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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806138/lipid-droplets-and-lipotoxicity-during-autophagy
#1
Truc B Nguyen, James A Olzmann
Lipid droplets (LDs) are neutral lipid storage organelles that provide a rapidly accessible source of fatty acids (FAs) for energy during periods of nutrient deprivation. Surprisingly, lipids released by the macroautophagic/autophagic breakdown of membranous organelles are packaged and stored in new LDs during periods of prolonged starvation. Why cells would store FAs during an energy crisis was unknown. In our recent study, we demonstrated that FAs released during MTORC1-regulated autophagy are selectively channeled by DGAT1 (diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1) into triacylglycerol (TAG)-rich LDs...
August 14, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804986/effects-of-hydroxycitric-acid-on-lipid-droplet-accumulation-in-chicken-embryos
#2
Mengling Peng, Longlong Li, Lei Yu, Chongyang Ge, Haitian Ma
This study was conducted to determine the impact of (-)-hydroxycitric acid ((-)-HCA) on biochemical indices and lipid metabolism parameters in chicken embryos. Two hundred and forty fertilized eggs were divided into six groups and injected with (-)-HCA at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 10.0 and 50 mg/kg (n = 40). After 19 days of incubation, serum and liver were collected for analysis of biochemical indices and lipid metabolism parameters. Results showed no significant differences on serum biochemical indices: 1-50 mg/kg (-)-HCA significantly increased serum glucose and hepatic glycogen contents (P < 0...
August 14, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803653/effect-of-dietary-intake-of-saturated-fatty-acids-on-the-development-of-atrial-fibrillation-and-the-effect-of-replacement-of-saturated-with-monounsaturated-and-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids
#3
Pia Thisted Dinesen, Albert Marni Joensen, Thomas Andersen Rix, Anne Tjønneland, Erik Berg Schmidt, Søren Lundbye-Christensen, Kim Overvad
The aim of the present study was to explore substitution of intake of saturated fatty acids (FAs) with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs and incident atrial fibrillation (AF) in men and women. A total of 57,053 Danish participants aged 50 to 64 years were enrolled in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study in 1993 to 1997 and completed a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Follow-up was registry-based and data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. The statistical model was formulated in such a way that 1 g/day of saturated FAs was replaced with 1 g/day of monounsaturated or polyunsaturated FAs while keeping total fat intake, total energy intake, and energy intake from protein and carbohydrates constant...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801592/dietary-arginine-affects-the-insulin-signaling-pathway-glucose-metabolism-and-lipogenesis-in-juvenile-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala
#4
Hualiang Liang, Habte-Michael Habte-Tsion, Xianping Ge, Mingchun Ren, Jun Xie, Linghong Miao, Qunlan Zhou, Yan Lin, Wenjing Pan
This study evaluated the mechanisms governing insulin resistance, glucose metabolism and lipogenesis in juvenile fish fed with graded levels of dietary arginine. The results showed that, compared with the control group (0.87%), 2.31% dietary arginine level resulted in the upregulation of the relative gene expression of IRS-1, PI3K and Akt in the insulin signaling pathway, while 2.70% dietary arginine level led to inhibition of these genes. 1.62% dietary arginine level upregulated glycolysis by increasing GK mRNA level; 2...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801525/exercise-of-obese-mice-induces-cardioprotection-and-oxygen-sparing-in-hearts-exposed-to-high-fat-load
#5
Neoma T Boardman, Anne Dragøy Hafstad, Jim Lund, Line Rossvoll, Ellen Aasum
Exercise training is a potent, therapeutic approach in obesity and diabetes that exerts protective effects against development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and ischemic-injury. Acute increases in circulating fatty acids (FAs) during an ischemic insult can challenge the heart, as high FA-load is considered to have adverse cardiac effects. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that exercise-induced cardiac effects in diet-induced obese mice are abrogated by an acute high FA-load. Diet-induced obese mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798736/escherichia-coli-o157-h7-acid-sensitivity-correlates-with-flocculation-phenotype-during-nutrient-limitation
