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Chlorine poisoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066950/pd-peppsi-ipentcl-a-useful-catalyst-for-the-coupling-of-2-aminopyridine-derivatives
#1
Michael G Organ, Abir Khadra, Stanislas Mayer
Pd-PEPPSI-IPentCl precatalyst has been demonstrated to be highly effective at the coupling of hetero(aryl)chlorides to free 2-aminopyridine substrates to produce N-(hetero)aryl-2-aminopyridine derivatives. The catalyst has proven competent in a number of other difficult cross-coupling reactions owing to the combination of the 3-penyl-substituted N-aryl groups and the chlorines on the backbone of the NHC core. This same reactivity here allows couplings to take place under very mild conditions (e.g., NaBHT or carbonate base) such that sensitive functional groups including esters, ketones, and nitriles are tolerated...
January 9, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043267/-investigation-of-emergency-capacities-for-occupational-hazard-accidents-in-silicon-solar-cell-producing-enterprises
#2
D D Yang, J N Xu, B L Zhu
Objective: To investigate and analyze the influential factors of occupational hazard acci-dents, emergency facilities and emergency management in Silicon solar cell producing enterprises, then to pro-vide scientific strategies. Methods: The methods of occupationally healthy field investigating, inspecting of ven-tilation effectiveness, setup of emergency program and wearing chemical suit were used. Results: The mainly occupational hazard accidents factors in the process of Silicon solar cell producing included poisoning chemi-cals, high temperature, onizing radiation and some workplaces...
November 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006102/diverse-ortho-c-sp-2-h-functionalization-of-benzaldehydes-using-transient-directing-groups
#3
Xi-Hai Liu, Hojoon Park, Jun-Hao Hu, Yan Hu, Qun-Liang Zhang, Bao-Long Wang, Bing Sun, Kap-Sun Yeung, Fang-Lin Zhang, Jin-Quan Yu
Pd-catalyzed C-H functionalizations promoted by transient directing groups remain largely limited to C-H arylation only. Herein, we report a diverse set of ortho-C(sp(2))-H functionalizations of benzaldehyde substrates using the transient directing group strategy. Without installing any auxiliary directing group, Pd(II)-catalyzed C-H arylation, chlorination, bromination, and Ir(III)-catalyzed amidation, could be achieved on benzaldehyde substrates. The transient directing groups formed in situ via imine linkage can override other coordinating functional groups capable of directing C-H activation or catalyst poisoning, significantly expanding the scope for metal-catalyzed C-H functionalization of benzaldehydes...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263214/-use-of-chemical-war-gases-at-the-russian-german-front-during-the-first-world-war
#4
A A Budko, Yu V Ivanovskii
The First World War was notable for the widespread use of machine military hardware and absolutely new type of weapon--chemical weapon. As a result of the first gas attack by chlorine undertaken by the German army against the Russian armies on May, 31st, 1915, heavy poisonings have received 9100 people, 6000 of them died. Chemical attack of Germany against Russia was limited by the use chemical gases of suffocating action: chlorine, bromine,phosgene and diphosgene. It is not known exactly, how many times Germany attacked Russian positions with use of chemical gases...
February 2016: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236405/suppression-of-dioxins-after-the-post-combustion-zone-of-mswis
#5
Mingxiu Zhan, Tong Chen, Xiaoqing Lin, Jianying Fu, Xiaodong Li, Jianhua Yan, Alfons Buekens
Thiourea was selected as representative of combined S- and N-inhibitors and injected after the post-combustion zone of two full-scale municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) using a dedicated feeder. Firstly, the operating conditions were scrutinised by monitoring the concentrations of SO2, NH3 and HCl in the clean flue gas. The suppression experiment showed that in MSWI A thiourea could reduce the total I-TEQ value in flue gas by 73.4% from 1.41ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) to 0.37I-TEQ/Nm(3), those in fly ash by 87.1% from 14...
August 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27165227/assessment-of-semi-quantitative-health-risks-of-exposure-to-harmful-chemical-agents-in-the-context-of-carcinogenesis-in-the-latex-glove-manufacturing-industry
#6
Saeed Yari, Ayda Fallah Asadi, Sakineh Varmazyar
Excessive exposure to chemicals in the workplace can cause poisoning and various diseases. Thus, for the protection of labor, it is necessary to examine the exposure of people to chemicals and risks from these materials. The purpose of this study is to evaluate semi-quantitative health risks of exposure to harmful chemical agents in the context of carcinogenesis in a latex glove manufacturing industry. In this cross-sectional study, semi-quantitative risk assessment methods provided by the Department of Occupational Health of Singapore were used and index of LD50, carcinogenesis (ACGIH and IARC) and corrosion capacity were applied to calculate the hazard rate and the biggest index was placed as the basis of risk...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148920/of-penguins-pinnipeds-and-poisons-anesthesia-on-elephant-island
#7
Paul G Firth
Although Ernest Shackleton's Endurance Antarctic expedition of 1914 to 1916 is a famous epic of survival, the medical achievements of the two expedition doctors have received little formal examination. Marooned on Elephant Island after the expedition ship sank, Drs. Macklin and McIlroy administered a chloroform anesthetic to crew member Perce Blackborow to amputate his frostbitten toes. As the saturated vapor pressure of chloroform at 0°C is 71.5 mmHg and the minimum alveolar concentration is 0.5% of sea-level atmospheric pressure (3...
