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Chlorine poisoning

Kanthan Nambirajan, Subramanian Muralidharan, Subbian Manonmani, Venkatachalam Kirubhanandhini, Kitusamy Ganesan
Incidences of mortality of Indian peafowl Pavo cristatus, the national bird (Schedule I Indian Wild Life Protection Act 1972), are rampant in India. Between January 2011 and March 2017, around 550 peafowl in 35 incidences were reported dead across the country. Due to the non-availability of fresh carcases, poisoning could not be confirmed. Birds which died due to kite string injuries in Ahmedabad (15) and accidents in Coimbatore (5) were tested for residues of chlorinated pesticides, namely hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), endosulfan, heptachlor, dicofol, dieldrin and cholipyrifos...
March 23, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Cuicui Du, Longjie Ji, Yaqi Peng, Minghui Tang, Xuan Cao, Shengyong Lu
The effect of NaCl addition on the properties, activity, and deactivation of a V2 O5 -WO3 /nano-TiO2 catalyst was investigated during catalytic decomposition of gas-phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The extent of deactivation relates directly to the NaCl loading of the catalyst. Poisoning by sodium neutralizes acid sites, interacts strongly with active VOx species, and reduces the redox capacity of catalysts. In addition, NaCl is also a chlorine source and may actually accelerate the synthesis of new PCDD/Fs...
March 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shusaku Hirakawa, Takashi Miyawaki, Tsuguhide Hori, Jumboku Kajiwara, Susumu Katsuki, Masashi Hirano, Yuka Yoshinouchi, Hisato Iwata, Chikage Mitoma, Masutaka Furue
In what has become known as the Yusho incident, thousands of people in western Japan were poisoned by the accidental ingestion of rice bran oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and various dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. In this study, we investigated the accumulation patterns of 69 PCB congeners in the blood of Yusho patients in comparison with those of non-exposed controls. The blood samples were collected at medical check-ups in 2004 and 2005. To compare the patterns of PCB congeners, we calculated the concentration ratio of each congener relative to the 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaCB (CB153) concentration...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bing Han, Wen Liu, Jingwen Li, Jin Wang, Dongye Zhao, Rui Xu, Zhang Lin
We prepared a new class of anion-exchange-resin supported Pd catalysts for efficient hydrodechlorination of triclosan in water. The catalysts were prepared through an initial ion-exchange uptake of PdCl4 2- and subsequent reduction of Pd(II) to Pd(0) nanoparticles at ambient temperature. Two standard strong-base anion exchange resins (IRA-900 and IRA-958) with different matrices (polystyrene and polyacrylic) were chosen as the supports. SEM and TEM images showed that Pd(0) nanoparticles were evenly attached on the resin surface with a mean size of 3-5 nm...
September 1, 2017: Water Research
Jingkun Li, Qingying Jia, Shraboni Ghoshal, Wentao Liang, Sanjeev Mukerjee
Anion immunity toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has tremendous implications in electrocatalysis with applications for fuel cells, metal-air batteries, and oxygen depolarized cathodes (ODCs) in the anodic evolution of chlorine. The necessity of exploring ORR catalysts with immunity to anion adsorption is particularly significant considering that platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts are costly and highly vulnerable to impurities such as halides. Herein, we report a metal organic framework (MOF)-derived Fe-N-C catalyst that exhibits a dramatically improved half-wave potential of 240 mV compared to the state-of-the-art RhxSy/C catalyst in a rotating disk electrode in the presence of Cl(-)...
May 2, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Peitao Zhao, Tian Li, Weijie Yan, Longji Yuan
Some chemicals were usually utilized in the hydrothermal dechlorination (HTD) of chlorine-containing wastes without revealing their roles. This work intends to investigate the role of chemical additives in the HTD of PVC (polyvinyl chloride). Several chemicals, including Na2CO3, KOH, NaOH, NH3·H2O, CaO and NaHCO3, were added into the PVC HTD process, which was conducted in subcritical Ni(2+)-containing water at 220°C for 30 min. The results show the alkalinity of additives had notable effects on the dechlorination efficiency (DE) of PVC due to the neutralization between HCl and additives...
