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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156823/differential-activation-of-fyn-kinase-distinguishes-saturated-and-unsaturated-fats-in-mouse-macrophages
#1
Elena Tarabra, Ting-Wen An Lee, Victor A Zammit, Manu Vatish, Eijiro Yamada, Jeffrey E Pessin, Claire C Bastie
Diet-induced obesity is associated with increased adipose tissue activated macrophages. Yet, how macrophages integrate fatty acid (FA) signals remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that Fyn deficiency (fynKO) protects against high fat diet-induced adipose tissue macrophage accumulation. Herein, we show that inflammatory markers and reactive oxygen species are not induced in fynKO bone marrow-derived macrophages exposed to the saturated FA palmitate, suggesting that Fyn regulates macrophage function in response to FA signals...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156673/induction-of-dise-in-ovarian-cancer-cells-in-vivo
#2
Andrea E Murmann, Kaylin M McMahon, Ashley Haluck-Kangas, Nandini Ravindran, Monal Patel, Calvin Y Law, Sonia Brockway, Jian-Jun Wei, C Shad Thaxton, Marcus E Peter
The death receptor CD95/Fas can be activated by immune cells to kill cancer cells. shRNAs and siRNAs derived from CD95 or CD95 ligand (CD95L) are highly toxic to most cancer cells. We recently found that these sh/siRNAs kill cancer cells in the absence of the target by targeting the 3'UTRs of critical survival genes through canonical RNAi. We have named this unique form of off-target effect DISE (for death induced by survival gene elimination). DISE preferentially kills transformed cells and cancer stem cells...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156529/alpinetin-improved-high-fat-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-through-improving-oxidative-stress-inflammatory-response-and-lipid-metabolism
#3
Yong Zhou, Yin-Lu Ding, Jian-Liang Zhang, Peng Zhang, Jin-Qing Wang, Zhao-Hua Li
The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a serious medical problem and an increasing threat to public health. It is characterized by the abnormal fat accumulation in liver without excessive alcohol intake. The concurrent NAFLD might up-regulate the risk of chronic kidney disease as well as the mortality rate. Though various drugs have been investigated to attenuate NAFLD, further study is still necessary to find new therapeutic strategy and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanism. In the present study, NAFLD animal models were induced by feeding with high fat (HF) diet for 8 weeks...
November 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154271/does-fatty-acid-composition-in%C3%A2-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-differ-between-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-cohabiting-proxies
#4
Gerd Faxen-Irving, Farshad Falahati, Hans Basun, Maria Eriksdotter, Inger Vedin, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Marianne Schultzberg, Erik Hjorth, Jan Palmblad, Tommy Cederholm, Yvonne Freund-Levi
Low tissue levels of the major marine ω3 fatty acids (FAs) DHA and EPA are found in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated if healthy proxies to AD patients have higher levels of these ω3 FAs. We observed lower levels of EPA and DHA in subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies from 64 AD patients compared with 16 cognitively healthy proxies. No significant difference was observed when pairwise comparisons were made between a subset of 16 AD patients and their co-habiting proxies. Larger studies are needed to replicate these findings and to determine if they could depend on FA intake or differences in metabolism...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153612/amelioration-of-ongoing-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-with-fluoxetine
#5
Roopa Bhat, Sidharth Mahapatra, Robert C Axtell, Lawrence Steinman
In patients with multiple sclerosis, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, resulted in less acute disease activity. We tested the immune modulating effects of fluoxetine in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, i.e. experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We show that fluoxetine delayed the onset of disease and reduced clinical paralysis in mice with established disease. Fluoxetine had abrogating effects on proliferation of immune cells and inflammatory cytokine production by both antigen-presenting cells and T cells...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153556/fatty-acids-in-nephrotic-syndrome-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
REVIEW
Stefano Turolo, Alberto Edefonti, Marie Louise Syren, Franca Marangoni, William Morello, Carlo Agostoni, Giovanni Montini
The role of fatty acids (FAs) in inflammation and in the related chronic diseases has been demonstrated. However, there is a lack of consistent and agreed knowledge about the role of FA profile and renal physiology and pathology, most articles focusing on the effect of polyunsaturated FAs supplementation, without considering the impact of basal FA metabolism on the efficacy of the supplementation. Here, we have summarized the specific literature concerning the assessment of circulating FA in 2 renal diseases, namely nephrotic syndrome and chronic kidney disease, also under hemodialytic treatment, and have received the most significant contributions in the last years...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151987/a-review-on-the-modification-of-polysaccharide-through-graft-copolymerization-for-various-potential-applications
#7
Deepak Kumar, Jyoti Pandey, Vinit Raj, Pramendra Kumar
Introduction: Graft copolymerization is one of the most promising technique uses to modify the properties of naturally available polymers with a minimum loss in their native characteristics. Methods and Materials: Graft copolymerization is a very significant technique to add hybrid properties in backbone of polymers. The grafting generally initiated through the formation of free radical centers on the polymer backbone as well as monomer. Results: Grafted polysaccharides have various applications in different important scientific areas such as drug delivery, pharmaceutical field, plastic industry, waste water treatment, tannery effluent treatment, textile industry, agriculture area, etc...
