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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159902/histamine-enhanced-contractile-responses-of-gastric-smooth-muscle-via-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-syrian-hamster
#1
S Naganuma, T Shiina, S Yasuda, Y Suzuki, Y Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Gastric motility is controlled by the autonomic and enteric nervous systems and by interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). Although histamine is known to be released from enterochromaffin-like cells in the gastric mucosa, its regulatory roles in gastric motility are still controversial. Therefore, we investigated the functional roles of histamine in gastric motility. METHODS: Stomach preparations from hamsters were used because the stomach of hamsters can be easily separated into the forestomach and the glandular stomach...
November 21, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157304/a-novel-vector-for-transgenesis-in-the-rat-cns
#2
T Peter Lopez, Kurt Giles, Brittany N Dugger, Abby Oehler, Carlo Condello, Zuzana Krejciova, Julian A Castaneda, George A Carlson, Stanley B Prusiner
The larger brain of the rat enables a much greater repertoire of complex behaviors than mice, likely making rats preferential for investigating neurodegeneration. Because molecular tools for specific expression of transgenes in the rat brain are sparse, we chose Prnp encoding the prion protein (PrP) to develop a novel vector to drive transgene expression in the rat brain. We compared the rat Prnp sequence with mouse and Syrian hamster Prnp sequences, identifying conserved genetic elements and hypothesizing that these elements would be able to drive neuronal transgene expression...
November 21, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155143/obeticholic-acid-raises-ldl-cholesterol-and-reduces-hdl-cholesterol-in-the-diet-induced-nash-din-hamster-model
#3
François Briand, Emmanuel Brousseau, Marjolaine Quinsat, Rémy Burcelin, Thierry Sulpice
The use of rat and mouse models limits the translation to humans for developing novel drugs targeting nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Obeticholic acid (OCA) illustrates this limitation since its dyslipidemic effect in humans cannot be observed in these rodents. Conversely, Golden Syrian hamsters have a lipoprotein metabolism mimicking human dyslipidemia since it does express the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). We therefore developed a Diet-induced NASH (DIN) hamster model and evaluated the impact of OCA...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153558/novel-indole-and-triazole-based-hybrid-molecules-exhibit-potent-anti-adipogenic-and-antidyslipidemic-activity-by-activating-wnt3a-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#4
Sujith Rajan, Surendra Puri, Durgesh Kumar, Madala Hari Babu, Kripa Shankar, Salil Varshney, Ankita Srivastava, Abhishek Gupta, M Sridhar Reddy, Anil N Gaikwad
Obesity and dyslipidemia is the two facet of metabolic syndrome, which needs further attention. Recent studies indicate triazole and indole derivatives have remarkable anti-obesity/antidyslipidemic activity. To harness the above-mentioned potential, a series of novel triazole clubbed indole derivatives were prepared using click chemistry and evaluated for anti-adipogenic activity. Based on the structure-activity relationship, essential functional groups which potentiate anti-adipogenic activity were identified...
October 16, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146926/correlations-and-forecast-of-death-tolls-in-the-syrian-conflict
#5
Kazuki Fujita, Shigeru Shinomoto, Luis E C Rocha
The Syrian armed conflict has been ongoing since 2011 and has already caused thousands of deaths. The analysis of death tolls helps to understand the dynamics of the conflict and to better allocate resources and aid to the affected areas. In this article, we use information on the daily number of deaths to study temporal and spatial correlations in the data, and exploit this information to forecast events of deaths. We found that the number of violent deaths per day in Syria varies more widely than that in England in which non-violent deaths dominate...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137466/evaluation-of-extremity-injuries-presented-to-emergency-department
#6
Ali Karakus, Guven Kuvandik, Ezgi Atalay
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to review cases with firearms injury of extremities presented to our hospital. METHODS: After approval by Institutional Board, electronic database was retrospectively screened for firearms injury of extremities between 2012 and 2015. Overall, 600 cases with firearms injury of extremities were included in the study. Cases were assessed for demographic and clinical characteristics, Mangled extremity severity score (MESS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), costs and outcomes...
October 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133542/dermal-leishmaniasis-in-a-25-year-old-syrian-refugee
#7
Scott Bradshaw, Ivan V Litvinov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132642/validity-of-arabic-version-of-the-two-question-quick-inventory-of-depression-qid-2-ar-screening-for-multiple-sclerosis-in-an-arab-environment-and-during-the-syrian-war
#8
A Kubitary, M A Alsaleh
PURPOSE: This study aimed to validate the Arabic version of the two-question Quick Inventory of Depression (QID-2-Ar) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients living in Syria during the war. METHODS: A total of 100 Syrian MS patients, aged 18-60 years, were recruited at Damascus Hospital and Ibn Al-Nafees Hospital to validate the QID-2-Ar, including analyses of its screening test parameters and its construct validity. RESULTS: The QID-2-Ar screening parameters for depression tested very positively, and its construct validity was also favorable (P<0...
