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Hypoxic vasoconstriction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917290/hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-in-isolated-mouse-pulmonary-arterial-vessels
#1
Ievgen Strielkov, Nicole Catherine Krause, Natasha Sommer, Ralph Theo Schermuly, Hossein Ardeschir Ghofrani, Friedrich Grimminger, Thomas Gudermann, Alexander Dietrich, Norbert Weissmann
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction has never been characterized in isolated mouse pulmonary arteries of different generations in detail. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that only small intrapulmonary arteries (80 - 200 μm in diameter) exhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. The observed response was sustained, significantly potentiated by depolarization-induced preconstriction, and not dependent on endothelium and TRPC6 channels...
June 19, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907900/-anesthesia-ventilation-and-pain-treatment-in-thoracic-trauma
#2
REVIEW
M Weigeldt, M Paul, S Schulz-Drost, M D Schmittner
The management of anesthesia plays a central role in the treatment of thoracic trauma, both in the initial phase when safeguarding the difficult airway and in the intensive care unit. A rapid transfer to a trauma center should be considered in order to recognize and treat organ dysfunction in time. Development of atelectasis, pneumonia and acute lung failure are common pulmonary complications. Non-invasive ventilation combined with physiotherapy and respiratory training can help to minimize these pulmonary complications...
June 15, 2018: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882755/hif-oxygen-sensing-pathways-in-lung-biology
#3
REVIEW
Andrés A Urrutia, Julián Aragonés
Cellular responses to oxygen fluctuations are largely mediated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Upon inhalation, the first organ inspired oxygen comes into contact with is the lungs, but the understanding of the pulmonary HIF oxygen-sensing pathway is still limited. In this review we will focus on the role of HIF1α and HIF2α isoforms in lung responses to oxygen insufficiency. In particular, we will discuss novel findings regarding their role in the biology of smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells in the context of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction...
June 6, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867539/revisiting-the-role-of-trp-orai-and-asic-channels-in-the-pulmonary-arterial-response-to-hypoxia
#4
REVIEW
Roberto V Reyes, Sebastián Castillo-Galán, Ismael Hernandez, Emilio A Herrera, Germán Ebensperger, Aníbal J Llanos
The pulmonary arteries are exquisitely responsive to oxygen changes. They rapidly and proportionally contract as arterial PO2 decrease, and they relax as arterial PO2 is re-established. The hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is intrinsic since it does not require neural or endocrine factors, as evidenced in isolated vessels. On the other hand, pulmonary arteries also respond to sustained hypoxia with structural and functional remodeling, involving growth of smooth muscle medial layer and later recruitment of adventitial fibroblasts, secreted mitogens from endothelium and changes in the response to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862306/effects-of-human-relaxin-2-serelaxin-on-hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-during-acute-hypoxia-in-a-sheep-model
#5
René Schiffner, Marius Nistor, Sabine Juliane Bischoff, Georg Matziolis, Martin Schmidt, Thomas Lehmann
Purpose: Hypoxia induces pulmonary vasoconstriction with a subsequent increase of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), which can result in pulmonary hypertension. Serelaxin has shown an increase of pulmonary hemodynamic parameters after serelaxin injection. We therefore investigated the response of pulmonary hemodynamic parameters after serelaxin administration in a clinically relevant model. Methods: Six controls and six sheep that received 30 μg/kg serelaxin underwent right heart catheterization during a 12-minute hypoxia period (inhalation of 5% oxygen and 95% nitrogen) and subsequent reoxygenation...