2017: Open Medicinal Chemistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151986/pyrrolyl-pyrazoline-carbaldehydes-as-enoyl-acp-reductase-inhibitors-design-synthesis-and-antitubercular-activity
#8
Sheshagiri R Dixit, Shrinivas D Joshi, Venkatarao H Kulkarni, Sunil S Jalalpure, Vijay M Kumbar, Tulasigiriyappa Y Mudaraddi, Mallikarjuna N Nadagouda, Tejraj M Aminabhavi
Introduction: In efforts to develop new antitubercular (anti-TB) compounds, herein we describe cytotoxic evaluation of 15 newly synthesized pyrrolyl pyrazoline carbaldehydes. Method & Materials: Surflex-Docking method was used to study binding modes of the compounds at the active site of the enzyme enoyl ACP reductase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), which plays an important role in FAS-II biosynthetic pathway of M. tuberculosis and also it is an important target for designing novel anti-TB agents...
2017: Open Medicinal Chemistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148037/growth-performance-fatty-acid-composition-lipid-deposition-and-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-related-gene-expression-in-juvenile-pond-loach-misgurnus-anguillicaudatus-fed-diets-with-different-dietary-soybean-oil-levels
#9
Y Li, Z Jia, X Liang, D Matulic, M Hussein, J Gao
A 10 week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary soybean oil (SO) levels on growth performance, fatty-acid composition and lipid deposition in viscera, histology and histochemistry of liver, intestine and hepatic-lipid metabolism-related gene expressions in pond loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus juveniles. Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (mean ± s.d. mass 0·40 ± 0·01 g) were fed five experimental diets containing SO at different concentrations: 0, 20, 32, 56 and 100% SO and a diet containing 100% fish oil (100% FO)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147969/effect-of-dietary-phospholipid-levels-on-growth-lipid-metabolism-and-antioxidative-status-of-juvenile-hybrid-snakehead-channa-argus%C3%A3-channa-maculata
#10
Shi-Mei Lin, Fa-Jian Li, Bundit Yuangsoi, Sompong Doolgindachbaporn
The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary phospholipids (PLs) on growth, lipid metabolism, and antioxidative status of hybrid snakehead (Channa argus × Channa maculata). Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets with graded levels of PLs (8.5, 19.3, 30.7, 41.5, and 50.8 g kg(-1)) were fed to triplicate groups of juveniles (initial body weight 12.6 ± 0.23 g) for 8 weeks. Results showed that dietary PL supplementation significantly improved growth of juveniles. The final body weight (FBW) and specific growth rate (SGR) significantly increased with dietary PLs increasing from 8...