November 10, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132049/male-syrian-hamsters-are-more-susceptible-to-intravenous-infection-with-species-c-human-adenoviruses-than-are-females
#9
Baoling Ying, Jacqueline F Spencer, Ann E Tollefson, William S M Wold, Karoly Toth
Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the influence of sex on the course of infectious diseases. Thus far, the best-documented examples point toward an immune-mediated mechanism: the generally stronger immune response in females can result in a faster clearance of the pathogen or, conversely, a more severe immune-mediated pathology. Here, we report that human species C adenoviruses replicate more and cause more pathology in male Syrian hamsters than in females. We also show that this sex disparity is not caused by a stronger immune response to the infection by the female hamsters...
November 10, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126812/infectious-disease-risks-among-refugees-from-north-korea
#10
Hiroshi Nishiura, Hyojung Lee, Baoyin Yuan, Akira Endo, Andrei R Akhmetzhanov, Gerardo Chowell
OBJECTIVES: Disease characteristics of North Korea including severe malnutrition and infectious disease risks have not been openly and widely analyzed. The present study aimed to estimate infectious disease risks among refugees from North Korea. METHODS: To statistically estimate risks of infectious diseases among North Korean, literature review of clinical studies among North Korean defectors was conducted. RESULTS: A total of six groups of data from five publications were identified from 2004 to 2014...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125076/-a-14-year-old-syrian-refugee-with-neurobrucellosis
#11
M S W Quaak, H H J Bavelaar, J Berkhout, G J Tuin, E M Bijker
BACKGROUND: Neurobrucellosis is a rare complication of brucellosis, a bacterial zoonotic disease endemic in regions such as the Middle East. It is important to be alert for this imported disease in the Netherlands as well, especially among migrants. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 14-year-old boy from Syria presented with headache, vomiting and weight loss. Brucella melitensis was identified in the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient's condition deteriorated despite antibiotic treatment, particularly neurologically, and imaging revealed a newly developed hydrocephalus...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123084/re-designing-interleukin-12-to-enhance-its-safety-and-potential-as-an-anti-tumor-immunotherapeutic-agent
#12
Pengju Wang, Xiaozhu Li, Jiwei Wang, Dongling Gao, Yuenan Li, Haoze Li, Yongchao Chu, Zhongxian Zhang, Hongtao Liu, Guozhong Jiang, Zhenguo Cheng, Shengdian Wang, Jianzeng Dong, Baisui Feng, Louisa S Chard, Nicholas R Lemoine, Yaohe Wang
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) has emerged as one of the most potent agents for anti-tumor immunotherapy. However, potentially lethal toxicity associated with systemic administration of IL-12 precludes its clinical application. Here we redesign the molecule in such a way that its anti-tumor efficacy is not compromised, but toxic effects are eliminated. Deletion of the N-terminal signal peptide of IL-12 can effect such a change by preventing IL-12 secretion from cells. We use a newly designed tumor-targeted oncolytic adenovirus (Ad-TD) to deliver non-secreting (ns) IL-12 to tumor cells and examine the therapeutic and toxic effects in Syrian hamster models of pancreatic cancer (PaCa)...
November 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122387/protection-against-schistosoma-haematobium-infection-in-hamsters-by-immunization-with-schistosoma-mansoni-gut-derived-cysteine-peptidases-smcb1-and-smcl3
#13
Hatem Tallima, Marwa Abou El Dahab, Sahira Kareem, John Pius Dalton, Rashika El Ridi
We examined the immunogenicity and protective potential of SmCB1 and SmCL3 cysteine peptidases, alone and in combination, in hamsters challenged with S. haematobium. For each of two independent experiments, eight Syrian hamsters were immunized twice with a three week-interval with 0 (controls), 20 µg SmCB1, 20 µg SmCL3, or 10 µg SmCB1 plus 10 µg SmCL3, and then percutaneously exposed eight weeks later to 100 S. haematobium cercariae. Hamsters from each group were assessed for humoral and whole blood culture cytokine responses on day 10 post challenge infection, and examined for parasitological parameters 12 weeks post infection...