#6
Kathryn L Kay, Frederick Breidt, Pina M Fratamico, Gian M Baranzoni, Gwang-Hee Kim, Amy M Grunden, Deog-Hwan Oh
Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains vary in acid resistance; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that result in strain specific differences. Among 25 STEC O157:H7 strains tested, 7 strains flocculated when grown statically for 18 h in minimal salts medium at 37°C, while 18 strains did not. Interestingly, the flocculation phenotype (cells came out of suspension) was found to correlate with degree of acid sensitivity in an assay with 400 mM acetic acid solution at pH 3...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798348/fas-ligand-mediated-cytotoxicity-of-cd4-t-cells-during-chronic-retrovirus-infection
#7
Anna Malyshkina, Elisabeth Littwitz-Salomon, Kathrin Sutter, Gennadiy Zelinskyy, Sonja Windmann, Simone Schimmer, Annette Paschen, Hendrik Streeck, Kim J Hasenkrug, Ulf Dittmer
CD4+ helper T cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells are key players for adaptive immune responses against acute infections with retroviruses. Similar to textbook knowledge the most important function of CD4+ T cells during an acute retrovirus infection seems to be their helper function for other immune cells. Whereas there was no direct anti-viral activity of CD4+ T cells during acute Friend Virus (FV) infection, they were absolutely required for the control of chronic infection. During chronic FV infection a population of activated FV-specific CD4+ T cells did not express cytotoxic molecules, but Fas Ligand that can induce Fas-induced apoptosis in target cells...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798154/a-novel-synthetic-analogue-of-%C3%AF-3-17-18-epoxy-eicosatetraenoic-acid-activates-tnf-receptor-1-ask1-jnk-signaling-to-promote-apoptosis-in-human-breast-cancer-cells
#8
Herryawan Ryadi Eziwar Dyari, Tristan Rawling, Yongjuan Chen, William Sudarmana, Kirsi Bourget, Julie M Dwyer, Sarah E Allison, Michael Murray
A saturated analog of the cytochrome P450-mediated ω-3-17,18-epoxide of ω-3-eicosapentaenoic acid (C20E) activated apoptosis in human triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. This study evaluated the apoptotic mechanism of C20E. Increased cytosolic cytochrome c expression and altered expression of pro- and antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 proteins indicated activation of the mitochondrial pathway. Caspase-3 activation by C20E was prevented by pharmacological inhibition and silencing of the JNK and p38 MAP kinases (MAPK), upstream MAPK kinases MKK4 and MKK7, and the upstream MAPK kinase kinase apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)...
August 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796938/effect-of-intrapancreatic-fat-on-diabetes-outcomes-after-total-pancreatectomy-with-islet-autotransplantation
#9
Muhammed Kizilgul, Joshua J Wilhelm, Gregory J Beilman, Srinath Chinnakotla, Ty B Dunn, Timothy L Pruett, Muhamad Abdulla, David Heller, Martin L Freeman, Sarah J Schwarzenberg, Bernhard J Hering, Melena D Bellin
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic fat might adversely affect beta-cell mass and function, possibly via the local release of non-esterified fatty acids (NE-FAs) and pro-inflammatory and vasoactive factors released by adipose tissue, however, the impact of intrapancreatic fat has never been studied in patients with pancreatitis undergoing total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT). We aimed to test whether pancreatic fatty infiltration has a negative effect on metabolic outcomes following TPIAT METHODS: We studied the association between pancreatic fatty infiltration and diabetes outcomes in 79 patients undergoing TPIAT with low (LPF; n = 53) or high (HPF; n = 26) pancreatic fat content...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796044/clinical-significance-of-costimulatory-molecules-cd40-cd40l-and-cd134-cd134l-in-coronary-heart-disease-a-case-control-study
#10
Jun Chen, Jian-Hao Li, Shan-Jun Zhao, Da-Yu Wang, Wen-Zhu Zhang, Wei-Jie Liang
The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential role of CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40L) and CD134/CD134 ligand (CD134L) in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) via the performance of a case-control study.The research objects were 234 cases of CHD patients and 120 cases of well-matched normal controls. Following the separation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry were applied for the detection of mRNA levels and expression levels of CD40/CD40L and CD134/CD134L; meanwhile, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and Fas protein mRNA levels were detected using qRT-PCR...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793994/dietary-fatty-acid-intake-after-myocardial-infarction-a-theoretical-substitution-analysis-of-the-alpha-omega-cohort
