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Critical power (CP)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566544/the-effects-of-priming-exercise-on-the-vo2-slow-component-and-the-time-course-of-muscle-fatigue-during-very-heavy-intensity-exercise-in-humans
#1
Paulo Cesar do Nascimento Salvador, Kristopher Mendes de Souza, Ricardo Dantas de Lucas, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci Guglielmo, Benedito Sérgio Denadai
We hypothesized that prior exercise would attenuate the muscle fatigue accompanied by the VO2SC behavior during a subsequent very heavy (VH) intensity cycling exercise. Thirteen healthy male subjects performed tests to determine the critical power (CP) and W' and six square-wave bouts until 3 or 8 min, each at a work rate set to deplete 70 % W' in 8 min, with an maximal isokinetic effort (MIE) before and after the conditions without (VHCON) and with prior exercise (VHEXP), to measure the cycling peak torque decrement...
March 22, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566520/comprehensive-representation-of-the-lennard-jones-equation-of-state-based-on-molecular-dynamics-simulation-data
#2
S Pieprzyk, A C Brańka, Sz Maćkowiak, D M Heyes
The equation of state (EoS) of the Lennard-Jones fluid is calculated using a new set of molecular dynamics data which extends to higher temperature than in previous studies. The modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin (MBWR) equation, which goes up to ca. T ∼ 6, is reparametrized with new simulation data. A new analytic form for the EoS, which breaks the fluid range into two regions with different analytic forms and goes up to ca. T ≃ 35, is also proposed. The accuracy of the new formulas is at least as good as the MBWR fit and goes to much higher temperature allowing it to now encompass the Amagat line...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541334/examination-of-resistance-settings-based-on-body-weight-for-the-3-minute-all-out-critical-power-test
#3
Marlene J Schulte, Jody L Clasey, Bradley S Fleenor, Haley C Bergstrom
There are conflicting suggestions regarding the most valid resistance (3-5% of body weight) to use for the critical power (CP) 3-min all-out (CP3min ) test to estimate CP and anaerobic work capacity (AWC). The purpose of this study was to determine if the CP and AWC estimates from the CP3min test were affected by the percentage of body weight used to set the resistance on a Monark cycle ergometer. Ten recreationally trained participants (mean ± SD: Age: 22.2 ± 2.2 yrs.) completed the CP3min test at resistances of 4...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521722/effects-of-two-hours-of-heavy-intensity-exercise-on-the-power-duration-relationship
#4
Ida E Clark, Anni Vanhatalo, Stephen J Bailey, Lee J Wylie, Brett S Kirby, Brad W Wilkins, Andrew M Jones
INTRODUCTION: Changes in the parameters of the power-time relationship (critical power (CP) and W') during endurance exercise would have important implications for performance. We tested the hypotheses that CP and W', estimated using the end-test power (EP) and the work done above EP (WEP), respectively, during a the 3-min all-out test (3MT), can be reliably determined, and would be lower, after completing 2-h of heavy-intensity exercise. METHODS: In study 1, six cyclists completed a 3MT immediately following 2-h of heavy-intensity exercise on two occasions to establish the reliability of EP and WEP...
March 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489713/contributions-of-lower-body-strength-parameters-to-critical-power-and-anaerobic-work-capacity
#5
M Travis Byrd, Brian J Wallace, Jody L Clasey, Haley C Bergstrom
This study examined the contribution of lower body strength and isokinetic peak torque measures to the prediction of critical power (CP) and anaerobic work capacity (AWC). Fourteen recreationally trained males (mean ± SD age: 22.4 ± 2.5 yrs; height: 177.9 ± 7.7 cm; body mass: 84.2 ± 12.4 kg) with anaerobic training experience completed this study. The lower body strength measures included one repetition max (1RM) bilateral back squat [BSq], isokinetic peak torque at 30°·sec [PT30] and isokinetic peak torque at 240°·sec [PT240]) of the dominant leg...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470151/caffeine-increases-both-total-work-performed-above-critical-power-and-peripheral-fatigue-during-a-4-km-cycling-time-trial
#6
Leandro Camati Felippe, Guilherme Assuncao Ferreira, Sara Kely Learsi, Daniel Boari, Rômulo Bertuzzi, Adriano Eduardo Lima-Silva
The link between total work performed above critical power (CP) and peripheral muscle fatigue during self-paced exercise is unknown. We investigated the influence of caffeine on the total work done above CP during a 4-km cycling time trial (TT), and the subsequent consequence on the development of central and peripheral fatigue. Nine cyclists performed three constant-load exercise trials to determine CP and two 4-km TT ~75 min after oral caffeine (5 mg·kg-1 ) or cellulose (placebo) ingestion. Neuromuscular functions were assessed before and 50 min after supplementation, and 1 min after TT...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444141/the-3-min-all-out-test-is-valid-for-determining-critical-power-but-not-anaerobic-work-capacity-in-tethered-running
#7
Maria Carolina Traina Gama, Ivan Gustavo Masselli Dos Reis, Filipe Antônio de Barros Sousa, Claudio Alexandre Gobatto
The purpose of the study was to investigate if the 3-min all-out test (3MT) is valid for obtaining critical power intensity (CP) and the amount of work that can be performed above CP (W') on non-motorized treadmills in tethered running. Eight physically active individuals (24 ± 3 years; 78.3 ± 8.7 kg; 179 ± 5 cm; 9.0 ± 2.5% body fat) performed four different efforts at constant intensity to exhaustion in order to determine CP and W'. The mechanical power values obtained were subsequently plotted with their corresponding time to exhaustion (limit time) for application of three mathematical models: power hyperbolic versus time limit (Hyp), linear power versus 1/time (P vs 1/t) and linear work versus time limit (Ԏ vs t)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432324/classification-of-intensity-in-team-sport-activity
#8
Ted Polglaze, Cruz Hogan, Brian Dawson, Alec Buttfield, Cristian Osgnach, Leanne Lester, Peter Peeling
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of critical metabolic power derived from variable-speed movement for classifying intensity in team sport activity. METHODS: Elite male hockey players (n = 12) completed a series of time trials (100 yd, 400 yd, 1500 yd) and a 3-min all-out test to derive both critical speed (CS) and critical power (CP). Heart rate (HR), blood lactate (BLa) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during each protocol. Participants (n = 10) then played 2 competitive hockey matches...