November 16, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147968/effects-of-fasting-on-the-activities-and-mrna-expression-levels-of-lipoprotein-lipase-lpl-hormone-sensitive-lipase-hsl-and-fatty-acid-synthetase-fas-in-spotted-seabass-lateolabrax-maculatus
#11
Hongli Huang, Yu Zhang, Mingyue Cao, Liangyi Xue, Weiliang Shen
To investigate the effects of fasting on lipid metabolism in spotted seabass muscle and liver tissues, we analyzed mRNA levels and enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS), and the relationship among fat content, mRNA level, and enzyme activity during fasting of 35 days. The results showed that expressions of all the three genes were ubiquitous. During the fasting experiment, the hepatosomatic index (HSI) and fat content of muscle and liver tissues significantly decreased before 5 days of fasting (P < 0...
November 16, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147485/the-effects-of-anti-fas-ribozyme-on-t-lymphocyte-apoptosis-in-mice-model-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
Song-Ming Zhuo, Si-Cong Li, Yong-Qun Lin, Hai-Bin Yu, Na Li
Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of anti-Fas ribozyme on the apoptosis of T lymphocytes (T cells) in mice model with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and Methods: Male 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice were used to establish the COPD model by exposure to cigarette smoke. The COPD mice were sacrificed for spleen dissection and T cell isolation. T cells were randomly divided into four groups (n=10 per group). Group A was used as the control...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146344/lipid-profiles-in-different-parts-of-two-species-of-scallops-chlamys-farreri-and-patinopecten-yessoensis
#13
Xiao-Pei Hu, Qing-Da An, Da-Yong Zhou, Ting Lu, Fa-Wen Yin, Liang Song, Qi Zhao, Jiang-Hua Zhang, Lei Qin, Bei-Wei Zhu, Fereidoon Shahidi
Different classes of lipids and phospholipids (PL) as well as fatty acid (FA) compositions, and glycerophospholipid (GP) molecular species in edible parts (adductor muscles) and by-products (gonads and mantles) of scallops Patinopecten yessoensis and Chlamys farreri were characterized. The lipids contained high levels of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) (20.44-58.81% of total FAs) and PL (54.99-78.26% of total lipids). Among PL, phosphatidylcholine (41.39-51.86 mol%) was dominant. More than 230 GP species belonging to glycerophosphocholine, glycerophosphoethanolamine, glycerophosphoserine, glycerophosphoinositol, lysoglycerophosphocholine, lysoglycerophosphoethanolamine and lysoglycerophosphoinositol were characterized...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144200/mechanisms-underlying-melatonin-mediated-prevention-of-fenvalerate-induced-behavioral-and-oxidative-toxicity-in-zebrafish
#14
Jingjing Han, Cheng Ji, Yichen Guo, Rui Yan, Ting Hong, Yuanyan Dou, Yan An, Shasha Tao, Fenju Qin, Jihua Nie, Chen Ji, Han Wang, Jian Tong, Wei Xiao, Jie Zhang
The neurotoxic effects attributed to the pesticide fenvalerate (FEN) are well-established. The aim of this study was to determine whether melatonin (MLT) was able to protect against FEN-induced behavior, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and neurogenesis using zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. Zebrafish exposed to 100 μg/L FEN for 120 h exhibited decreased swimming activity accompanied by downregulated expression of neurogenesis-related genes (Dlx2, Shha, Ngn1, Elavl3, and Gfap), suggesting that neurogenesis were impaired...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142404/chalepin-a-compound-from-ruta-angustifolia-l-pers-exhibits-cell-cycle-arrest-at-s-phase-suppresses-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-signal-transducer-and-activation-of-transcription-3-stat3-phosphorylation-and-extrinsic-apoptotic-pathway-in-non-small-cell
#15
Jaime Stella Moses Richardson, Norhaniza Aminudin, Sri Nurestri Abd Malek
Background: Plants have been a major source of inspiration in developing novel drug compounds in the treatment of various diseases that afflict human beings worldwide. Ruta angustifolia L. Pers known locally as Garuda has been conventionally used for various medicinal purposes such as in the treatment of cancer. Objective: A dihydrofuranocoumarin named chalepin, which was isolated from the chloroform extract of the plant, was tested on its ability to inhibit molecular pathways of human lung carcinoma (A549) cells...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142275/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-protects-nkt-cells-from-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-1-induced-death