April 27, 2017: Environmental Technology
R J Liu, A N Ren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Abir Khadra, Stanislas Mayer, Michael G Organ
The Pd-PEPPSI-IPentCl precatalyst (PEPPSI=pyridine-enhanced precatalyst preparation stabilisation initiation) has been demonstrated to be highly effective in the coupling of hetero(aryl)chlorides to free 2-aminopyridine substrates to produce N-(hetero)aryl-2-aminopyridine derivatives. The catalyst has proven to be competent in a number of other difficult cross-coupling reactions owing to the combination of the 3-pentyl-substituted N-aryl groups and the chlorines on the backbone of the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) core...
March 2, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
D D Yang, J N Xu, B L Zhu
Objective: To investigate and analyze the influential factors of occupational hazard acci-dents, emergency facilities and emergency management in Silicon solar cell producing enterprises, then to pro-vide scientific strategies. Methods: The methods of occupationally healthy field investigating, inspecting of ven-tilation effectiveness, setup of emergency program and wearing chemical suit were used. Results: The mainly occupational hazard accidents factors in the process of Silicon solar cell producing included poisoning chemi-cals, high temperature, onizing radiation and some workplaces...
November 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Xi-Hai Liu, Hojoon Park, Jun-Hao Hu, Yan Hu, Qun-Liang Zhang, Bao-Long Wang, Bing Sun, Kap-Sun Yeung, Fang-Lin Zhang, Jin-Quan Yu
Pd-catalyzed C-H functionalizations promoted by transient directing groups remain largely limited to C-H arylation only. Herein, we report a diverse set of ortho-C(sp(2))-H functionalizations of benzaldehyde substrates using the transient directing group strategy. Without installing any auxiliary directing group, Pd(II)-catalyzed C-H arylation, chlorination, bromination, and Ir(III)-catalyzed amidation, could be achieved on benzaldehyde substrates. The transient directing groups formed in situ via imine linkage can override other coordinating functional groups capable of directing C-H activation or catalyst poisoning, significantly expanding the scope for metal-catalyzed C-H functionalization of benzaldehydes...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
A A Budko, Yu V Ivanovskii
The First World War was notable for the widespread use of machine military hardware and absolutely new type of weapon--chemical weapon. As a result of the first gas attack by chlorine undertaken by the German army against the Russian armies on May, 31st, 1915, heavy poisonings have received 9100 people, 6000 of them died. Chemical attack of Germany against Russia was limited by the use chemical gases of suffocating action: chlorine, bromine,phosgene and diphosgene. It is not known exactly, how many times Germany attacked Russian positions with use of chemical gases...
February 2016: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
Mingxiu Zhan, Tong Chen, Xiaoqing Lin, Jianying Fu, Xiaodong Li, Jianhua Yan, Alfons Buekens
Thiourea was selected as representative of combined S- and N-inhibitors and injected after the post-combustion zone of two full-scale municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) using a dedicated feeder. Firstly, the operating conditions were scrutinised by monitoring the concentrations of SO2, NH3 and HCl in the clean flue gas. The suppression experiment showed that in MSWI A thiourea could reduce the total I-TEQ value in flue gas by 73.4% from 1.41ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) to 0.37I-TEQ/Nm(3), those in fly ash by 87.1% from 14...
August 2016: Waste Management
Saeed Yari, Ayda Fallah Asadi, Sakineh Varmazyar
Excessive exposure to chemicals in the workplace can cause poisoning and various diseases. Thus, for the protection of labor, it is necessary to examine the exposure of people to chemicals and risks from these materials. The purpose of this study is to evaluate semi-quantitative health risks of exposure to harmful chemical agents in the context of carcinogenesis in a latex glove manufacturing industry. In this cross-sectional study, semi-quantitative risk assessment methods provided by the Department of Occupational Health of Singapore were used and index of LD50, carcinogenesis (ACGIH and IARC) and corrosion capacity were applied to calculate the hazard rate and the biggest index was placed as the basis of risk...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Paul G Firth
Although Ernest Shackleton's Endurance Antarctic expedition of 1914 to 1916 is a famous epic of survival, the medical achievements of the two expedition doctors have received little formal examination. Marooned on Elephant Island after the expedition ship sank, Drs. Macklin and McIlroy administered a chloroform anesthetic to crew member Perce Blackborow to amputate his frostbitten toes. As the saturated vapor pressure of chloroform at 0°C is 71.5 mmHg and the minimum alveolar concentration is 0.5% of sea-level atmospheric pressure (3...