July 2016: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27026709/linking-inflammation-and-parkinson-disease-hypochlorous-acid-generates-parkinsonian-poisons
#8
Thomas M Jeitner, Mike Kalogiannis, Boris F Krasnikov, Irving Gomlin, Morgan R Peltier, Graham R Moran
Inflammation is a common feature of Parkinson Disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a reactive oxygen species formed by neutrophils and other myeloperoxidase-containing cells during inflammation. HOCl chlorinates the amine and catechol moieties of dopamine to produce chlorinated derivatives collectively termed chlorodopamine. Here, we report that chlorodopamine is toxic to dopaminergic neurons both in vivo and in vitro Intrastriatal administration of 90 nmol chlorodopamine to mice resulted in loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra and decreased ambulation-results that were comparable to those produced by the same dose of the parkinsonian poison, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)...
June 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27009510/fate-of-escherichia-coli-o157-cells-inoculated-into-lightly-pickled-chinese-cabbage-during-processing-storage-and-incubation-in-artificial-gastric-juice
#9
Yasuhiro Inatsu, Yukiko Ohata, Chiraporn Ananchaipattana, Md Latiful Bari, Yukie Hosotani, Susumu Kawasaki
Fate of Escherichia coli O157 cells was evaluated when inoculated into each step after production of lightly pickled Chinese cabbage. The efficacy of surface sterilization by 100 mg/L of chlorine water for 10 min on raw leaves (6.0 log CFU/g) was 2.2 log CFU/g reduction. No meaningful change of the population of E. coli O157 (3.5 log CFU/g to 1.5 log MPN/g) contaminated into 19 kinds of products was observed. These results indicated the difficulty of estimating the viable count of the cells between contaminated on farms and further processing and storage steps...
2016: Biocontrol Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26906474/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-new-fluorinated-and-chlorinated-indenoisoquinoline-topoisomerase-i-poisons
#10
Daniel E Beck, Wei Lv, Monica Abdelmalak, Caroline B Plescia, Keli Agama, Christophe Marchand, Yves Pommier, Mark Cushman
Fluorine and chlorine are metabolically stable, but generally less active replacements for a nitro group at the 3-position of indenoisoquinoline topoisomerase IB (Top1) poisons. A number of strategies were employed in the present investigation to enhance the Top1 inhibitory potencies and cancer cell growth inhibitory activities of halogenated indenoisoquinolines. In several cases, the new compounds' activities were found to rival or surpass those of similarly substituted 3-nitroindenoisoquinolines, and several unusually potent analogs were discovered through testing in human cancer cell cultures...
April 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26492975/endosulfan-splenic-pathology-and-amelioration-by-vitamin-c-in-new-zealand-rabbit
#11
Ozlem Ozmen
Endosulfan, a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide/acaricide, is a member of a cyclodiene sub-group of poisons to a wide variety of insects and mites. It is also toxic to humans and animals, but there is limited knowledge about endosulfan-related splenic and overall immunotoxicity. The aim of this study was to review pathological findings of endosulfan toxicity in the spleen and to examine potential protective effects of the anti-oxidant Vitamin C (Vit C). Here, after 6-week exposures, the spleens of New Zealand White rabbits were examined grossly and histopathologically and tissue caspase-3 activity was assessed immunohistochemically...
May 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26470955/salmonella-weltevreden-food-poisoning-in-a-tea-garden-of-assam-an-outbreak-investigation
#12
L Saikia, A Sharma, R Nath, G Choudhury, A K Borah
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden has been a rare cause of acute gastroenteritis occurring worldwide. Here, we report an outbreak of food poisoning in a tea garden. OBJECTIVES: To determine the aetiological agent and risk factors responsible for the outbreak and to take necessary steps for prevention of future outbreaks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Affected area was visited by a team of microbiologists for collecting stool samples/rectal swabs from affected patients...
October 2015: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26391574/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-2-4-dichlorophenol-on-oxidative-parameters-and-viability-of-human-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-vitro
#13
B Bukowska, P Wieteska, M Kwiatkowska, P Sicińska, J Michalowicz
2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is formed in drinking water as a result of its chlorination, and it is created in the environment during transformation of various xenobiotics such as triclosan or herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The molecular mechanism depicting the action of phenolic compounds on nucleated blood cells has been insufficiently studied, and therefore, we have assessed the effect of 2,4-DCP on the structure and viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We have evaluated necrotic, apoptotic, and morphological changes (alterations in the size and granulation) in PBMCs incubated with 2,4-DCP in the concentration ranging from 10 to 500 µg mL(-1) for 4 h at 37°C...
