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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222637/genotyping-leishmania-promastigotes-isolated-from-patients-with-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-south-eastern-turkey
#1
Fahriye Ekşi, Orhan Özgöztaşı, Tekin Karslıgil, Mustafa Sağlam
Objective Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a significant disease in south-eastern Anatolia because it is prevalent among Syrian refugees. We identified the causative Leishmania species in CL patients using molecular methods. Methods Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle medium was inoculated with aspirated fluid from suspected CL lesions and tested for amastigotes with Giemsa staining. PCR amplified the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of the Leishmania genome in cultures containing Leishmania promastigotes from 100 patients, which were genotyped with a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis...
February 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218713/transgene-expression-and-host-cell-responses-to-replication-defective-single-cycle-and-replication-competent-adenovirus-vectors
#2
Catherine M Crosby, Michael A Barry
Most adenovirus (Ad) vectors are E1 gene deleted replication defective (RD-Ad) vectors that deliver one transgene to the cell and all expression is based on that one gene. In contrast, E1-intact replication-competent Ad (RC-Ad) vectors replicate their DNA and their transgenes up to 10,000-fold, amplifying transgene expression markedly higher than RD-Ad vectors. While RC-Ad are more potent, they run the real risk of causing adenovirus infections in vector recipients and those that administer them. To gain the benefits of transgene amplification, but avoid the risk of Ad infections, we developed "single cycle" Ad (SC-Ad) vectors...
February 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204490/civil-war-contested-sovereignty-and-the-limits-of-global-health-partnerships-a-case-study-of-the-syrian-polio-outbreak-in-2013
#3
Jonathan Kennedy, Domna Michailidou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202044/the-history-of-leishmaniasis
#4
REVIEW
Dietmar Steverding
In this review article the history of leishmaniasis is discussed regarding the origin of the genus Leishmania in the Mesozoic era and its subsequent geographical distribution, initial evidence of the disease in ancient times, first accounts of the infection in the Middle Ages, and the discovery of Leishmania parasites as causative agents of leishmaniasis in modern times. With respect to the origin and dispersal of Leishmania parasites, the three currently debated hypotheses (Palaearctic, Neotropical and supercontinental origin, respectively) are presented...
February 15, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193724/neurodegenerative-disease-transmission-and-transgenesis-in-mice
#5
Brittany N Dugger, Daniel P Perl, George A Carlson
Although the discovery of the prion protein (PrP) resulted from its co-purification with scrapie infectivity in Syrian hamsters, work with genetically defined and genetically modified mice proved crucial for understanding the fundamental processes involved not only in prion diseases caused by PrP misfolding, aggregation, and spread but also in other, much more common, neurodegenerative brain diseases. In this review, we focus on methodological and conceptual approaches used to study scrapie and related PrP misfolding diseases in mice and how these approaches have advanced our understanding of related disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease...
February 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181904/hepatitis-a-among-refugees-asylum-seekers-and-migrants-living-in-hosting-facilities-greece-april-to-december-2016
#6
Kassiani Mellou, Anthi Chrisostomou, Theologia Sideroglou, Theano Georgakopoulou, Maria Kyritsi, Christos Hadjichristodoulou, Sotirios Tsiodras
An increased number of hepatitis A cases among refugees, asylum seekers and migrants residing in hosting facilities in Greece were recorded between April and December 2016. In total, 177 laboratory-confirmed symptomatic cases were reported; of these, 149 (84%) occurred in hosting camps mostly among Syrian children under 15 years. All cases reported symptom onset after their entry into the country. Public health interventions focused on hygiene measures and vaccination.
January 26, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171849/dose-responsive-efficacy-of-umbelliferone-on-lipid-peroxidation-anti-oxidant-and-xenobiotic-metabolism-in-dmba-induced-oral-carcinogenesis
#7
Annamalai Vijayalakshmi, Ganapathy Sindhu
This study evaluated the chemopreventive potential of umbelliferone (UMB) on 7,12- dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. The mechanistic pathway for chemopreventive potential of UMB was evaluated by measuring the status of tumour incidence, tumour volume, and tumour burden as well as by analyzing the status of phase I, phase II detoxification agents, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, histopathological changes and also expression patterns of cell proliferation (PCNA, Cyclin D1) and apoptotic (p53) markers using immunohistochemistry in DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis...
February 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162042/the-syrian-public-health-and-humanitarian-crisis-a-displacement-in-global-governance
#8
Sumaira Akbarzada, Tim K Mackey
Ongoing failure by the international community to resolve the Syrian conflict has led to destruction of critical infrastructure. This includes the collapse of the Syrian health system, leaving millions of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in urgent need of healthcare services. As the conflict intensifies, IDP populations are suffering from infectious and non-communicable disease risks, poor maternal and child health outcomes, trauma, and mental health issues, while healthcare workers continually exit the country...