2018: Hypoxia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808473/the-independent-effects-of-hypovolemia-and-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-on-ventricular-function-and-exercise-capacity-during-acclimatisation-to-3800-m
#6
Mike Stembridge, Philip N Ainslie, Lindsey M Boulet, James Anholm, Prajan Subedi, Michael M Tymko, Christopher K Willie, Stephen-Mark Cooper, Rob Shave
We aimed to determine the isolated and combined contribution of hypovolemia and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in limiting left ventricular (LV) function and exercise capacity under chronic hypoxemia at high altitude. In a double-blinded, randomized and placebo-controlled design, twelve healthy participants underwent echocardiography at rest and during submaximal exercise before completing a maximal test to exhaustion at sea level (SL; 344 m) and after 5-10 days at 3800 m. Plasma volume was normalised to SL values, and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction was reversed by administration of Sildenafil (50 mg) to create four unique experimental conditions that were compared with SL values; high altitude (HA), Plasma Volume Expansion (HA-PVX), Sildenafil (HA-SIL) and Plasma Volume Expansion with Sildenafil (HA-PVX-SIL)...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748074/-altitude-and-the-right-heart
#7
REVIEW
R Naeije
INTRODUCTION: Altitude is associated with a decrease in partial pressure of oxygen. Hypoxia induces pulmonary vasoconstriction with subsequent fixed increase in pulmonary artery pressure, and eventual right heart failure. CURRENT KNOWLEDGE: High altitude exposure is associated with an increase in pulmonary artery pressure that is proportional to initial vasoconstriction. Echocardiographic evaluations on a large number of subjects show that the altitude-induced increase in pulmonary pressure is generally modest and does not exceed the 25mmHg that are diagnostic of pulmonary hypertension...
May 7, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710737/cerebral-glucose-deficiency-versus-oxygen-deficiency-in-neonatal-encephalopathy
#8
A M Rudolph
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in newborn infants is generally considered to result from decreased arterial oxygen content or cerebral blood flow. Cerebral injury similar to that of HIE has been noted with hypoglycemia. Studies in fetal lambs have shown that ventilation with 3% oxygen did not change cerebral blood flow, but ventilation with 100% oxygen resulted in marked reduction in cerebral blood flow, glucose delivery and glucose consumption. Blood glucose concentration falls markedly after birth; this, associated with the fall in cerebral blood flow, greatly reduces glucose supply to the brain...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687908/hepatopulmonary-disorders-gas-exchange-and-vascular-manifestations-in-chronic-liver-disease
#9
Robert Rodríguez-Roisin, Michael J Krowka, Alvar Agustí
This review concentrates on the determinants of gas exchange abnormalities in liver-induced pulmonary vascular disorders, more specifically in the hepatopulmonary syndrome. Increased alveolar-arterial O2 difference, with or without different levels of arterial hypoxemia, and reduced diffusing capacity represent the most characteristic gas exchange disturbances in the absence of cardiac and pulmonary comorbidities. Pulmonary gas exchange abnormalities in the hepatopulmonary syndrome are unique encompassing all three pulmonary factors determining arterial PO2 , that is, ventilation-perfusion imbalance, increased intrapulmonary shunt and oxygen diffusion limitation that, combined, interplay with two relevant nonpulmonary determinants, that is, increased total ventilation and high cardiac output...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660141/carbonic-anhydrase-is-not-a-relevant-nitrite-reductase-or-nitrous-anhydrase-in-the-lung
#10
Philipp A Pickerodt, Sebastian Kronfeldt, Martin Russ, Adrian Gonzalez-Lopez, Philipp Lother, Elvira Steiner, Katja Vorbrodt, Thilo Busch, Willehad Boemke, Roland C E Francis, Erik R Swenson
KEY POINTS: Carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors such as acetazolamide inhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in humans and other mammals, but the mechanism of this action remains unknown. It has been postulated that carbonic anhydrase may act as a nitrous anhydrase in vivo to generate nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite and that this formation is increased in the presence of acetazolamide. Acetazolamide reduces HPV in pigs without evidence of any NO generation, whereas nebulized sodium nitrite reduces HPV by NO formation; however; combined infusion of acetazolamide with sodium nitrite inhalation did not further increase exhaled NO concentration over inhaled nitrite alone in pigs exposed to alveolar hypoxia...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629058/effect-of-propofol-and-isoflurane-on-gas-exchange-parameters-following-one-lung-ventilation-in-thoracic-surgery-a-double-blinded-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#11
Shima Sheybani, Alireza Sharifian Attar, Sogol Golshan, Shadi Sheibani, Majid Rajabian
Background: The use of anesthetic drugs with minimal inhibitory effects on the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) could have a decisive role in preventing the hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation (OLV). Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of propofol and isoflurane on the changes in gas exchange parameters following OLV in thoracic surgery. Methods: This double-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on patients who were candidates for elective right thoracotomy referred to the central operating room of Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad, Iran, during February 2016-2017...