February 9, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401192/examination-of-a-multi-ingredient-pre-workout-supplement-on-total-volume-of-resistance-exercise-and-subsequent-strength-and-power-performance
#9
Haley C Bergstrom, M Travis Byrd, Brian J Wallace, Jody L Clasey
This study examined the acute effects of a multi-ingredient pre-workout supplement on: 1) total, lower, and upper body volume of resistance exercise; and 2) the subsequent lower body strength (isokinetic leg extension and flexion), lower (vertical jump [VJ] height), upper body power (bench-throw velocity [BTv]), and cycle ergometry performance (critical power [CP] and anaerobic work capacity [AWC]). Twelve men completed baseline strength and power measures prior to two experimental visits, supplement (SUP) and placebo (PL)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352330/relationship-between-power-duration-parameters-and-mechanical-and-anthropometric-properties-of-the-thigh-in-elite-cyclists
#10
Mehdi Kordi, Campbell Menzies, Len Parker Simpson
PURPOSE: The curvature constant (W') and asymptote (critical power; CP) of the power-duration relationship are important parameters for explaining cycling performance. Short-duration endurance cycling events rely more heavily on the W'; however, the full mechanistic underpinning of this parameter is yet to be determined. Evidence suggests both muscle volume and muscle strength may contribute to the magnitude of W'. Therefore, the present study investigated the relationship between power-duration parameters (CP and W') and (1) anthropometric and (2) mechanical properties of thigh muscles in a sample of elite cyclists...
March 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315165/exercise-thresholds-on-trial-are-they-really-equivalent
#11
Kevin Caen, Kobe Vermeire, Jan G Bourgois, Jan Boone
PURPOSE: The interchangeable use of whole-body exercise thresholds and breakpoints (BPs) in the local oxygenation response, as measured via near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), has recently been questioned in scientific literature. Therefore, the present study aimed to longitudinally investigate the interrelationship of four commonly used exercise thresholds: critical power (CP), the respiratory compensation point (RCP) and BPs in muscle (m[HHb]BP) and brain (c[O2Hb]BP) oxygenation. METHODS: Nine male participants (21...
January 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247712/effects-of-normobaric-hypoxia-on-upper-body-critical-power-and-anaerobic-working-capacity
#12
Michael B La Monica, David H Fukuda, Tristan M Starling-Smith, Ran Wang, Jay R Hoffman, Jeffrey R Stout
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of moderate normobaric hypoxia on the parameters of the work-time relationship in the upper body. METHODS: Twenty-one recreationally active men completed a graded exercise test in both normobaric hypoxia (H) and normoxia (N) to exhaustion on an arm ergometer to determine V̇O2 peak and peak power output (PPO). Each participant completed four constant work-rate (CWR) arm-cranking tests at 90-120% PPO in both environmental conditions...