#16
Amrendra Kumar, Laura E Gordy, Jelena S Bezbradica, Aleksandar K Stanic, Timothy M Hill, Mark R Boothby, Luc Van Kaer, Sebastian Joyce
Semi-invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes with immunoregulatory properties. NKT cell survival during development requires signal processing by activated RelA/NF-κB. Nonetheless, the upstream signal(s) integrated by NF-κB in developing NKT cells remains incompletely defined. We show that the introgression of Bcl-xL-coding Bcl2l1 transgene into NF-κB signalling-deficient IκBΔN transgenic mouse rescues NKT cell development and differentiation in this mouse model. We reasoned that NF-κB activation was protecting developing NKT cells from death signals emanating either from high affinity agonist recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR) or from a death receptor, such as tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) or Fas...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141135/the-fatty-acid-composition-of-lamb-liver-muscle-and-adipose-tissues-in-response-to-rumen-protected-conjugated-linoleic-acid-cla-supplementation-is-tissue-dependent
#17
Stefano Schiavon, Matteo Bergamaschi, Erika Pellattiero, Alberto Simonetto, Franco Tagliapietra
The tissue-specific response to rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid supply (rpCLA) of liver, two muscles and three adipose tissues of heavy lambs was studied. Twenty-four lambs, 8 months old, divided into 4 groups of 6, were fed at libitum on a ration supplemented without or with a mixture of rpCLA. Silica and hydrogenated soybean oil was the rpCLA coating matrix. The lambs were slaughtered at 11 months of age. Tissues were collected and analysed for their FA profiles. The dietary rpCLA supplement had no influence on carcass fatness nor on the fat content of the liver and tissues, and had little influence on the FA profiles of these tissues...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140541/regulatory-t-cells-in-acute-dengue-viral-infection
#18
Eresha Jayaratne, Dulharie Wijeratne, Samitha Fernando, Achala Kamaladasa, Laksiri Gomes, Ananda Wijewickrama, Graham Stuart Ogg, Gathsaurie Neelika Malavige
Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to be expanded in acute dengue, their role in pathogenesis and their relationship to clinical disease severity, and extent of viraemia have not been fully evaluated. The frequency of Tregs was assessed in 56 adult patients with acute dengue, by determining the proportion of FOXP3 expressing CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells (FOXP3+ cells). DENV viral loads were measured by quantitative real time PCR and DENV specific T cell responses were measured by ex vivo IFNγ ELISpot assays to overlapping peptide pools of DENV-NS3, NS1 and NS5...
November 15, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140130/the-effects-of-hydrogen-peroxide-and-lipopolysaccharide-on-rat-alveolar-l2-cells
#19
Eun Kyeong Kang, Han Suk Kim
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate differential cell responses of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) after treatments with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to mimic the exposure to inflammation and oxidative stress and the mechanisms of a double-hit model of apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AECs were cultured and treated with combinations of 1 μg/mL of LPS and 500 μM H2O2 as follows: LPS-only at 0 h, LPS at 0 h with H2O2 at 6 h (LPS + H2O2), H2O2-only at 0 h, H2O2 at 0 h with LPS at 6 h (H2O2 + LPS), and control...
October 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139300/development-and-preliminary-evidence-of-the-psychometric-properties-of-the-gne-myopathy-functional-activity-scale
#20
Jill Mayhew, Nicola Bonner, Rob Arbuckle, Alice Turnbull, Alexandra Bowden, Alison Skrinar
AIM: GNE myopathy, a rare, severe, progressive myopathy, presents with lower extremity distal muscle weakness. The GNE myopathy functional activity scale (GNEM-FAS) evaluates the impact of GNE myopathy on functioning in adults. This paper presents the psychometric validation of the GNEM-FAS. PATIENTS & METHODS: Validation of the GNEM-FAS was performed using data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase-II study (n = 46). RESULTS: Domain score distributions were acceptable...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
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