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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592345/flowers-and-wild-megachilid-bees-share-microbes
#1
Quinn S McFrederick, Jason M Thomas, John L Neff, Hoang Q Vuong, Kaleigh A Russell, Amanda R Hale, Ulrich G Mueller
Transmission pathways have fundamental influence on microbial symbiont persistence and evolution. For example, the core gut microbiome of honey bees is transmitted socially and via hive surfaces, but some non-core bacteria associated with honey bees are also found on flowers, and these bacteria may therefore be transmitted indirectly between bees via flowers. Here, we test whether multiple flower and wild megachilid bee species share microbes, which would suggest that flowers may act as hubs of microbial transmission...
September 3, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456935/diagnosis-of-strongyloides-stercoralis-detection-of-parasite-derived-dna-in-urine
#2
Nilanjan Lodh, Reynaldo Caro, Shterna Sofer, Alan Scott, Alejandro Krolewiecki, Clive Shiff
Detecting infections of Strongyloides stercoralis is arduous and has low sensitivity. Clinically this is a major problem because chronic infections may disseminate in the host and lead to a life threatening condition. Epidemiologically, S. stercoralis is often missed in surveys as it is difficult to identify by standard stool examination procedures. We present, for the first time, evidence that the infection can be detected in filtered urine samples collected and processed in the field and subsequently assayed for the presence of parasite DNA...
November 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399784/methodology-for-evaluating-the-insect-growth-regulator-igr-methoprene-on-packaging-films
#3
Frank H Arthur
The insect growth regulator methoprene can be mixed into the matrix used to comprise bags and other packaging materials. Different methodologies were utilized to evaluate the efficacy of different types of methoprene-treated packaging towards Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, and T. confusum Jacquelin duVal, the confused flour beetle, two common insect species that infest stored products. Tests were conducted by creating arenas in which larvae were exposed on the packaging surface along with a flour food source, and assessments were made on adults emerging from the exposed progeny...
2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190042/western-corn-rootworm-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-larval-movement-in-ecry3-1ab-mcry3a-seed-blend-scenarios
#4
Sarah N Zukoff, Anthony L Zukoff, Ryan W Geisert, Bruce E Hibbard
Corn fields planted with plant-incorporated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins must have a portion of the field planted with non-Bt, isoline, plants that serve as a refuge for susceptible insects. In the Corn Belt, refuge seeds are now blended in the bag with Bt seeds for corn hybrids containing two or more toxins targeted toward the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Syngenta's corn hybrid, Agrisure Duracade, containing the eCry3.1Ab (event 5307) and mCry3a (event MIR604) rootworm-targeted toxins were registered as a seed blend in 2014...
August 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27133501/study-on-the-occurrence-of-trichinella-spp-in-raccoon-dogs-in-brandenburg-germany
#5
Anne Mayer-Scholl, Sabine Reckinger, Christoph Schulze, Karsten Nöckler
In recent years the raccoon dog population in Germany has risen dramatically and a steady westward expansion can still be seen. In addition to the highest Trichinella prevalence in wild boar and the most reported Trichinella cases in domestic swine from backyard farms, the North-Eastern part of Germany also has the highest raccoon dog density in the country. Due to their distinct scavenging behavior, raccoon dogs play a significant role as Trichinella reservoir. Therefore, to increase the knowledge on Trichinella spp...
April 23, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27118457/anthelmintic-effect-of-herbicidal-dinitroanilines-on-the-nematode-model-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Viviane Sant'anna, Wanderley de Souza, Rossiane C Vommaro
Dinitroanilines are known herbicides that impair the polymerization of microtubules. This study investigated the effects of oryzalin and trifluralin on the viability, morphology, and ultrastructure of different life stages of Caenorhabditis elegans. Both drugs reduced the survival of the adult population in 50% after three days of treatment with concentrations of approximately 30 μM and 57 μM, respectively. The development of new adults was monitored for seven days and treatment with both drugs also showed a decrease in the adult population...
August 2016: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27047017/prevalence-of-gastrointestinal-helminth-infections-in-ovine-population-of-kashmir-valley
#7
S R Tramboo, R A Shahardar, I M Allaie, Z A Wani, M S Bushra
AIM: Gastrointestinal (GI) helminth parasitism is one of the major constraints for profitable sheep production. Due to variations in the prevalence of GI helminths from region to region, it becomes important to map out accurately the parasitic fauna of a particular region for development of suitable control measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An extensive study of GI helminths was carried out in Budgam district of Kashmir Valley over a period of 1 year. A total of 1200 fresh ovine faecal samples from both sexes of young ones and adults were collected in sterilized plastic bags and examined by standard sedimentation and floatation techniques...
