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Critical power (CP)

Ryan M Broxterman, Phillip F Skiba, Jesse C Craig, Samuel L Wilcox, Carl J Ade, Thomas J Barstow
The sustainable duration of severe intensity exercise is well-predicted by critical power (CP) and the curvature constant (W'). The development of the W'BAL model allows for the pattern of W' expenditure and reconstitution to be characterized and this model has been applied to intermittent exercise protocols. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of relaxation phase duration and exercise intensity on W' reconstitution during dynamic constant power severe intensity exercise. Six men (24...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Sadafara A Pillai, Bhavesh Bharatiya, Matilde Casas, Emílio V Lage, Isabel Sandez-Macho, Haridas Pal, Pratap Bahadur
Ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EO-PO) block copolymer micelles are useful potential nanoreservoirs for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs. Considering that glycine is an excipient and can favorably affect the surface/micellar behavior and thus improve solubilization power/dispersion stability/wetting characteristics we have reported here studies on aqueous solution behavior of two commercially available branched block copolymers (Tetronics(®)) with differing hydrophobicities namely Tetronics(®) 1307 and 1304, hereafter referred as T1307 and T1304, in the presence of glycine...
September 12, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Kwangsun Yoo, Peter Lee, Moo K Chung, William S Sohn, Sun Ju Chung, Duk L Na, Daheen Ju, Yong Jeong
Brain connectivity analyses have been widely performed to investigate the organization and functioning of the brain, or to observe changes in neurological or psychiatric conditions. However, connectivity analysis inevitably introduces the problem of mass-univariate hypothesis testing. Although, several cluster-wise correction methods have been suggested to address this problem and shown to provide high sensitivity, these approaches fundamentally have two drawbacks: the lack of spatial specificity (localization power) and the arbitrariness of an initial cluster-forming threshold...
September 4, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
T Turnes, R A de Aguiar, R S de Oliveira Cruz, K Pereira, A F Salvador, F Caputo
In order to compare the effects of two 4-week interval training programs performed at the lower (Critical Power, CP) or at the higher (The highest intensity at which V˙O2max is attained, IHIGH) intensities of the severe exercise domain on sprint and endurance cycling performance, 21 recreationally trained cyclists performed the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) and a 250-kJ time trial. Accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD), surface electromyography (RMS), and blood lactate kinetics were measured during the WAnT. Subjects were assigned to 105% CP or IHIGH groups...
August 23, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Bettina Karsten, James Hopker, Simon A Jobson, Jonathan Baker, Luca Petrigna, Andreas Klose, Christopher Beedie
: Critical Power (CP) and W' are often determined using multi-day testing protocols. To investigate this cumbersome testing method, the purpose of this study was to compare the differences between the conventional use of a 24-h inter-trial recovery time with those of 3 h and 30 min for the determination of CP and W'. METHODS: 9 moderately trained cyclists performed an incremental test to exhaustion to establish the power output associated with the maximum oxygen uptake (p[Formula: see text]max), and 3 protocols requiring time-to-exhaustion trials at a constant work-rate performed at 80%, 100% and 105% of p[Formula: see text]max...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Tiago Turnes, Rafael Alves de Aguiar, Rogério Santos de Oliveira Cruz, Felipe Domingos Lisbôa, Kayo Leonardo Pereira, Fabrizio Caputo
PURPOSE: Although high-intensity interval training (HIT) seems to promote greater improvements in aerobic parameters than continuous training, the influence of exercise intensity on [Formula: see text] on-kinetics remains under investigation. METHODS: After an incremental test, twenty-one recreationally trained cyclists performed several time-to-exhaustion tests to determine critical power (CP), and the highest intensity (I HIGH), and the lowest exercise duration (T LOW) at which [Formula: see text] is attained during constant exercise...
October 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Zachary Lerner, Diane Damiano, Hyung-Soon Park, Andrew Gravunder, Thomas Bulea
Crouch gait, a pathological pattern of walking characterized by excessive knee flexion, is one of the most common gait disorders observed in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Effective treatment of crouch during childhood is critical to maintain mobility into adulthood, yet current interventions do not adequately alleviate crouch in most individuals. Powered exoskeletons provide an untapped opportunity for intervention. The multiple contributors to crouch, including spasticity, contracture, muscle weakness, and poor motor control make design and control of such devices challenging in this population...
