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Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748074/-altitude-and-the-right-heart
#1
REVIEW
R Naeije
INTRODUCTION: Altitude is associated with a decrease in partial pressure of oxygen. Hypoxia induces pulmonary vasoconstriction with subsequent fixed increase in pulmonary artery pressure, and eventual right heart failure. CURRENT KNOWLEDGE: High altitude exposure is associated with an increase in pulmonary artery pressure that is proportional to initial vasoconstriction. Echocardiographic evaluations on a large number of subjects show that the altitude-induced increase in pulmonary pressure is generally modest and does not exceed the 25mmHg that are diagnostic of pulmonary hypertension...
May 7, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687908/hepatopulmonary-disorders-gas-exchange-and-vascular-manifestations-in-chronic-liver-disease
#2
Robert Rodríguez-Roisin, Michael J Krowka, Alvar Agustí
This review concentrates on the determinants of gas exchange abnormalities in liver-induced pulmonary vascular disorders, more specifically in the hepatopulmonary syndrome. Increased alveolar-arterial O2 difference, with or without different levels of arterial hypoxemia, and reduced diffusing capacity represent the most characteristic gas exchange disturbances in the absence of cardiac and pulmonary comorbidities. Pulmonary gas exchange abnormalities in the hepatopulmonary syndrome are unique encompassing all three pulmonary factors determining arterial PO2 , that is, ventilation-perfusion imbalance, increased intrapulmonary shunt and oxygen diffusion limitation that, combined, interplay with two relevant nonpulmonary determinants, that is, increased total ventilation and high cardiac output...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660141/carbonic-anhydrase-is-not-a-relevant-nitrite-reductase-or-nitrous-anhydrase-in-the-lung
#3
Philipp A Pickerodt, Sebastian Kronfeldt, Martin Russ, Adrian Gonzalez-Lopez, Philipp Lother, Elvira Steiner, Katja Vorbrodt, Thilo Busch, Willehad Boemke, Roland C E Francis, Erik R Swenson
The carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors, acetazolamide and its structurally similar analogue, methazolamide prevent or reduce hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in dogs and humans in vivo, by a mechanism unrelated to CA inhibition. In rodent blood and isolated blood vessels, Aamand et al. (2009) reported that inhibition of CA led to increased generation of nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite and vascular relaxation in vitro. We tested the physiological relevance of augmented NO generation by CA from nitrite with acetazolamide in anaesthetized pigs during alveolar hypoxia in vivo...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629058/effect-of-propofol-and-isoflurane-on-gas-exchange-parameters-following-one-lung-ventilation-in-thoracic-surgery-a-double-blinded-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#4
Shima Sheybani, Alireza Sharifian Attar, Sogol Golshan, Shadi Sheibani, Majid Rajabian
Background: The use of anesthetic drugs with minimal inhibitory effects on the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) could have a decisive role in preventing the hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation (OLV). Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of propofol and isoflurane on the changes in gas exchange parameters following OLV in thoracic surgery. Methods: This double-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on patients who were candidates for elective right thoracotomy referred to the central operating room of Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad, Iran, during February 2016-2017...
February 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622593/transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-8-activation-induces-relaxation-of-pulmonary-artery-by-inhibition-of-store-operated-calcium-entry-in-normoxic-and-chronic-hypoxic-pulmonary-hypertensive-rats
#5
Yun-Ping Mu, Da-Cen Lin, Si-Yi Zheng, Hai-Xia Jiao, James Sham, Mo-Jun Lin
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by enhanced vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling, which are attributable to the alteration of Ca2+ homeostasis in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). It is well established that store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is augmented in PASMCs during PH and it plays crucial roles in PH development. Our previous studies showed that the melastatin-related transient receptor potential 8 (TRPM8) is down-regulated in PASMCs of PH animal models; and activation of TRPM8 causes relaxation of pulmonary arteries (PAs)...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605474/hemodynamic-mechanisms-of-exercise-induced-pulmonary-hypertension-in-patients-with-lymphangioleiomyomatosis-the-role-of-exercise-stress-echocardiography
#6
Andrea Sonaglioni, Massimo Baravelli, Roberto Cassandro, Olga Torre, Davide Elia, Claudio Anzà, Sergio Harari
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) has not yet been completely clarified. The aim of this study was to conduct a noninvasive evaluation of the main hemodynamic mechanisms of exercise-induced PH in patients with LAM, assessed using exercise stress echocardiography. METHODS: Fifteen patients with LAM (mean age, 47 ± 13 years; all women) without resting PH were enrolled in a prospective single-center study and compared with 15 healthy female control subjects (mean age, 45...