February 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622593/transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-8-activation-induces-relaxation-of-pulmonary-artery-by-inhibition-of-store-operated-calcium-entry-in-normoxic-and-chronic-hypoxic-pulmonary-hypertensive-rats
#12
Yun-Ping Mu, Da-Cen Lin, Si-Yi Zheng, Hai-Xia Jiao, James S K Sham, Mo-Jun Lin
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by enhanced vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling, which are attributable to the alteration of Ca2+ homeostasis in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). It is well established that store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is augmented in PASMCs during PH and that it plays a crucial role in PH development. Our previous studies showed that the melastatin-related transient receptor potential 8 (TRPM8) is down-regulated in PASMCs of PH animal models, and activation of TRPM8 causes relaxation of pulmonary arteries (PAs)...
June 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605474/hemodynamic-mechanisms-of-exercise-induced-pulmonary-hypertension-in-patients-with-lymphangioleiomyomatosis-the-role-of-exercise-stress-echocardiography
#13
Andrea Sonaglioni, Massimo Baravelli, Roberto Cassandro, Olga Torre, Davide Elia, Claudio Anzà, Sergio Harari
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) has not yet been completely clarified. The aim of this study was to conduct a noninvasive evaluation of the main hemodynamic mechanisms of exercise-induced PH in patients with LAM, assessed using exercise stress echocardiography. METHODS: Fifteen patients with LAM (mean age, 47 ± 13 years; all women) without resting PH were enrolled in a prospective single-center study and compared with 15 healthy female control subjects (mean age, 45...
March 28, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549995/in-shackleton-s-trails-central-and-local-thermoadaptive-modifications-to-cold-and-hypoxia-after-a-man-hauling-expedition-on-the-antarctic-plateau
#14
Michail E Keramidas, Roger Kölegård, Ola Eiken
Cold and hypoxia constitute the main environmental stressors encountered on the Antarctic Plateau. Hence, we examined whether central and/or peripheral acclimatisation to the combined stressors of cold and hypoxia would be developed in four men following an 11-day man-hauling expedition on this polar region. Before and after the journey, participants performed a static whole-body immersion in 21 °C water, during which they were breathing a hypoxic gas (partial pressure of inspired O2 : ~97 mmHg). To evaluate their local responses to cold, participants also immersed the hand into 8 °C water for 30 min, while they were whole-body immersed and mildly hypothermic [i...
April 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520238/erythrocytes-and-vascular-function-oxygen-and-nitric-oxide
#15
REVIEW
Christine C Helms, Mark T Gladwin, Daniel B Kim-Shapiro
Erythrocytes regulate vascular function through the modulation of oxygen delivery and the scavenging and generation of nitric oxide (NO). First, hemoglobin inside the red blood cell binds oxygen in the lungs and delivers it to tissues throughout the body in an allosterically regulated process, modulated by oxygen, carbon dioxide and proton concentrations. The vasculature responds to low oxygen tensions through vasodilation, further recruiting blood flow and oxygen carrying erythrocytes. Research has shown multiple mechanisms are at play in this classical hypoxic vasodilatory response, with a potential role of red cell derived vasodilatory molecules, such as nitrite derived nitric oxide and red blood cell ATP, considered in the last 20 years...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488785/highs-and-lows-of-hyperoxia-physiological-performance-and-clinical-aspects
#16
Julien Vincent Brugniaux, Geoff B Coombs, Otto F Barak, Zeljko Dujic, Mypinder S Sekhon, Philip N Ainslie
Molecular oxygen (O2 ) is a vital element in human survival and plays a major role in a diverse range of biological and physiological processes. Although normobaric hyperoxia can increase arterial oxygen content (CaO2 ), it also causes vasoconstriction and hence reduces O2 delivery in various vascular beds including the heart, skeletal muscle, and brain. Thus, a seemingly paradoxical situation exists in which the administration of oxygen may place tissues at increased risk of hypoxic stress. Nevertheless, with various degrees of effectiveness, and not without consequences, supplemental oxygen is used clinically in an attempt to correct tissue hypoxia (e...