October 2015: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26893969/bagworm-bags-as-portable-armour-against-invertebrate-predators
#8
Shinji Sugiura
Some animals have evolved the use of environmental materials as "portable armour" against natural enemies. Portable bags that bagworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) construct using their own silk and plant parts are generally believed to play an important role as a physical barrier against natural enemies. However, no experimental studies have tested the importance of bags as portable armour against predators. To clarify the defensive function, I studied the bagworm Eumeta minuscula and a potential predator Calosoma maximoviczi (Coleoptera: Carabidae)...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26868653/seasonal-life-cycle-of-linepithema-micans-forel-hymenoptera-formicidae-in-vineyards
#9
A Nondillo, C A Baronio, D Bernardi, O C Bueno, M Botton
Linepithema micans (Forel) is considered to be the main ant species responsible for the spread of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille), a soil scale that damages vine plants in southern Brazil. In this work, the seasonal life cycle of L. micans was evaluated in vineyards to define the most appropriate time for the application of toxic baits for control. Ant nests were transported to the laboratory in plastic bags, and individual ants were separated into groups of eggs, larvae, pupae, workers, males, and queens, recording the number of individuals per colony...
August 2016: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26743219/effectiveness-of-sulfuryl-fluoride-fumigation-for-the-control-of-phosphine-resistant-grain-insects-infesting-stored-wheat
#10
George P Opit, Ellen Thoms, Thomas W Phillips, Mark E Payton
A field experiment was conducted in eight 13.6-MT steel bins containing 6.8 MT each of wheat to assess efficacy of sulfuryl fluoride or SF fumigant to control phosphine-resistant and susceptible Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Approximately 400 adults of each type of beetle were added to each bin. Additionally, muslin bags containing immature stages and adults, with their respective diets, were also placed in bins. Four bins were fumigated with SF and others were untreated control bins...
April 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26711898/drosophila-mof-regulates-diap1-and-induces-apoptosis-in-a-jnk-dependent-pathway
#11
Sreerangam N C V L Pushpavalli, Arpita Sarkar, M Janaki Ramaiah, G Koteswara Rao, Indira Bag, Utpal Bhadra, Manika Pal-Bhadra
Histone modulations have been implicated in various cellular and developmental processes where in Drosophila Mof is involved in acetylation of H4K16. Reduction in the size of larval imaginal discs is observed in the null mutants of mof with increased apoptosis. Deficiency involving Hid, Reaper and Grim [H99] alleviated mof (RNAi) induced apoptosis in the eye discs. mof (RNAi) induced apoptosis leads to activation of caspases which is suppressed by over expression of caspase inhibitors like P35 and Diap1 clearly depicting the role of caspases in programmed cell death...
March 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26669823/the-urticating-setae-of-ochrogaster-lunifer-an-australian-processionary-caterpillar-of-veterinary-importance
#12
L E Perkins, M P Zalucki, N R Perkins, A J Cawdell-Smith, K H Todhunter, W L Bryden, B W Cribb
The bag-shelter moth, Ochrogaster lunifer Herrich-Schaffer (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), is associated with a condition called equine amnionitis and fetal loss (EAFL) on horse farms in Australia. Setal fragments from O. lunifer larvae have been identified in the placentas of experimentally aborted fetuses and their dams, and in clinical abortions. The gregarious larvae build silken nests in which large numbers cohabit over spring, summer and autumn. The final instars disperse to pupation sites in the ground where they overwinter...
June 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26517177/external-gamma-irradiation-induced-effects-in-early-life-stages-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#13
B Gagnaire, I Cavalié, S Pereira, M Floriani, N Dubourg, V Camilleri, C Adam-Guillermin
In the general context of validation of tools useful for the characterization of ecological risk linked to ionizing radiation, the effects of an external gamma irradiation were studied in zebrafish larvae irradiated for 96 h with two dose rates: 0.8 mGy/d, which is close to the level recommended to protect ecosystems from adverse effects of ionizing radiation (0.24 mGy/d) and a higher dose rate of 570 mGy/d. Several endpoints were investigated, such as mortality, hatching, and some parameters of embryo-larval development, immunotoxicity, apoptosis, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity and histological alterations...
December 2015: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26418649/vector-ecology-of-human-schistosomiasis-in-south-india-and-description-of-a-new-species-of-the-genus-ferrissia-mollusca-gastropoda-planorbidae
#14
Anbalagan Sankarappan, Balachandran Chellapandian, Arun Prasanna Vimalanathan, Kannan Mani, Dinakaran Sundaram, Krishnan Muthukalingan
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Vector ecology and taxonomy of snails is a prerequisite for controlling schistosomiasis in the tropics. The ecology of the freshwater limpet genus Ferrissia was investigated for detection of cercariae larvae in them, and taxonomic description of a new species of the genus Ferrissia. METHODS: This study was conducted in 15 perennial streams from five different hills of south India. To study the seasonal patterns, a stream from each hill was selected and sampled in three seasons...