#11
Famke Jm Mölenberg, Janette de Goede, Anne J Wanders, Peter L Zock, Daan Kromhout, Johanna M Geleijnse
Background: Replacement of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has been associated with a lower risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Whether this replacement is beneficial for drug-treated patients with cardiac disease is not yet clear.Objective: In a prospective study of Dutch patients with cardiac disease (Alpha Omega Cohort), we examined the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and IHD mortality when the sum of SFAs and trans fatty acids (TFAs) was theoretically replaced by total UFAs, PUFAs, or cis monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793767/ginsenoside-20-s-rh2-induces-apoptosis-and-differentiation-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells-role-of-orphan-nuclear-receptor-nur77
#12
Chengqiang Wang, Hui He, Guojun Dou, Juan Li, Xiaomei Zhang, Mingdong Jiang, Pan Li, Xiaobo Huang, Hongxi Chen, Li Li, da-Jian Yang, Hongyi Qi
Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rh2 has been shown to induce apoptosis and differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In our study, 20(S)-Rh2 induced the expression of orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 and death receptor proteins Fas, FasL, DR5 and TRAIL, as well as the cleavage of caspase 8 and caspase 3 in HL-60 cells. Importantly, shNur77 attenuated 20(S)-Rh2-induced apoptosis and Fas and DR5 expression. Meanwhile, 20(S)-Rh2 promoted Nur77 translocation from nucleus to mitochondria and enhanced the interaction between Nur77 and Bcl-2, resulting in the exposure of BH3 domain of Bcl-2 and activation of Bax...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792446/the-prevalence-of-fetal-alcohol-syndrome-and-its-impact-on-a-child-s-classroom-performance-a-case-study-of-a-rural-south-african-school
#13
Melissa Lubbe, Corné van Walbeek, Nicole Vellios
Alcohol consumption is high among farm labourers in the Western and Northern Cape of South Africa. Excessive alcohol consumption during pregnancy is common, resulting in a high prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) among children. FAS causes intellectual and behavioural problems, which create considerable obstacles to a child's education. The aim of this study is to provide a prevalence estimate of FAS in a rural school and to examine the effects of FAS on learners' educational outcomes. The study was conducted at a farm school near Clanwilliam in the Western Cape of South Africa...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790533/differential-expression-of-glycolysis-related-proteins-in-follicular-neoplasms-versus-h%C3%A3-rthle-cell-neoplasms-a-retrospective-analysis
#14
Hye Min Kim, Ja Seung Koo
PURPOSE: Although currently classified as variants of follicular neoplasms (FNs), Hürthle cell neoplasms (HCNs) exhibit distinct biological characteristics. Hence, the metabolism of both neoplasms may also be different. The aims of this study were to investigate and compare the expression of glycolysis-related proteins in HCNs and FNs and to determine the clinical implications of such expression. METHODS: Tissue microarrays were constructed with 265 samples of FNs (112 follicular carcinomas (FCs) and 153 follicular adenomas (FAs)) as well as 108 samples of HCNs (27 Hürthle cell carcinomas (HCCs) and 81 Hürthle cell adenomas (HCAs))...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789977/ablation-of-systemic-sirt1-activity-promotes-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-affecting-liver-mesenteric-adipose-tissue-fatty-acid-mobilization
#15
Junrui Cheng, Chun Liu, Kangquan Hu, Andrew Greenberg, Dayong Wu, Lynne M Ausman, Michael W McBurney, Xiang-Dong Wang
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has been reported to protect against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. The mechanism of how SIRT1 deacetylase activity affects NAFLD has not been well investigated. The current investigation addressed the causal effect of systemic SIRT1 activity on NAFLD development and the underlying mechanism involved in both liver and mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT). Both SIRT1 homozygous mice ablated the catalytic activity (sirt1(Y/Y)) and their corresponding wild type littermates (WT) were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 60% calories from fat) for 34weeks...