February 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486465/chronic-prenatal-hypoxia-down-regulated-bk-channel-%C3%AE-1-subunits-in-mesenteric-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-of-the-offspring
#17
Bailin Liu, Yanping Liu, Ruixiu Shi, Xueqin Feng, Xiang Li, Wenna Zhang, Jue Wu, Na Li, Xiuwen Zhou, Miao Sun, Zhice Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic hypoxia in utero could impair vascular functions in the offspring, underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study investigated functional alteration in large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels in offspring mesenteric arteries following prenatal hypoxia. METHODS: Pregnant rats were exposed to normoxic control (21% O2, Con) or hypoxic (10.5% O2, Hy) conditions from gestational day 5 to 21, their 7-month-old adult male offspring were tested for blood pressure, vascular BK channel functions and expression using patch clamp and wire myograh technique, western blotting, and qRT-PCR...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433570/role-of-atp-sensitive-potassium-channels-on-hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-in-endotoxemia
#18
Maurizio Turzo, Julian Vaith, Felix Lasitschka, Markus A Weigand, Cornelius J Busch
BACKGROUND: ATP-regulated potassium channels (KATP) regulate pulmonary vascular tone and are involved in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). In patients with inflammation like sepsis or ARDS, HPV is impaired, resulting in a ventilation-perfusion mismatch and hypoxia. Since increase of vascular KATP channel Kir6.1 has been reported in animal models of endotoxemia, we studied the expression and physiological effects of Kir6.1 in murine endotoxemic lungs. We hypothesized that inhibition of overexpressed Kir6...
February 13, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425776/the-effects-of-hemoglobin-glutamer-200-and-ino-on-pulmonary-vascular-tone-and-arterial-oxygenation-in-an-experimental-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#19
Maria Theresa Voelker, Andreas Bergmann, Thilo Busch, Nora Jahn, Sven Laudi, Katharina Noreikat, Philipp Simon, Sven Bercker
INTRODUCTION: Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOC) have been developed as an alternative to blood transfusions. Their nitric-oxide-scavenging properties HBOC also induce vasoconstriction. In acute lung injury, an excess of nitric oxide results in a general vasodilation, reducing oxygenation by impairing the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is used to correct the ventilation perfusion mismatch. We hypothesized that the additional use of HBOC might increase this effect...
April 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419444/impact-of-the-mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-mitoq-on-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#20
Oleg Pak, Susan Scheibe, Azadeh Esfandiary, Mareike Gierhardt, Akylbek Sydykov, Angela Logan, Athanasios Fysikopoulos, Florian Veit, Matthias Hecker, Florian Kroschel, Karin Quanz, Alexandra Erb, Katharina Schäfer, Mirja Fassbinder, Nasim Alebrahimdehkordi, Hossein A Ghofrani, Ralph T Schermuly, Ralf P Brandes, Werner Seeger, Michael P Murphy, Norbert Weissmann, Natascha Sommer
Increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly superoxide have been suggested to mediate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) remodelling.We determined ROS in acute, chronic hypoxia and investigated the effect of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ under these conditions.The effect of MitoQ or its inactive carrier substance, decyltriphenylphosphonium (TPP+ ), on acute HPV (1% O2 for 10 minutes) was investigated in isolated blood-free perfused mouse lungs...
February 1, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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