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Critical power (CP)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479931/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-aerobic-performance-adaptations-to-a-4-week-sprint-interval-training-in-young-healthy-untrained-females
#1
Mykolas Kavaliauskas, Thomas P Steer, John A Babraj
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test the effects of sprint interval training (SIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness and aerobic performance measures in young females. METHODS: Eight healthy, untrained females (age 21 ± 1 years; height 165 ± 5 cm; body mass 63 ± 6 kg) completed cycling peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text] peak), 10-km cycling time trial (TT) and critical power (CP) tests pre- and post-SIT. SIT protocol included 4 × 30-s "all-out" cycling efforts against 7 % body mass interspersed with 4 min of active recovery performed twice per week for 4 weeks (eight sessions in total)...
2017: Sport Sciences for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388783/the-reliability-and-validity-of-the-3-min-all-out-cycling-critical-power-test
#2
James Wright, Stewart Bruce-Low, Simon A Jobson
Research suggests that critical power (CP) can be estimated from a single 3-min bout of all-out cycling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the 3-min all-out cycling test when carried out at a constant cadence (isokinetic) and against a fixed resistance (linear). 12 participants completed 8 tests: 1) a ramp test; 2-4) 3 fixed power tests to calculate CP and W' using the 1/time mathematical model; 5-8) four 3-min all-out tests to calculate EP and WEP; 2 isokinetic and 2 linear tests...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386237/prediction-of-critical-power-and-w-in-hypoxia-application-to-work-balance-modelling
#3
Nathan E Townsend, David S Nichols, Philip F Skiba, Sebastien Racinais, Julien D Périard
Purpose: Develop a prediction equation for critical power (CP) and work above CP (W') in hypoxia for use in the work-balance ([Formula: see text]) model. Methods: Nine trained male cyclists completed cycling time trials (TT; 12, 7, and 3 min) to determine CP and W' at five altitudes (250, 1,250, 2,250, 3,250, and 4,250 m). Least squares regression was used to predict CP and W' at altitude. A high-intensity intermittent test (HIIT) was performed at 250 and 2,250 m. Actual and predicted CP and W' were used to compute W' during HIIT using differential ([Formula: see text]) and integral ([Formula: see text]) forms of the [Formula: see text] model...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332113/the-critical-power-concept-applications-to-sports-performance-with-a-focus-on-intermittent-high-intensity-exercise
#4
REVIEW
Andrew M Jones, Anni Vanhatalo
The curvilinear relationship between power output and the time for which it can be sustained is a fundamental and well-known feature of high-intensity exercise performance. This relationship 'levels off' at a 'critical power' (CP) that separates power outputs that can be sustained with stable values of, for example, muscle phosphocreatine, blood lactate, and pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), from power outputs where these variables change continuously with time until their respective minimum and maximum values are reached and exercise intolerance occurs...
March 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302463/critical-power-testing-or-self-selected-cycling-which-one-is-the-best-predictor-of-maximal-metabolic-steady-state
#5
Felipe Mattioni Maturana, Daniel A Keir, Kaitlin M McLay, Juan M Murias
Critical power (CP) demarcates the boundary between heavy and very heavy exercise intensity domains, and therefore, the power output (PO) that can be sustained at the maximal metabolic steady-state during constant-PO exercise (i.e., maximal lactate steady-state (MLSS)). However, the estimated CP does not always reflect a sustainable intensity of exercise, where blood lactate concentration ([La]) and oxygen uptake (V˙O2) reach a plateau. OBJECTIVES: To test cyclists' ability to predict their highest PO associated with metabolic steady-state based on their own perception of effort...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280973/determinants-of-curvature-constant-w-of-the-power-duration-relationship-under-normoxia-and-hypoxia-the-effect-of-pre-exercise-alkalosis
#6
Sanjoy K Deb, Lewis A Gough, S Andy Sparks, Lars R McNaughton
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of induced alkalosis on the curvature constant (W') of the power-duration relationship under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. METHODS: Eleven trained cyclists (mean ± SD) Age: 32 ± 7.2 years; body mass (bm): 77.0 ± 9.2 kg; VO2peak: 59.2 ± 6.8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) completed seven laboratory visits which involved the determination of individual time to peak alkalosis following sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion, an environment specific ramp test (e...