September 2015: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26382290/growth-and-survival-of-blowfly-lucilia-sericata-larvae-under-simulated-wound-conditions-implications-for-maggot-debridement-therapy
#15
H Čičková, M Kozánek, P Takáč
Maggot debridement therapy has become a well-established method of wound debridement. Despite its success, little information is available about the optimum duration of the treatment cycle and larval growth in wounds. This study examines the development of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae under two containment conditions (bagged and free range) under simulated wound conditions and assesses the impact of transport and further storage of larvae on their survival and growth. There was no significant difference in size between bagged and free-range larvae over the 72-h experimental period...
December 2015: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26373649/sonographic-images-of-hepato-pancreatico-biliary-and-intestinal-ascariasis-a-pictorial-review
#16
Donboklang Lynser, Akash Handique, Chhunthang Daniala, Pranjal Phukan, Evarisalin Marbaniang
UNLABELLED: Despite advancement in the diagnosis and treatment of intestinal helminthiasis, ascariasis remains the most common cause of helminthic infections in the developing countries. Ultrasound offers a rapid, safe, and noninvasive approach to the diagnosis of intestinal ascariasis. Ultrasound is also the modality of choice for diagnosis of hepatobiliary ascariasis, which is relatively rare and is due to migration of intestinal worms through the papilla of Vater. We present an imaging spectrum of hepato-pancreatico-biliary and intestinal ascariasis...
December 2015: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26029492/maggots-as-potential-vector-for-pathogen-transmission-and-consequences-for-infection-control-in-waste-management
#17
Georg Daeschlein, Kevin Reese, Matthias Napp, Romy Spitzmueller, Peter Hinz, Michael Juenger, Axel Kramer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Debridement therapy with sterile bred larvae in non-healing wounds is a widely accepted safe and efficient treatment modality. However, during application in the contaminated wound bed microbial contamination with potential microbial pathogen spread after escape from the wound or after unreliable disposal procedure may happen, particularly in the case of not using bio-bags. The aims of this work were first to investigate the release of ingested bacteria into the environment by maggots and second to examine the common practice of freezing the maggots after use and/or disposal in trash-bags...
2015: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25951407/effect-of-wheat-flour-packaging-materials-on-infestation-by-lasioderma-serricorne-f
#18
Jianhua Lü, Dan Ma
The ability of the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), to infest wheat flour under packaged and unpackaged conditions was investigated in the laboratory at 27 ± 2°C and 75% ± 5% relative humidity. Five common packaging materials, namely, vacuum plastic bags, kraft paper bags, nonwoven cloth bags, aluminum foil bags, and woven plastic bags, were investigated. Adults and eggs of L. serricorne were released on different packaged wheat flour or on unpackaged wheat flour, and infestation levels (number of live adults and larvae) were determined after 45 days...
May 2015: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25886306/a-38-year-study-on-trichinella-spp-in-wild-boar-sus-scrofa-of-latvia-shows-a-stable-incidence-with-an-increased-parasite-biomass-in-the-last-decade
#19
Muza Kirjušina, Gunita Deksne, Gianluca Marucci, Eduards Bakasejevs, Inese Jahundoviča, Anžela Daukšte, Aleksandra Zdankovska, Zanda Bērziņa, Zanda Esīte, Antonino Bella, Fabio Galati, Angelika Krūmiņa, Edoardo Pozio
BACKGROUND: Trichinella spp. are zoonotic parasites transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked meat of different animal species. The most common source of infection for humans is meat from pigs and wild boar (Sus scrofa). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the incidence of Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar hunted in Latvia over a 38 year interval (1976 to 2013). METHODS: A total 120,609 wild boars were individually tested for Trichinella spp...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25779288/a-38-year-study-on-trichinella-spp-in-wild-boar-sus-scrofa-of-latvia-shows-a-stable-incidence-with-an-increased-parasite-biomass-in-the-last-decade
#20
Muza Kirjušina, Gunita Deksne, Gianluca Marucci, Eduards Bakasejevs, Inese Jahundoviča, Anžela Daukšte, Aleksandra Zdankovska, Zanda Bērziņa, Zanda Esīte, Antonino Bella, Fabio Galati, Angelika Krūmiņa, Edoardo Pozio
BACKGROUND: Trichinella spp. are zoonotic parasites transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked meat of different animal species. The most common source of infection for humans is meat from pigs and wild boar (Sus scrofa). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the incidence of Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar hunted in Latvia over a 38 year interval (1976 to 2013). METHODS: A total 120,609 wild boars were individually tested for Trichinella spp...
December 2015: Parasites & Vectors
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