February 4, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155150/the-use-of-lectin-histochemistry-for-detecting-apoptotic-cells-in-the-seminiferous-epithelium
#9
Vicente Seco-Rovira, Ester Beltrán-Frutos, Jesús Hernández-Martínez, Concepción Ferrer, Luis Miguel Pastor
Lectin histochemistry is commonly used to characterize the pattern of glycoconjugates in cells and tissues. Recent studies show that alterations in these glycoconjugates are associated with the entry of cells into apoptosis. A widely used technique for the detection of apoptotic cell death is TUNEL. In this chapter, we study the sensitivity of both techniques to identify apoptotic cells in the testis of photo-inhibited Syrian hamster.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154758/health-system-resilience-lebanon-and-the-syrian-refugee-crisis
#10
Walid Ammar, Ola Kdouh, Rawan Hammoud, Randa Hamadeh, Hilda Harb, Zeina Ammar, Rifat Atun, David Christiani, Pierre A Zalloua
BACKGROUND: Between 2011 and 2013, the Lebanese population increased by 30% due to the influx of Syrian refugees. While a sudden increase of such magnitude represents a shock to the health system, threatening the continuity of service delivery and destabilizing governance, it also offers a unique opportunity to study resilience of a health system amidst ongoing crisis. METHODS: We conceptualized resilience as the capacity of a health system to absorb internal or external shocks (for example prevent or contain disease outbreaks and maintain functional health institutions) while sustaining achievements...
December 2016: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145811/investigating-the-potential-role-of-north-american-animals-as-hosts-for-zika-virus
#11
Izabela K Ragan, Emily L Blizzard, Paul Gordy, Richard A Bowen
The recent emergence of the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas has become a global public health concern. We describe a series of experimental infections designed to investigate whether animals within certain taxonomic groups in North America have the potential to serve as ZIKV amplifying or maintenance hosts. Species investigated included armadillos, cottontail rabbits, goats, mink, chickens, pigeons, ground hogs, deer mice, cattle, raccoons, ducks, Syrian Golden hamsters, garter snakes, leopard frogs, house sparrows, and pigs...
February 1, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141856/transcriptional-profiling-in-experimental-visceral-leishmaniasis-reveals-a-broad-splenic-inflammatory-environment-that-conditions-macrophages-toward-a-disease-promoting-phenotype
#12
Fanping Kong, Omar A Saldarriaga, Heidi Spratt, E Yaneth Osorio, Bruno L Travi, Bruce A Luxon, Peter C Melby
Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), caused by the intracellular protozoan Leishmania donovani, is characterized by relentlessly increasing visceral parasite replication, cachexia, massive splenomegaly, pancytopenia and ultimately death. Progressive disease is considered to be due to impaired effector T cell function and/or failure of macrophages to be activated to kill the intracellular parasite. In previous studies, we used the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as a model because it mimics the progressive nature of active human VL...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138922/tumor-preventive-efficacy-of-emodin-in-7-12-dimethylbenz-a-anthracene-induced-oral-carcinogenesis-a-histopathological-and-biochemical-approach
#13
Asokan Manimaran, Shanmugam Manoharan
The aim of the present study is to focus the chemopreventive potential of Emodin during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Tumors were developed in the buccal pouches of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA thrice a week for 14 weeks. The status of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and detoxification agents were utilized as biochemical endpoints and the expression pattern of apoptotic proteins was employed as molecular endpoints in addition to the histopathological studies, to substantiate the anticancer potential of Emodin...
January 31, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137819/use-of-optical-imaging-technology-in-the-validation-of-a-new-rapid-cost-effective-drug-screen-as-part-of-a-tiered-in-vivo-screening-paradigm-for-development-of-drugs-to-treat-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#14
Diana Caridha, Sandi Parriot, Thomas H Hudson, Thierry Lang, Franklyn Ngundam, Susan Leed, Jenell Sena, Michael Harris, Michael O'Neil, Richard Sciotti, Lisa Read, Herve Lecoeur, Mark Hickman, Max Grogl
In any drug discovery and development effort, reduction in the lead optimization cycle is critical to decrease the time to license and reduce cost. In addition, ethical guidelines call for more ethical use of animals to minimize the number of animals used and decrease their suffering. Therefore, any cutaneous Leishmaniasis drug development effort requires multiple tiers of in vivo testing that start with higher-throughput efficacy assessments and progress to lower-throughput models with the most clinical relevance...