July 27, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Xinhao Zhang, Lung Wa Chung, Yun-Dong Wu
With new advances in theoretical methods and increased computational power, applications of computational chemistry are becoming practical and routine in many fields of chemistry. In organic chemistry, computational chemistry plays an indispensable role in elucidating reaction mechanisms and the origins of various selectivities, such as chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivities. Consequently, mechanistic understanding improves synthesis and assists in the rational design of new catalysts. In this Account, we present some of our recent works to illustrate how computational chemistry provides new mechanistic insights for improvement of the selectivities of several organic reactions...
June 21, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
David C Poole, Mark Burnley, Anni Vanhatalo, Harry B Rossiter, Andrew M Jones
The hyperbolic form of the power-duration relationship is rigorous and highly conserved across species, forms of exercise and individual muscles/muscle groups. For modalities such as cycling, the relationship resolves to two parameters, the asymptote for power (critical power, CP) and the so-called W' (work doable above CP), which together predict the tolerable duration of exercise above CP. Crucially, the CP concept integrates sentinel physiological profiles - respiratory, metabolic and contractile - within a coherent framework that has great scientific and practical utility...
March 31, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Anni Vanhatalo, Matthew I Black, Fred J DiMenna, Jamie R Blackwell, Jakob Friis Schmidt, Christopher Thompson, Lee J Wylie, Magni Mohr, Jens Bangsbo, Peter Krustrup, Andrew M Jones
KEY POINTS: The power-asymptote (critical power; CP) of the hyperbolic power-time relationship for high-intensity exercise defines a threshold between steady-state and non-steady-state exercise intensities and the curvature constant (W') indicates a fixed capacity for work >CP that is related to a loss of muscular efficiency. The present study reports novel evidence on the muscle metabolic underpinnings of CP and W' during whole-body exercise and their relationships to muscle fibre type...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Ailish Malone, Damien Kiernan, Helen French, Valerie Saunders, Timothy O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Balance problems are common in children who have cerebral palsy (CP) but are active and ambulant. Control of the whole-body center of mass is critical in maintaining dynamic stability during challenging mobility tasks, such as clearing an obstacle while walking. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare trunk and lower limb kinematics and center-of-mass control in children with CP and those in children with typical development during obstacle crossing...
August 2016: Physical Therapy
Kristopher Mendes de Souza, Jeanne Dekerle, Paulo Cesar do Nascimento Salvador, Ricardo Dantas de Lucas, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci Guglielmo, Camila Coelho Greco, Benedito Sérgio Denadai
What is the central question of this study? Does the rate of utilization of W' (the curvature constant of the power-duration relationship) affect fatigue during severe-intensity exercise? What is the main finding and its importance? The magnitude of fatigue after two severe-intensity exercises designed to deplete the same fraction of W' (70%) at two different rates of utilization (fast versus slow) was similar after both exercises. Moreover, the magnitude of fatigue was related to critical power (CP), supporting the contention that CP is a key determinant in fatigue development during high-intensity exercise...
April 2016: Experimental Physiology
Mark Waldron, Adrian Gray, Nicola Furlan, Aron Murphy
Waldron, M, Gray, A, Furlan, N, and Murphy, A. Predicting the sprint performance of adolescent track cyclists using the 3-minute all-out test. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2299-2306, 2016-This study aimed to predict 500-m time trial (TT) and 2,000-m pursuit speed of adolescent cyclists (age range = 13-15 years) using mechanical parameters derived from a critical power (CP) test and anthropometric variables. Ten well-trained competitive cyclists were assessed for body composition, body mass, stature, and frontal surface area (FSA), as well as completing the CP test...
August 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Carl J Ade, Ryan M Broxterman, Jesse C Craig, Susanna J Schlup, Samuel L Wilcox, Thomas J Barstow
BACKGROUND: Missions to terrestrial destinations (i.e., asteroids, the Moon, and Mars) will consist of physically challenging mission-critical tasks. These tasks, coupled with the negative physiological effects of prolonged microgravity exposure, create a plausible situation in which physical requirements may exceed an astronaut's physical capacity. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the association of aerobic fitness and muscular strength parameters with performance during two field tests designed to simulate upper-body mission-critical activities...