July 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25987226/%C3%AE-bhc-its-history-and-mystery-why-is-only-%C3%AE-bhc-insecticidal
#14
REVIEW
Keiji Tanaka
Among BHC isomers (benzene hexachloride, C6H6Cl6, theoretically eight ones), seven isomers (α,β,γ,δ,ε,η,ι) including one racemate (α) were isolated and their configurations were elucidated. Among the seven isomers, only γ-BHC has a potent insecticidal activity. γ-BHC poisoning symptoms accompanied by the violent tremor of the body, particularly in the legs and abnormal fluttering were consistently correlated with central nervous system effects, and the action was shown on the ganglia rather than on the isolated nerve cord...
May 2015: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25909279/discovery-of-potent-indenoisoquinoline-topoisomerase-i-poisons-lacking-the-3-nitro-toxicophore
#15
Daniel E Beck, Monica Abdelmalak, Wei Lv, P V Narasimha Reddy, Gabrielle S Tender, Elizaveta O'Neill, Keli Agama, Christophe Marchand, Yves Pommier, Mark Cushman
3-Nitroindenoisoquinoline human topoisomerase IB (Top1) poisons have potent antiproliferative effects on cancer cells. The undesirable nitro toxicophore could hypothetically be replaced by other functional groups that would retain the desired biological activities and minimize potential safety risks. Eleven series of indenoisoquinolines bearing 3-nitro bioisosteres were synthesized. The molecules were evaluated in the Top1-mediated DNA cleavage assay and in the National Cancer Institute's 60 cell line cytotoxicity assay...
May 14, 2015: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25720846/simultaneous-suppression-of-pcdd-f-and-no-x-during-municipal-solid-waste-incineration
#16
Xiaoqing Lin, Mi Yan, Ahui Dai, Mingxiu Zhan, Jianying Fu, Xiaodong Li, Tong Chen, Shengyong Lu, Alfons Buekens, Jianhua Yan
Thiourea was tested as a dioxins inhibitor in a full-scale municipal solid waste incinerator with high capacity (34 t h(-1)). The suppressant, featuring a high S- and N-content, was converted into liquor and then injected (35 kg h(-1)) into the furnace (850 °C) through the inlets already used for Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) of flue gas NOx. The first results show that thiourea reduces the dioxins in flue gas by 55.8 wt.%, those in fly ash by 90.3 wt.% and the total dioxins emission factor by 91...
May 2015: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25497427/direct-electrochemical-oxidation-of-ammonia-on-graphite-as-a-treatment-option-for-stored-source-separated-urine
#17
Hanspeter Zöllig, Cristina Fritzsche, Eberhard Morgenroth, Kai M Udert
Electrolysis can be a viable technology for ammonia removal from source-separated urine. Compared to biological nitrogen removal, electrolysis is more robust and is highly amenable to automation, which makes it especially attractive for on-site reactors. In electrolytic wastewater treatment, ammonia is usually removed by indirect oxidation through active chlorine which is produced in-situ at elevated anode potentials. However, the evolution of chlorine can lead to the formation of chlorate, perchlorate, chlorinated organic by-products and chloramines that are toxic...
February 1, 2015: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25326579/nitrite-therapy-improves-survival-postexposure-to-chlorine-gas
#18
Jaideep Honavar, Stephen Doran, Joo-Yeun Oh, Chad Steele, Sadis Matalon, Rakesh P Patel
Exposure to relatively high levels of chlorine (Cl₂) gas can occur in mass-casualty scenarios associated with accidental or intentional release. Recent studies have shown a significant postexposure injury phase to the airways, pulmonary, and systemic vasculatures mediated in part by oxidative stress, inflammation, and dysfunction in endogenous nitric oxide homeostasis pathways. However, there is a need for therapeutics that are amenable to rapid and easy administration in the field and that display efficacy toward toxicity after chlorine exposure...
December 1, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25225966/management-of-chlorine-gas-related-injuries-from-the-graniteville-south-carolina-train-derailment
#19
Emily Mackie, Erik Svendsen, Stephen Grant, Jill E Michels, William H Richardson
A widely produced chemical, chlorine is used in various industries including automotive, electronics, disinfectants, metal production, and many others. Chlorine is usually produced and transported as a pressurized liquid; however, as a gas it is a significant pulmonary irritant. Thousands of people are exposed to chlorine gas every year, and while large-scale exposures are uncommon, they are not rare. Symptoms are usually related to the concentration and length of exposure, and although treatment is largely supportive, certain specific therapies have yet to be validated with randomized controlled trials...
October 2014: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25201338/bimetallic-nickel-iron-nanoparticles-for-groundwater-decontamination-effect-of-groundwater-constituents-on-surface-deactivation
#20
Yanlai Han, Weile Yan
The incorporation of catalytic metals on iron nanoparticles to form bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) generates a class of highly reactive materials for degrading chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene, TCE) in groundwater. Successful implementation of BNPs to groundwater decontamination relies critically on the stability of surface reactive sites of BNPs in groundwater matrices. This study investigated the effect of common groundwater solutes on TCE reduction with Ni-Fe (with Ni at 2 wt.%) bimetallic nanoparticles (herein denoted as Ni-Fe BNPs)...
December 1, 2014: Water Research
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