January 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125650/development-of-a-novel-vaccine-containing-binary-toxin-for-the-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-disease-with-enhanced-efficacy-against-nap1-strains
#15
Susan Secore, Su Wang, Julie Doughtry, Jinfu Xie, Matt Miezeiewski, Richard R Rustandi, Melanie Horton, Rachel Xoconostle, Bei Wang, Catherine Lancaster, Adam Kristopeit, Sheng-Ching Wang, Sianny Christanti, Salvatore Vitelli, Marie-Pierre Gentile, Aaron Goerke, Julie Skinner, Erica Strable, David S Thiriot, Jean-Luc Bodmer, Jon H Heinrichs
Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are a leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the developed world. The main virulence factors of the bacterium are the large clostridial toxins (LCTs), TcdA and TcdB, which are largely responsible for the symptoms of the disease. Recent outbreaks of CDI have been associated with the emergence of hypervirulent strains, such as NAP1/BI/027, many strains of which also produce a third toxin, binary toxin (CDTa and CDTb). These hypervirulent strains have been associated with increased morbidity and higher mortality...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124964/-investigation-of-the-prevalence-of-trichomonas-vaginalis-among-female-syrian-refugees-with-the-complaints-of-vaginitis-aged-between-15-49-years
#16
Nebiye Yentür Doni, Mustafa Aksoy, Zeynep Şimşek, Gülcan Gürses, Neşe Gül Hilali, Fadile Yıldız Zeyrek, Behire Özek, Gökhan Yıldırımkaya
Since the Syrian civil war began in 2011, most of the Syrian refugees have immigrated to Turkey due to its open gate policy and the width of the border. By the end of 2015, it was estimated that there were 2.5 million Syrian refugees in Turkey. Many of the Syrian refugees live in Sanliurfa due to its location on the border with Syria. Trichomonas vaginalis, apart from viral agents is the most common parasite among sexually transmitted infection agents. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of T...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105582/-control-of-opisthorchis-viverrini-infection-for-cholangiocarcinoma-prevention
#17
Y Buisson
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified two liver flukes as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1): Opisthorchis viverrini in 1994 and Clonorchis sinensis in 2009. This review is focused on O. viverrini, the most studied of these two trematodes, which infects nearly 10 million people in Southeast Asia. The life cycle involves two intermediate hosts living in fresh water: a snail of the genus Bithynia and a ciprinid fish. The definitive hosts (human, cat, dog) become infected by ingesting raw fish containing metacercariae, the infective stage of the parasite...
January 19, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102531/a-systems-dynamics-approach-to-the-efficacy-of-oxime-therapy-for-mild-exposure-to-sarin-gas
#18
Daniel J Droste, Michael L Shelley, Jeffery M Gearhart, David M Kempisty
The use of nerve agents such as sarin is as much a threat today as any other time in our history. The events in Syria in 2013 are proof of this. "The Obama administration asserted Sunday for the first time that the Syrian government used the nerve gas sarin to kill more than 1,400 people (August 21, 2013) in the world's gravest chemical weapons attack in 25 years." With these recent events clear in our mind, we must focus on the horrific nature of these chemical agents to devise a strategy that will enable first responders to counteract these insidious chemicals...
April 2016: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099720/birth-characteristics-of-syrian-refugees-and-turkish-citizens-in-turkey-in-2015
#19
Hakan Demirci, Nevruz Yildirim Topak, Gokhan Ocakoglu, Mehtap Karakulak Gomleksiz, Emin Ustunyurt, Ayse Ulku Turker
OBJECTIVE: To compare the birth characteristics of Syrian refugees with those of Turkish citizens. METHODS: In a retrospective study, data were obtained for singleton live births that occurred at a hospital in Bursa, Turkey, between June 1 and December 31, 2015. All Syrian refugees were eligible for inclusion; one Turkish citizen was included for each refugee. RESULTS: Overall, 545 Syrian refugees and 545 Turkish citizens were included. Cesarean delivery was undertaken for 176 (32...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099442/a-whole-genome-dartseq-and-snp-analysis-for-genetic-diversity-assessment-in-durum-wheat-from-central-fertile-crescent
#20
Faheem Shehzad Baloch, Ahmad Alsaleh, Muhammad Qasim Shahid, Vahdettin Çiftçi, Luis E Sáenz de Miera, Muhammad Aasim, Muhammad Azhar Nadeem, Husnu Aktaş, Hakan Özkan, Rüştü Hatipoğlu
Until now, little attention has been paid to the geographic distribution and evaluation of genetic diversity of durum wheat from the Central Fertile Crescent (modern-day Turkey and Syria). Turkey and Syria are considered as primary centers of wheat diversity, and thousands of locally adapted wheat landraces are still present in the farmers' small fields. We planned this study to evaluate the genetic diversity of durum wheat landraces from the Central Fertile Crescent by genotyping based on DArTseq and SNP analysis...
2017: PloS One
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