May 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272869/a-pyridine-alkoxide-chelate-ligand-that-promotes-both-unusually-high-oxidation-states-and-water-oxidation-catalysis
#7
Thoe K Michaelos, Dimitar Y Shopov, Shashi Bhushan Sinha, Liam S Sharninghausen, Katherine J Fisher, Hannah M C Lant, Robert H Crabtree, Gary W Brudvig
Water-oxidation catalysis is a critical bottleneck in the direct generation of solar fuels by artificial photosynthesis. Catalytic oxidation of difficult substrates such as water requires harsh conditions, so the ligand must be designed both to stabilize high oxidation states of the metal center and to strenuously resist ligand degradation. Typical ligand choices either lack sufficient electron donor power or fail to stand up to the oxidizing conditions. Our research on Ir-based water-oxidation catalysts (WOCs) has led us to identify a ligand, 2-(2'-pyridyl)-2-propanoate or "pyalk", that fulfills these requirements...
March 8, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166117/the-respiratory-compensation-point-is-not-a-valid-surrogate-for-critical-power
#8
Jeffrey A Leo, Surendran Sabapathy, Michael J Simmonds, Troy J Cross
PURPOSE: It is unclear whether the respiratory compensation point (RCP) may be used as a valid surrogate for critical power (CP). Accordingly, we sought to determine the measurement agreement between CP and the RCP obtained during incremental cycling of varying ramp slopes. METHODS: Eleven recreationally-active men completed three separate ramp-incremental cycling protocols, where the work rate increment was slow (SR: 15 W[BULLET OPERATOR]min), medium (MR: 30 W[BULLET OPERATOR]min) or fast (FR: 45 W[BULLET OPERATOR]min)...
February 4, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008101/muscle-metabolic-and-neuromuscular-determinants-of-fatigue-during-cycling-in-different-exercise-intensity-domains
#9
Matthew I Black, Andrew M Jones, Jamie R Blackwell, Stephen J Bailey, Lee J Wylie, Sinead T J McDonagh, Christopher Thompson, James Kelly, Paul Sumners, Katya N Mileva, Joanna L Bowtell, Anni Vanhatalo
Lactate or gas exchange threshold (GET) and critical power (CP) are closely associated with human exercise performance. We tested the hypothesis that the limit of tolerance (Tlim) during cycle exercise performed within the exercise intensity domains demarcated by GET and CP is linked to discrete muscle metabolic and neuromuscular responses. Eleven men performed a ramp incremental exercise test, 4-5 severe-intensity (SEV; >CP) constant-work-rate (CWR) tests until Tlim, a heavy-intensity (HVY; <CP but >GET) CWR test until Tlim, and a moderate-intensity (MOD; <GET) CWR test until Tlim Muscle biopsies revealed that a similar (P > 0...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991483/differing-six-minute-pacing-strategies-effect-anaerobic-contribution-oxygen-uptake-muscle-deoxygenation-and-cycle-performance
#10
John Murray, Michael McCrudden, Juan M Murias, Volker Nolte, Glen R Belfry
BACKGROUND: This study compared an all-out start (AO) to a constant power start strategy (CON) during a 6 min cycle performance on utilization of W ́ (energy above critical power (CP)), muscle deoxygenation (HHb), oxygen uptake (VO2) and performance in recreationally active individuals. The AO strategy was similar to that employed by rowers. METHODS: Eight healthy males (age = 24 ± 3 y) completed a ramp test to fatigue (VO2peak = 4.42 ± 0.54 L∙min-1; peak power = 385 ± 35 W) and a 3-min all-out test to determine CP and the CON work rate...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918663/comparison-of-critical-power-and-w-derived-from-two-or-three-maximal-tests
#11
Len Parker Simpson, Mehdi Kordi
