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Chlorine poisoning

A A Budko, Yu V Ivanovskii
The First World War was notable for the widespread use of machine military hardware and absolutely new type of weapon--chemical weapon. As a result of the first gas attack by chlorine undertaken by the German army against the Russian armies on May, 31st, 1915, heavy poisonings have received 9100 people, 6000 of them died. Chemical attack of Germany against Russia was limited by the use chemical gases of suffocating action: chlorine, bromine,phosgene and diphosgene. It is not known exactly, how many times Germany attacked Russian positions with use of chemical gases...
February 2016: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
Mingxiu Zhan, Tong Chen, Xiaoqing Lin, Jianying Fu, Xiaodong Li, Jianhua Yan, Alfons Buekens
Thiourea was selected as representative of combined S- and N-inhibitors and injected after the post-combustion zone of two full-scale municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) using a dedicated feeder. Firstly, the operating conditions were scrutinised by monitoring the concentrations of SO2, NH3 and HCl in the clean flue gas. The suppression experiment showed that in MSWI A thiourea could reduce the total I-TEQ value in flue gas by 73.4% from 1.41ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) to 0.37I-TEQ/Nm(3), those in fly ash by 87.1% from 14...
August 2016: Waste Management
Saeed Yari, Ayda Fallah Asadi, Sakineh Varmazyar
Excessive exposure to chemicals in the workplace can cause poisoning and various diseases. Thus, for the protection of labor, it is necessary to examine the exposure of people to chemicals and risks from these materials. The purpose of this study is to evaluate semi-quantitative health risks of exposure to harmful chemical agents in the context of carcinogenesis in a latex glove manufacturing industry. In this cross-sectional study, semi-quantitative risk assessment methods provided by the Department of Occupational Health of Singapore were used and index of LD50, carcinogenesis (ACGIH and IARC) and corrosion capacity were applied to calculate the hazard rate and the biggest index was placed as the basis of risk...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Paul G Firth
Although Ernest Shackleton's Endurance Antarctic expedition of 1914 to 1916 is a famous epic of survival, the medical achievements of the two expedition doctors have received little formal examination. Marooned on Elephant Island after the expedition ship sank, Drs. Macklin and McIlroy administered a chloroform anesthetic to crew member Perce Blackborow to amputate his frostbitten toes. As the saturated vapor pressure of chloroform at 0°C is 71.5 mmHg and the minimum alveolar concentration is 0.5% of sea-level atmospheric pressure (3...
July 2016: Anesthesiology
Thomas M Jeitner, Mike Kalogiannis, Boris F Krasnikov, Irving Gomlin, Morgan R Peltier, Graham R Moran
Inflammation is a common feature of Parkinson Disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a reactive oxygen species formed by neutrophils and other myeloperoxidase-containing cells during inflammation. HOCl chlorinates the amine and catechol moieties of dopamine to produce chlorinated derivatives collectively termed chlorodopamine. Here, we report that chlorodopamine is toxic to dopaminergic neurons both in vivo and in vitro Intrastriatal administration of 90 nmol chlorodopamine to mice resulted in loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra and decreased ambulation-results that were comparable to those produced by the same dose of the parkinsonian poison, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)...
June 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Yasuhiro Inatsu, Yukiko Ohata, Chiraporn Ananchaipattana, Md Latiful Bari, Yukie Hosotani, Susumu Kawasaki
Fate of Escherichia coli O157 cells was evaluated when inoculated into each step after production of lightly pickled Chinese cabbage. The efficacy of surface sterilization by 100 mg/L of chlorine water for 10 min on raw leaves (6.0 log CFU/g) was 2.2 log CFU/g reduction. No meaningful change of the population of E. coli O157 (3.5 log CFU/g to 1.5 log MPN/g) contaminated into 19 kinds of products was observed. These results indicated the difficulty of estimating the viable count of the cells between contaminated on farms and further processing and storage steps...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Daniel E Beck, Wei Lv, Monica Abdelmalak, Caroline B Plescia, Keli Agama, Christophe Marchand, Yves Pommier, Mark Cushman
Fluorine and chlorine are metabolically stable, but generally less active replacements for a nitro group at the 3-position of indenoisoquinoline topoisomerase IB (Top1) poisons. A number of strategies were employed in the present investigation to enhance the Top1 inhibitory potencies and cancer cell growth inhibitory activities of halogenated indenoisoquinolines. In several cases, the new compounds' activities were found to rival or surpass those of similarly substituted 3-nitroindenoisoquinolines, and several unusually potent analogs were discovered through testing in human cancer cell cultures...