November 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121218/the-syrian-vulnerable-person-resettlement-programme-evaluation-of-edinburgh-s-reception-arrangements
#14
Katherine E A Weir, Sheila J Wilson, Dermot R Gorman
Background: During 2015 and 2016 a group of Syrian refugees were resettled in Edinburgh, Scotland under the United Kingdom Government Syrian Vulnerable Person Resettlement Programme. We evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the settling in arrangements for these refugees. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five Arabic interpreters who had worked extensively with these refugees. Interviews sought their impressions about what went well or was not successful...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120295/perspectives-of-displaced-syrian-women-and-service-providers-on-fertility-behaviour-and-available-services-in-west-bekaa-lebanon
#15
Tamar Kabakian-Khasholian, Rima Mourtada, Hyam Bashour, Faysal El Kak, Huda Zurayk
Prior to the conflict, Syria had relatively high fertility rates. In 2010, it had the sixth highest total fertility rate in the Arab World, but it witnessed a fertility decline before the conflict in 2011. Displacement during conflict influences fertility behaviour, and meeting the contraceptive needs of displaced populations is complex. This study explored the perspectives of women and service providers about fertility behaviour of and service provision to Syrian refugee women in Bekaa, Lebanon. We used qualitative methodology to conduct 12 focus group discussions with Syrian refugee women grouped in different age categories and 13 in-depth interviews with care providers from the same region...
October 2017: Reproductive Health Matters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120292/survival-and-negotiation-narratives-of-severe-near-miss-neonatal-complications-of-syrian-women-in-lebanon
#16
Livia Wick
The World Health Organization has elaborated a maternal and neonatal near-miss reporting, audit and feedback system designed to improve the quality of care during and after childbirth. As part of a four-hospital comparative study in the Middle East, this article discusses the experiences of mothers whose newborns suffered from severe complications at birth in the Rafik Hariri University Hospital, the only public hospital in Beirut. Based on in-depth home interviews several weeks after childbirth, it aims to explore the experience of neonatal near-miss events through the mothers' birth narratives...
October 2017: Reproductive Health Matters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120291/how-they-see-it-young-women-s-views-on-early-marriage-in-a-post-conflict-setting
#17
Sonya Em Knox
Current understandings of early marriage in conflict and post-conflict settings are incomplete and under-researched, and do not sufficiently take into consideration the views and experiences of adolescent girls. While much of the literature, development reports and mainstream media emphasise the poverty, health risks and lack of agency of young women married early, they seldom provide these teenagers an open platform from which to speak. In 2007, a Palestinian refugee camp in North Lebanon was destroyed and its residents forced to flee...
October 2017: Reproductive Health Matters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120285/women-s-satisfaction-and-perception-of-control-in-childbirth-in-three-arab-countries
#18
Tamar Kabakian-Khasholian, Hyam Bashour, Amina El-Nemer, Mayada Kharouf, Salah Sheikha, Nasser El Lakany, Rafik Barakat, Ohoud Elsheikh, Nadia Nameh, Rabih Chahine, Anayda Portela
Women's satisfaction and perceived control in childbirth are important attributes of the childbirth experience and quality of care indicators. This article presents findings from the pre-intervention phase of a multi-centre implementation study in Egypt, Lebanon and Syria, to introduce a labour companionship model in these countries. A sample of 2620 women giving birth in three public teaching hospitals from November 2014 to July 2015 in Beirut and Mansoura, and from November 2014 to April 2015 in Damascus were interviewed by trained field workers...
October 2017: Reproductive Health Matters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119087/a-new-primary-health-care-system-in-the-syrian-opposition-territories-good-effort-but-far-from-being-perfect
#19
Tarek Alsaied, Abdullah Mawas, Fatima Al Sayah, Abdulrazzak Kental, Maher Saqqur
Objectives: The primary health-care system in Syria has suffered a great deal of damage over the past 6 years. A large number of physicians and health-care providers have left the country. The objectives of this study are to describe our experience in establishing a primary health-care system in the opposition territories (OTs) in Syria and report the most common treated diseases. Methods: The administrative databases of ten primary care centers in the OT from January 2014 to December 2015 were reviewed...
October 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119085/pediatric-care-during-a-short-term-medical-mission-to-a-syrian-refugee-camp-in-northern-jordan
#20
Kenneth L Abbott, Catherine A Woods, Dahlia A Halim, Henna A Qureshi
Introduction: The Syrian refugee crisis, now in its 6(th) year, has displaced millions. Refugees depend on support from host nation governments and humanitarian organizations like the Syrian American Medical Society (SAMS). We describe the delivery of pediatric care during a SAMS short-term medical mission to a refugee camp in Northern Jordan. Methods: The medical mission team encompassed dozens of specialties. Teams visited many sites, including the Zaatari refugee camp near the Syrian border...
October 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medicine
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