August 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789700/two-different-protein-expression-profiles-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-analyzed-by-immunoprecipitation-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#16
Soung Min Kim, Dasul Jeong, Min Keun Kim, Sang Shin Lee, Suk Keun Lee
BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most dangerous cancers in the body, producing serious complications with individual behaviors. Many different pathogenetic factors are involved in the carcinogenesis of OSCC. Cancer cells derived from oral keratinocytes can produce different carcinogenic signaling pathways through differences in protein expression, but their protein expression profiles cannot be easily explored with ordinary detection methods. METHODS: The present study compared the protein expression profiles between two different types of OSCCs, which were analyzed through immunoprecipitation high-performance liquid chromatography (IP-HPLC)...
August 8, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777980/fatty-acid-profiling-and-multivariate-analysis-in-the-genus-leucas-reveals-its-nutritional-pharmaceutical-and-chemotaxonomic-significance
#17
Ashish Kumar Choudhary, P Sunojkumar, Girish Mishra
Genus Leucas with about 41 species found in India, is an Asian genus with separation from its close relatives in Africa based on phylogenetic evidence. Present study represents the only comprehensive phytochemical investigation on this genus. We have analyzed the seed fatty acid compositions of 26 species and five varieties of Leucas for nutritional, pharmaceutical and chemotaxonomic perspectives. The fatty acids and their composition in seeds of Leucas species, collected from different geographical regions in India, were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry...
August 1, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776430/the-effects-of-conducting-a-functional-analysis-on-problem-behavior-in-other-settings-a-descriptive-study-on-potential-interaction-effects
#18
Nathan A Call, Andrea R Reavis, Seth B Clark, Natalie A Parks, Tom Cariveau, Colin S Muething
It has been suggested that reinforcing problem behavior during functional analyses (FAs) may raise ethical questions, such as resulting in an increase in problem behavior outside of FA sessions. The current translational study assessed whether conducting an FA resulted in increases in problem behavior outside of the FA setting for six participants using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design. The rate of problem behavior was measured outside the FA setting prior to and during an FA. Idiosyncratic results suggest that problem behavior outside of the FA setting may increase, decrease, or be unaffected by conducting an FA...
September 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774817/euphorbia-factor-l1-inhibits-osteoclastogenesis-by-regulating-cellular-redox-status-and-induces-fas-mediated-apoptosis-in-osteoclast
#19
Seong-Eun Hong, Jiae Lee, Dong-Hyun Seo, Hye In Lee, Doo Ri Park, Gong-Rak Lee, You-Jin Jo, Narae Kim, Minjung Kwon, Hansem Shon, Eun Kyoung Seo, Han-Sung Kim, Soo Young Lee, Woojin Jeong
Excessive bone resorption caused by increased osteoclast number or activity leads to a variety of bone diseases including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. Thus, the therapeutic strategy for these diseases has been focused primarily on the inhibition of osteoclast formation and function. This study shows that euphorbia factor L1 (EFL1), a diterpenoid isolated from Euphorbia lathyris, inhibited osteoclastogenesis and induced osteoclast apoptosis. EFL1 suppressed osteoclast formation and bone resorption at both initial and terminal differentiation stages...
July 31, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771824/down-regulation-of-lncrna-neat1-alleviated-the-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-via-mtor-s6k1-signaling-pathway
#20
Xiang Wang
BACKGROUND: Without effective medical interventions for complete reverse of NAFLD, it needs to urgently explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to offer a novel therapeutic strategy for people suffering from NAFLD. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used to establish the NAFLD animal model. Lipofectamine 2000 was used to silence or over-express NEAT1. The expression of NEAT1 and the mRNA levels of ACC and FAS were determined by qRT-PCR...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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