April 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Ozlem Ozmen
Endosulfan, a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide/acaricide, is a member of a cyclodiene sub-group of poisons to a wide variety of insects and mites. It is also toxic to humans and animals, but there is limited knowledge about endosulfan-related splenic and overall immunotoxicity. The aim of this study was to review pathological findings of endosulfan toxicity in the spleen and to examine potential protective effects of the anti-oxidant Vitamin C (Vit C). Here, after 6-week exposures, the spleens of New Zealand White rabbits were examined grossly and histopathologically and tissue caspase-3 activity was assessed immunohistochemically...
May 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
L Saikia, A Sharma, R Nath, G Choudhury, A K Borah
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden has been a rare cause of acute gastroenteritis occurring worldwide. Here, we report an outbreak of food poisoning in a tea garden. OBJECTIVES: To determine the aetiological agent and risk factors responsible for the outbreak and to take necessary steps for prevention of future outbreaks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Affected area was visited by a team of microbiologists for collecting stool samples/rectal swabs from affected patients...
October 2015: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
B Bukowska, P Wieteska, M Kwiatkowska, P Sicińska, J Michalowicz
2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is formed in drinking water as a result of its chlorination, and it is created in the environment during transformation of various xenobiotics such as triclosan or herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The molecular mechanism depicting the action of phenolic compounds on nucleated blood cells has been insufficiently studied, and therefore, we have assessed the effect of 2,4-DCP on the structure and viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We have evaluated necrotic, apoptotic, and morphological changes (alterations in the size and granulation) in PBMCs incubated with 2,4-DCP in the concentration ranging from 10 to 500 µg mL(-1) for 4 h at 37°C...
July 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Keiji Tanaka
Among BHC isomers (benzene hexachloride, C6H6Cl6, theoretically eight ones), seven isomers (α,β,γ,δ,ε,η,ι) including one racemate (α) were isolated and their configurations were elucidated. Among the seven isomers, only γ-BHC has a potent insecticidal activity. γ-BHC poisoning symptoms accompanied by the violent tremor of the body, particularly in the legs and abnormal fluttering were consistently correlated with central nervous system effects, and the action was shown on the ganglia rather than on the isolated nerve cord...
May 2015: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Daniel E Beck, Monica Abdelmalak, Wei Lv, P V Narasimha Reddy, Gabrielle S Tender, Elizaveta O'Neill, Keli Agama, Christophe Marchand, Yves Pommier, Mark Cushman
3-Nitroindenoisoquinoline human topoisomerase IB (Top1) poisons have potent antiproliferative effects on cancer cells. The undesirable nitro toxicophore could hypothetically be replaced by other functional groups that would retain the desired biological activities and minimize potential safety risks. Eleven series of indenoisoquinolines bearing 3-nitro bioisosteres were synthesized. The molecules were evaluated in the Top1-mediated DNA cleavage assay and in the National Cancer Institute's 60 cell line cytotoxicity assay...
May 14, 2015: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Xiaoqing Lin, Mi Yan, Ahui Dai, Mingxiu Zhan, Jianying Fu, Xiaodong Li, Tong Chen, Shengyong Lu, Alfons Buekens, Jianhua Yan
Thiourea was tested as a dioxins inhibitor in a full-scale municipal solid waste incinerator with high capacity (34 t h(-1)). The suppressant, featuring a high S- and N-content, was converted into liquor and then injected (35 kg h(-1)) into the furnace (850 °C) through the inlets already used for Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) of flue gas NOx. The first results show that thiourea reduces the dioxins in flue gas by 55.8 wt.%, those in fly ash by 90.3 wt.% and the total dioxins emission factor by 91...