March 28, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433570/role-of-atp-sensitive-potassium-channels-on-hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-in-endotoxemia
#7
Maurizio Turzo, Julian Vaith, Felix Lasitschka, Markus A Weigand, Cornelius J Busch
BACKGROUND: ATP-regulated potassium channels (KATP) regulate pulmonary vascular tone and are involved in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). In patients with inflammation like sepsis or ARDS, HPV is impaired, resulting in a ventilation-perfusion mismatch and hypoxia. Since increase of vascular KATP channel Kir6.1 has been reported in animal models of endotoxemia, we studied the expression and physiological effects of Kir6.1 in murine endotoxemic lungs. We hypothesized that inhibition of overexpressed Kir6...
February 13, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425776/the-effects-of-hemoglobin-glutamer-200-and-ino-on-pulmonary-vascular-tone-and-arterial-oxygenation-in-an-experimental-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#8
Maria Theresa Voelker, Andreas Bergmann, Thilo Busch, Nora Jahn, Sven Laudi, Katharina Noreikat, Philipp Simon, Sven Bercker
INTRODUCTION: Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOC) have been developed as an alternative to blood transfusions. Their nitric-oxide-scavenging properties HBOC also induce vasoconstriction. In acute lung injury, an excess of nitric oxide results in a general vasodilation, reducing oxygenation by impairing the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is used to correct the ventilation perfusion mismatch. We hypothesized that the additional use of HBOC might increase this effect...
April 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419444/impact-of-the-mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant-mitoq-on-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#9
Oleg Pak, Susan Scheibe, Azadeh Esfandiary, Mareike Gierhardt, Akylbek Sydykov, Angela Logan, Athanasios Fysikopoulos, Florian Veit, Matthias Hecker, Florian Kroschel, Karin Quanz, Alexandra Erb, Katharina Schäfer, Mirja Fassbinder, Nasim Alebrahimdehkordi, Hossein A Ghofrani, Ralph T Schermuly, Ralf P Brandes, Werner Seeger, Michael P Murphy, Norbert Weissmann, Natascha Sommer
Increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly superoxide have been suggested to mediate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) remodelling.We determined ROS in acute, chronic hypoxia and investigated the effect of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ under these conditions.The effect of MitoQ or its inactive carrier substance, decyltriphenylphosphonium (TPP+ ), on acute HPV (1% O2 for 10 minutes) was investigated in isolated blood-free perfused mouse lungs...
February 1, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388468/plc%C3%AE-1-pkc%C3%AE%C2%B5-ip3r1-plays-an-important-role-in-hypoxia-induced-calcium-response-in-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells
#10
Vishal R Yadav, Tengyao Song, Lin Mei, Leroy Joseph, Yun-Min Zheng, Yong-Xiao Wang
Hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is attributed to an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). We have reported that phospholipase C-γ1 (PLCγ1) plays a significant role in the hypoxia-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in PASMCs and attendant HPV. In this study, we intended to determine molecular mechanisms for hypoxic Ca2+ and contractile responses in PASMCs. Our data reveal that hypoxic vasoconstriction occurs in PAs, but not in mesenteric arteries (MAs)...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383676/regulation-signalling-and-functions-of-hormonal-peptides-in-pulmonary-vascular-remodelling-during-hypoxia
#11
REVIEW
Priya Gaur, Supriya Saini, Praveen Vats, Bhuvnesh Kumar
Hypoxic state affects organism primarily by decreasing the amount of oxygen reaching the cells and tissues. To adjust with changing environment organism undergoes mechanisms which are necessary for acclimatization to hypoxic stress. Pulmonary vascular remodelling is one such mechanism controlled by hormonal peptides present in blood circulation for acclimatization. Activation of peptides regulates constriction and relaxation of blood vessels of pulmonary and systemic circulation. Thus, understanding of vascular tone maintenance and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction like pathophysiological condition during hypoxia is of prime importance...