November 2015: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Samantha Shearman, Dan Dwyer, Philip Skiba, Nathan Townsend
PURPOSE: This study investigated the efficacy of an intermittent critical power (CP) model, termed the "work-balance" (W'BAL) model, during high-intensity exercise in hypoxia (HYPO). METHODS: Eleven trained male cyclists (mean ± SD age, 27 ± 6.6 yr; V˙O2peak, 4.79 ± 0.56 L·min(-1)) completed a maximal ramp test and a 3-min "all-out" test to determine CP and work performed above CP (W'). On another day, an intermittent exercise test to task failure was performed...
March 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jeanne Dekerle, Kristopher Mendes de Souza, Ricardo Dantas de Lucas, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci Guglielmo, Camila Coelho Greco, Benedito Sérgio Denadai
INTRODUCTION: The characterization of the hyperbolic power-time (P-tlim) relationship using a two-parameter model implies that exercise tolerance above the asymptote (Critical Power; CP), i.e. within the severe intensity domain, is determined by the curvature (W') of the relationship. PURPOSES: The purposes of this study were (1) to test whether the amount of work above CP (W>CP) remains constant for varied work rate experiments of high volatility change and (2) to ascertain whether W' determines exercise tolerance within the severe intensity domain...
2015: PloS One
Tiago Turnes, Rafael Alves de Aguiar, Rogério Santos de Oliveira Cruz, Fabrizio Caputo
PURPOSE: Although time spent at VO2max (t@VO2max) has been suggested as an optimal stimulus for the promotion of greater VO2max improvements, scientific findings supporting this notion are surprisingly still lacking. To investigate this, the present study described t@VO2max in two different severe-intensity interval training regimens and compared its effects on aerobic indexes after a 4-week intervention. METHODS: Twenty-one recreational cyclists performed an incremental exercise test and six time-to-exhaustion tests on four different days to determine VO2max, lactate threshold (LT), critical power (CP) and the highest intensity (IHIGH) and lowest exercise duration (TLOW) at which VO2max was attained...
January 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Ida E Clark, Hannah E Gartner, Jade L Williams, Robert W Pettitt
The 3-minute all-out exercise test (3MT) has emerged as a useful procedure for identifying critical power (CP) and the finite work capacity above CP (W') within a single visit. The CP concept enables for the prediction of exhaustive time limits (T(LIMs)) for a wide range of severe intensity power outputs and is a method for prescribing high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Road cyclists often use the CompuTrainer for indoor HIIT. The purpose of this study was to validate the 3MT for use on the CompuTrainer...
March 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
M B La Monica, D Fukuda, K Beyer, M W Hoffman, A A Miramonti, M S Fragala, J R Stout, J R Hoffman
AIM: To test if the critical power (CP) concept can be utilized to determine the critical rest interval (CRI) using repeated sprint ability (RSA) testing with varying work-to-rest ratios. METHODS: Twelve recreationally trained men (mean±SD; age 24.1±3.6y) completed a graded exercise test and three RSA protocols with 6s maximal sprints and varying rest intervals (12-36s) on a cycle ergometer to determine CRI. Intermittent critical power (ICP) was calculated through the linear total work (TW) and time-to-exhaustion (TTE) relationship, whereas CRI was estimated using average work per sprint and ICP...
September 1, 2015: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Felipe D Lisbôa, Amadeo F Salvador, João A G Raimundo, Kayo L Pereira, Rafael A de Aguiar, Fabrizio Caputo
High-intensity interval training applied at submaximal, maximal, and supramaximal intensities for exercising at V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (t95V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) has shown similar adaptation to low-volume sprint interval training among active subjects. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate t95V[Combining Dot Above]O2max during 2 different intermittent exercises in the severe-intensity domain (e.g., range of power outputs over which V[Combining Dot Above]O2max can be elicited during constant-load exercise) and to identify an exercise protocol that reduces the time required to promote higher aerobic demand...
September 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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