May 2015: Chemosphere
Hanspeter Zöllig, Cristina Fritzsche, Eberhard Morgenroth, Kai M Udert
Electrolysis can be a viable technology for ammonia removal from source-separated urine. Compared to biological nitrogen removal, electrolysis is more robust and is highly amenable to automation, which makes it especially attractive for on-site reactors. In electrolytic wastewater treatment, ammonia is usually removed by indirect oxidation through active chlorine which is produced in-situ at elevated anode potentials. However, the evolution of chlorine can lead to the formation of chlorate, perchlorate, chlorinated organic by-products and chloramines that are toxic...
February 1, 2015: Water Research
Jaideep Honavar, Stephen Doran, Joo-Yeun Oh, Chad Steele, Sadis Matalon, Rakesh P Patel
Exposure to relatively high levels of chlorine (Cl₂) gas can occur in mass-casualty scenarios associated with accidental or intentional release. Recent studies have shown a significant postexposure injury phase to the airways, pulmonary, and systemic vasculatures mediated in part by oxidative stress, inflammation, and dysfunction in endogenous nitric oxide homeostasis pathways. However, there is a need for therapeutics that are amenable to rapid and easy administration in the field and that display efficacy toward toxicity after chlorine exposure...
December 1, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Emily Mackie, Erik Svendsen, Stephen Grant, Jill E Michels, William H Richardson
A widely produced chemical, chlorine is used in various industries including automotive, electronics, disinfectants, metal production, and many others. Chlorine is usually produced and transported as a pressurized liquid; however, as a gas it is a significant pulmonary irritant. Thousands of people are exposed to chlorine gas every year, and while large-scale exposures are uncommon, they are not rare. Symptoms are usually related to the concentration and length of exposure, and although treatment is largely supportive, certain specific therapies have yet to be validated with randomized controlled trials...
October 2014: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Yanlai Han, Weile Yan
The incorporation of catalytic metals on iron nanoparticles to form bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) generates a class of highly reactive materials for degrading chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene, TCE) in groundwater. Successful implementation of BNPs to groundwater decontamination relies critically on the stability of surface reactive sites of BNPs in groundwater matrices. This study investigated the effect of common groundwater solutes on TCE reduction with Ni-Fe (with Ni at 2 wt.%) bimetallic nanoparticles (herein denoted as Ni-Fe BNPs)...
December 1, 2014: Water Research
Yan Zhang, Gautom Kumar Das, Vimalan Vijayaragavan, Qing Chi Xu, Parasuraman Padmanabhan, Kishore K Bhakoo, Subramanian Tamil Selvan, Timothy Thatt Yang Tan
The current work reports a type of "smart" lanthanide-based theranostic nanoprobe, NaDyF4:Yb(3+)/NaGdF4:Yb(3+),Er(3+), which is able to circumvent the up-converting poisoning effect of Dy(3+) ions to give efficient near infrared (980 nm) triggered up-conversion fluorescence, and offers not only excellent dark T2-weighted MR contrast but also tunable bright and T1-weighted MR contrast properties. Due to the efficient up-converted energy transfer from the nanocrystals to chlorin e6 (Ce6) photosensitizers loaded onto the nanocrystals, cytotoxic singlet oxygen was generated and photodynamic therapy was demonstrated...
November 7, 2014: Nanoscale
Yuanhai Zhang, Xingang Wang, Liangfang Ni, Ruiming Jiang, Liping Liu, Chunjiang Ye, Chunmao Han
Para-chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB), a hazardous and toxic substance, is widely used as an intermediary in chemical industries. p-CNB can cause methaemoglobinaemia due to electron-withdrawing properties of the nitro and chlorine groups. We present a case of a 23-year-old man suffering from thermal burns and p-CNB poisoning. In this case, severe methaemoglobinaemia was caused by the absorption of p-CNB through the burn wounds. Despite active treatment, such as the antidote of methylene blue, the patient's methaemoglobinaemia progressed, with slowly increasing methaemoglobin (MetHb) level...
October 2014: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Steven A Bland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2014: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
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