March 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364918/riociguat-versus-sildenafil-on-hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-and-ventilation-perfusion-matching
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Virginia Chamorro, Daniel Morales-Cano, Javier Milara, Bianca Barreira, Laura Moreno, María Callejo, Gema Mondejar-Parreño, Sergio Esquivel-Ruiz, Julio Cortijo, Ángel Cogolludo, Joan A Barberá, Francisco Perez-Vizcaino
INTRODUCTION: Current treatment with vasodilators for pulmonary hypertension associated with respiratory diseases is limited by their inhibitory effect on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) and uncoupling effects on ventilation-perfusion (V'/Q'). Hypoxia is also a well-known modulator of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway, and may therefore differentially affect the responses to phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) stimulators. So far, the effects of the sGC stimulator riociguat on HPV have been poorly characterized...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363240/magnesium-attenuates-endothelin-1-induced-vasoreactivity-and-enhances-vasodilatation-in-mouse-pulmonary-arteries-modulation-by-chronic-hypoxic-pulmonary-hypertension
#13
Yun-Ping Mu, Qiu-Hong Huang, Jie-Ling Zhu, Si-Yi Zheng, Fu-Rong Yan, Xiao-Ling Zhuang, James S K Sham, Mo-Jun Lin
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The central goal of this study was to elucidate the role of magnesium in the regulation of pulmonary vascular reactivity in relationship to hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that magnesium is essential for normal vasoreactivity of the pulmonary artery. Increasing the magnesium concentration attenuates vasoconstriction and improves vasodilatation via release of nitric oxide. Pulmonary hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction resulting in the suppression of magnesium modulation of vasodilatation...
April 1, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334406/dasatinib-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#14
REVIEW
Nurgül Özgür Yurttaş, Ahmet Emre Eşkazan
Drug-induced (group 1) pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an important subgroup of PH involving dasatinib as a likely related agent, which is a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) used in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). The mechanism of dasatinib-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is unclear. However, the occurrence of PAH with late onset in CML patients suggests a chronic pathological mechanism with an insidious onset rather than an acute inflammatory or cardiac aetiology...
May 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301601/role-of-ros-kv-hif-axis-in-the-development-of-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#15
Wen Wu, Yan Li, Dun-Quan Xu
Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a common complication in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sleep-disordered breathing, or dwellers in high altitude. The exact mechanisms underlying the development of HPH still remain unclear. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), hypoxia inducible factors (HIF), and potassium channels (KV ) are believed as the main factors during the development of HPH. We propose that the "ROS/Kv/HIF axis" may play an important initiating role in the development of HPH...
December 30, 2017: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298124/inhaled-budesonide-does-not-affect-hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-at-4559-meters-of-altitude
#16
Marc Moritz Berger, Franziska Macholz, Peter Schmidt, Sebastian Fried, Tabea Perz, Daniel Dankl, Josef Niebauer, Peter Bärtsch, Heimo Mairbäurl, Mahdi Sareban
Berger, Marc Moritz, Franziska Macholz, Peter Schmidt, Sebastian Fried, Tabea Perz, Daniel Dankl, Josef Niebauer, Peter Bärtsch, Heimo Mairbäurl, and Mahdi Sareban. Inhaled budesonide does not affect hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction at 4559 meters of altitude. High Alt Med Biol 19:52-59, 2018.-Oral intake of the corticosteroid dexamethasone has been shown to lower pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and to prevent high-altitude pulmonary edema. This study tested whether inhalation of the corticosteroid budesonide attenuates PAP and right ventricular (RV) function after rapid ascent to 4559 m...
