-with-added-plant-sterols-and-fish-omega-3-fatty-acids-lowers-serum-triglyceride-and-ldl-cholesterol-concentrations-in-individuals-with-modest-hypercholesterolaemia-and-hypertriglyceridaemia
#16
Wendy A M Blom, Wieneke P Koppenol, Harry Hiemstra, Tatjana Stojakovic, Hubert Scharnagl, Elke A Trautwein
PURPOSE: The primary and secondary objectives were to investigate the triglyceride (TG) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering effects of a spread with added plant sterols (PS) and fish oil as compared to a placebo spread. METHODS: This study had a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design with two intervention arms. Following a 2-week placebo run-in period, 260 healthy individuals with modestly elevated blood TG (≥ 1.4 mmol/L) and LDL-C (≥ 3...
May 3, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722844/joint-effects-of-fatty-acid-desaturase-1-polymorphisms-and-dietary-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-intake-on-circulating-fatty-acid-proportions
#17
Juan Juan, Hongyan Huang, Xia Jiang, Andres V Ardisson Korat, Mingyang Song, Qi Sun, Walter C Willett, Majken K Jensen, Peter Kraft
Background: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are associated with a lower risk of multiple diseases. Fatty acid desaturase 1 gene (FADS1) polymorphisms and dietary PUFA intake are both established determinants of circulating PUFA proportions. Objective: We explored the joint effects of FADS1 polymorphisms and dietary PUFA intake on circulating PUFA proportions. Design: We studied 2288 participants from a nested case-control study of coronary artery disease among participants who provided blood samples in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721237/association-of-omega-3-fatty-acid-and-epileptic-seizure-in-epileptic-patients-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Makan Pourmasoumi, Nooshin Vosoughi, Seyedeh-Masoumeh Derakhshandeh-Rishehri, Mostafa Assarroudi, Motahar Heidari-Beni
The evidence on the association between omega-3 consumption and epileptic seizure is inconsistent. Therefore, we have conducted this systematic review to clarify the possible relationship. Original articles were searched in electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane, and Ovid) and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles. The main evaluated outcome was the epileptic seizures. We included the English language studies that reported the original data on the effect of omega-3 on epileptic human patients...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720078/genetic-effects-of-fatty-acid-composition-in-muscle-of-atlantic-salmon
#19
Siri S Horn, Bente Ruyter, Theo H E Meuwissen, Borghild Hillestad, Anna K Sonesson
BACKGROUND: The replacement of fish oil (FO) and fishmeal with plant ingredients in the diet of farmed Atlantic salmon has resulted in reduced levels of the health-promoting long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in their filets. Previous studies showed the potential of selective breeding to increase n-3 LC-PUFA levels in salmon tissues, but knowledge on the genetic parameters for individual muscle fatty acids (FA) and their relationships with other traits is still lacking...
May 2, 2018: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715470/omega-3-and-omega-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-dietary-sources-metabolism-and-significance-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Ramesh Kumar Saini, Young-Soo Keum
Linoleic acid (LA) (n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) (n-3) are essential fatty acids (EFAs) as they cannot be synthesized by humans or other higher animals. In the human body, these fatty acids (FAs) give rise to arachidonic acid (ARA, n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, n-3) that play key roles in regulating body homeostasis. Locally acting bioactive signaling lipids called eicosanoids derived from these FAs also regulate diverse homeostatic processes. In general, ARA gives rise to pro-inflammatory eicosanoids whereas EPA and DHA give rise to anti-inflammatory eicosanoids...
April 28, 2018: Life Sciences
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