July 2016: Anesthesiology
Thomas M Jeitner, Mike Kalogiannis, Boris F Krasnikov, Irving Gomolin, Morgan R Peltier, Graham R Moran
Inflammation is a common feature of Parkinson Disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a reactive oxygen species formed by neutrophils and other myeloperoxidase-containing cells during inflammation. HOCl chlorinates the amine and catechol moieties of dopamine to produce chlorinated derivatives collectively termed chlorodopamine. Here, we report that chlorodopamine is toxic to dopaminergic neurons both in vivo and in vitro Intrastriatal administration of 90 nmol chlorodopamine to mice resulted in loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra and decreased ambulation-results that were comparable to those produced by the same dose of the parkinsonian poison, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)...
June 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Yasuhiro Inatsu, Yukiko Ohata, Chiraporn Ananchaipattana, Md Latiful Bari, Yukie Hosotani, Susumu Kawasaki
Fate of Escherichia coli O157 cells was evaluated when inoculated into each step after production of lightly pickled Chinese cabbage. The efficacy of surface sterilization by 100 mg/L of chlorine water for 10 min on raw leaves (6.0 log CFU/g) was 2.2 log CFU/g reduction. No meaningful change of the population of E. coli O157 (3.5 log CFU/g to 1.5 log MPN/g) contaminated into 19 kinds of products was observed. These results indicated the difficulty of estimating the viable count of the cells between contaminated on farms and further processing and storage steps...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Daniel E Beck, Wei Lv, Monica Abdelmalak, Caroline B Plescia, Keli Agama, Christophe Marchand, Yves Pommier, Mark Cushman
Fluorine and chlorine are metabolically stable, but generally less active replacements for a nitro group at the 3-position of indenoisoquinoline topoisomerase IB (Top1) poisons. A number of strategies were employed in the present investigation to enhance the Top1 inhibitory potencies and cancer cell growth inhibitory activities of halogenated indenoisoquinolines. In several cases, the new compounds' activities were found to rival or surpass those of similarly substituted 3-nitroindenoisoquinolines, and several unusually potent analogs were discovered through testing in human cancer cell cultures...
April 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Ozlem Ozmen
Endosulfan, a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide/acaricide, is a member of a cyclodiene sub-group of poisons to a wide variety of insects and mites. It is also toxic to humans and animals, but there is limited knowledge about endosulfan-related splenic and overall immunotoxicity. The aim of this study was to review pathological findings of endosulfan toxicity in the spleen and to examine potential protective effects of the anti-oxidant Vitamin C (Vit C). Here, after 6-week exposures, the spleens of New Zealand White rabbits were examined grossly and histopathologically and tissue caspase-3 activity was assessed immunohistochemically...
May 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
L Saikia, A Sharma, R Nath, G Choudhury, A K Borah
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden has been a rare cause of acute gastroenteritis occurring worldwide. Here, we report an outbreak of food poisoning in a tea garden. OBJECTIVES: To determine the aetiological agent and risk factors responsible for the outbreak and to take necessary steps for prevention of future outbreaks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Affected area was visited by a team of microbiologists for collecting stool samples/rectal swabs from affected patients...
October 2015: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
B Bukowska, P Wieteska, M Kwiatkowska, P Sicińska, J Michalowicz
2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is formed in drinking water as a result of its chlorination, and it is created in the environment during transformation of various xenobiotics such as triclosan or herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The molecular mechanism depicting the action of phenolic compounds on nucleated blood cells has been insufficiently studied, and therefore, we have assessed the effect of 2,4-DCP on the structure and viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We have evaluated necrotic, apoptotic, and morphological changes (alterations in the size and granulation) in PBMCs incubated with 2,4-DCP in the concentration ranging from 10 to 500 µg mL(-1) for 4 h at 37°C...
July 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
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