March 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200842/hemodynamic-and-gas-exchange-effects-of-inhaled-iloprost-in-patients-with-copd-and-pulmonary-hypertension
#17
Lan Wang, Yuan-Zhe Jin, Qin-Hua Zhao, Rong Jiang, Wen-Hui Wu, Su-Gang Gong, Jing He, Jin-Ming Liu, Zhi-Cheng Jing
Studies have shown that vasodilators such as iloprost can be useful for treating pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, in patients with COPD, vasodilators may inhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and impair gas exchange. The efficacy and safety of iloprost inhalation was assessed in 67 patients with PH associated with COPD (COPD-PH), diagnosed by right heart catheterization. Of these, 37 patients had severe PH (mean pulmonary arterial pressure [mPAP] >35 mmHg or mPAP 25-35 mmHg with low cardiac index [<2...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188077/orai1-2-3-and-stim1-promote-store-operated-calcium-entry-in-pulmonary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cells
#18
Jian Wang, Chuyi Xu, Qiuyu Zheng, Kai Yang, Ning Lai, Tao Wang, Haiyang Tang, Wenju Lu
Previous studies have demonstrated that besides the classic canonical transient receptor potential channel family, Orai family and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) might also be involved in the regulation of store-operated calcium channels (SOCCs). An increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration promoted by store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) is a major trigger for pulmonary vasoconstriction and proliferation and migration of PASMCs. In this study, our data revealed the following: (1) in both rat distal pulmonary arteries and PASMCs, chronic hypoxia exposure upregulated the expression of Orai1 and Orai2, without affecting Orai3 and STIM1; (2) either heterozygous knockout of HIF-1 α in mice or knockdown of HIF-1 α in PASMCs abolished the hypoxic upregulation of Orai2, but not Orai1, suggesting the hypoxic upregulation of Orai2 depends on HIF-1 α ; and (3) using small interference RNA knockdown strategies, Orai1, 2, 3 and STIM1 were all shown to mediate SOCE in hypoxic PASMCs...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167165/long-term-high-altitude-hypoxia-influences-pulmonary-arterial-l-type-calcium-channel-mediated-ca-2-signals-and-contraction-in-fetal-and-adult-sheep
#19
Christine P Shen, Monica Romero, Alexander Brunelle, Craig Wolfe, Abigail Dobyns, Michael Francis, Mark S Taylor, Jose L Puglisi, Lawrence D Longo, Lubo Zhang, Christopher G Wilson, Sean M Wilson
Long-term hypoxia (LTH) has a profound effect on pulmonary arterial vasoconstriction in the fetus and adult. Dysregulation in Ca2+ signaling is important during the development of LTH-induced pulmonary hypertension. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that L-type Ca2+ channels (CaL ), which are voltage dependent and found in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle, are important in the adaptation of pulmonary arterial contractions in postnatal maturation and in response to LTH. Pulmonary arteries were isolated from fetal or adult sheep maintained at low or high altitude (3,801 m) for >100 days...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159668/new-pulmonary-hypertension-model-in-conscious-dogs-to-investigate-pulmonary-selectivity-of-acute-pharmacological-interventions
#20
Thomas Mondritzki, Philip Boehme, Lena Schramm, Julia Vogel, Ilka Mathar, Peter Ellinghaus, Peter Kolkhof, Erwin Bischoff, Jörg Hüser, Wilfried Dinh, Peter Sandner, Hubert Truebel
PURPOSE: Testing of investigational drugs in animal models is a critical step in drug development. Current models of pulmonary hypertension (PH) have limitations. The most relevant outcome parameters such as pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) are measured invasively which requires anesthesia of the animal. We developed a new canine PH model in which pulmonary vasodilators can be characterized in conscious dogs and lung selectivity can be assessed non-invasively. METHODS: Telemetry devices were implanted to measure relevant hemodynamic parameters in conscious dogs...
January 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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