February 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244861/reliability-of-the-parameters-of-the-power-duration-relationship-using-maximal-effort-time-trials-under-laboratory-conditions
#13
Christoph Triska, Bettina Karsten, Bernd Heidegger, Bernhard Koller-Zeisler, Bernhard Prinz, Alfred Nimmerichter, Harald Tschan
The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of critical power (CP) and the total amount of work accomplished above CP (W´) across repeated tests using ecologically valid maximal effort time-trials (TT) under laboratory conditions. After an initial incremental exercise test, ten well-trained male triathletes (age: 28.5 ± 4.7 years; body mass: 73.3 ± 7.9 kg; height: 1.80 ± 0.07 m; maximal aerobic power [MAP]: 329 ± 41 W) performed three testing sessions (Familiarization, Test I and Test II) each comprising three TT (12, 7, and 3 min with a passive recovery of 60 min between trials)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203319/critical-power-how-different-protocols-and-models-affect-its-determination
#14
Felipe Mattioni Maturana, Federico Y Fontana, Silvia Pogliaghi, Louis Passfield, Juan M Murias
In cycling, critical power (CP) and work above CP (W') can be estimated through linear and nonlinear models. Despite the concept of CP representing the upper boundary of sustainable exercise, overestimations may be made as the models possess inherent limitations and the protocol design is not always appropriate. OBJECTIVES: To measure and compare CP and W' through the exponential (CPexp ), 3-parameter hyperbolic (CP3-hyp ), 2-parameter hyperbolic (CP2-hyp ), linear (CPlinear ), and linear 1/time (CP1/time ) models, using different combinations of TTE trials of different durations (approximately 1-20min)...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124324/the-effect-of-mental-fatigue-on-critical-power-during-cycling-exercise
#15
Hawbeer Salam, Samuele M Marcora, James G Hopker
PURPOSE: Time to exhaustion (TTE) tests used in the determination of critical power (CP) and curvature constant (W') of the power-duration relationship are strongly influenced by the perception of effort (PE). This study aimed to investigate whether manipulation of the PE alters the CP and W'. METHODS: Eleven trained cyclists completed a series of TTE tests to establish CP and W' under two conditions, following a mentally fatiguing (MF), or a control (CON) task...
January 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035607/accuracy-of-w-recovery-kinetics-in-high-performance-cyclists-modelling-intermittent-work-capacity
#16
Jason C Bartram, Dominic Thewlis, David T Martin, Kevin I Norton
PURPOSE: With knowledge of an individual's critical power (CP) and W' the SKIBA 2 model provides a framework with which to track W' balance during intermittent high intensity work bouts. There are fears the time constant controlling the recovery rate of W' (τW') may require refinement to enable effective use in an elite population. METHODS: Four elite endurance cyclists completed an array of intermittent exercise protocols to volitional exhaustion. Each protocol lasted approximately 3...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892462/cycling-performance-is-superior-for-time-to-exhaustion-versus-time-trial-in-endurance-laboratory-tests
#17
Sarah L Coakley, Louis Passfield
Time-to-exhaustion (TTE) trials are used in a laboratory setting to measure endurance performance. However, there is some concern with their ecological validity compared with time-trials (TT). Consequently, we aimed to compare cycling performance in TTE and TT where the duration of the trials was matched. Seventeen trained male cyclists completed three TTE trials at 80, 100 and 105% of maximal aerobic power (MAP). On a subsequent visit they performed three TT over the same duration as the TTE. Participants were blinded to elapsed time, power output, cadence and heart rate (HR)...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832393/caffeine-increases-work-done-above-critical-power-but-not-anaerobic-work
#18
Rodrigo Silveira, Victor Amorim Andrade-Souza, Lucyana Arcoverde, Fabiano Tomazini, André Sansonio, David John Bishop, Romulo Bertuzzi, Adriano Eduardo Lima-Silva
PURPOSE: The assumption that the curvature constant (W´) of the power-duration relationship represents anaerobic work capacity is a controversial, unresolved question. We investigated if caffeine ingestion could increase total work done above critical power (CP), and if this would be accompanied by greater anaerobic energy expenditure and by an enhanced maintenance of maximal oxidative metabolic rate. METHODS: Nine men (26.6 ± 5.3 years, V˙O2max 40.6 ± 5.8 mL·kg·min) cycled until exhaustion at different exercise intensities on different days to determine the CP and W´...
August 21, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812241/plasma-glycoproteomic-study-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-reveals-novel-markers-predicting-neurologic-outcome-post-cardiac-arrest
#19
Wenjun Deng, Jing Cao, Lei Chen, David McMullin, James L Januzzi, Ferdinando S Buonanno, Eng H Lo, MingMing Ning
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a neuroprotective treatment post-cardiac arrest but is grossly underutilized. After TH induction, traditional biomarkers and parameters can no long predict clinical outcome due to a lack of understanding of hypothermic response. Innovative approaches to better understand the clinical effect of TH will help to prognosticate outcome and expand beneficial population. Protein glycosylation is an important extracellular post-translational modification, regulating various extracellular signaling pathways...
February 2018: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704307/acute-cardiopulmonary-metabolic-and-neuromuscular-responses-to-severe-intensity-intermittent-exercises
#20
Felipe D Lisbôa, João A G Raimundo, Amadeo F Salvador, Kayo L Pereira, Tiago Turnes, Fernando Diefenthaeler, Mariana F M de Oliveira, Fabrizio Caputo
The purpose of this study was to compare cardiopulmonary, neuromuscular, and metabolic responses to severe-intensity intermittent exercises with variable or constant work rate. Eleven cyclists (28 ± 5 years; 74 ± 7 kg; 175 ± 5 cm; 63 ± 4 mL·kg·min) performed the following tests until exhaustion on separate days: 1) an incremental test; 2) in random order, two constant work rate tests at 95% and 110% of the peak power for the determination of Critical Power (CP); 3) 2-4 tests for the determination of the highest power that still permits the achievement of maximal oxygen uptake (PHIGH); and 4) two random severe-intensity intermittent exercises...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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