PURPOSE: Typically, accessing the asymptote (Critical Power; CP) and curvature constant (W') parameters of the hyperbolic power-duration relationship requires multiple constant-power, exhaustive exercise trials, spread over several visits. However, more recently single-visit protocols and personal power meters have been used. We investigated the practicality of using a two-trial, single-visit protocol in providing reliable CP & W' estimates. METHODS: 8 trained cyclists underwent 3- and 12-min maximal exercise trials in a single session to derive (2-trial) CP & W' estimates...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867292/new-impella-cardiac-power-device-used-in-patient-with-cardiogenic-shock-due-to-nonischemic-cardiomyopathy
#12
Marek Cena, Frances Karam, Rajesh Ramineni, Wissam Khalife, Alejandro Barbagelata
The new percutaneous Impella CP (Cardiac Power; Abiomed, Inc., Danvers, MA) was designed to provide a higher level of support than Impella 2.5 (Abiomed, Inc.). We present the first documented case of a patient that was transitioned from the Impella 2.5 to Impella CP. A 48-year-old male patient with no medical history was transferred to our institution with a one day history of worsening shortness of breath. The patient was unstable and found to have monomorphic ventricular tachycardia at 220 beats/min that was cardioverted to normal sinus rhythm...
December 2016: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834562/predicting-critical-power-in-elite-cyclists-questioning-validity-of-the-3-min-all-out-test
#13
Jason C Bartram, Dominic Thewlis, David T Martin, Kevin I Norton
PURPOSE: New applications of the critical power concept, such as the modelling of intermittent work capabilities, are exciting prospects for elite cycling. However, accurate calculation of the required parameters is traditionally time invasive and somewhat impractical. An alternative single test protocol (3-min All-out) has recently been proposed, but validation in an elite population is lacking. The traditional approach for parameter establishment, but with fewer tests, could also prove an acceptable compromise...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819154/can-measures-of-critical-power-precisely-estimate-the-maximal-metabolic-steady-state
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Felipe Mattioni Maturana, Daniel A Keir, Kaitlin M McLay, Juan M Murias
Critical power (CP) conceptually represents the highest power output (PO) at physiological steady-state. In cycling exercise, CP is traditionally derived from the hyperbolic relationship of ∼5 time-to-exhaustion trials (TTE) (CPHYP). Recently, a 3-min all-out test (CP3MIN) has been proposed for estimation of CP as well the maximal lactate steady-state (MLSS). The aim of this study was to compare the POs derived from CPHYP, CP3MIN, and MLSS, and the oxygen uptake and blood lactate concentrations at MLSS. Thirteen healthy young subjects (age, 26 ± 3years; mass, 69...
November 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806677/power-duration-relationship-physiology-fatigue-and-the-limits-of-human-performance
#15
Mark Burnley, Andrew M Jones
The duration that exercise can be maintained decreases as the power requirements increase. In this review, we describe the power-duration (PD) relationship across the full range of attainable power outputs in humans. We show that a remarkably small range of power outputs is sustainable (power outputs below the critical power, CP). We also show that the origin of neuromuscular fatigue differs considerably depending on the exercise intensity domain in which exercise is performed. In the moderate domain (below the lactate threshold, LT), fatigue develops slowly and is predominantly of central origin (residing in the central nervous system)...
November 3, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787608/the-constant-work-rate-critical-power-protocol-overestimates-ramp-incremental-exercise-performance
#16
Matthew I Black, Andrew M Jones, James A Kelly, Stephen J Bailey, Anni Vanhatalo
PURPOSE: The parameters of the power-duration relationship (i.e., the critical power, CP, and the curvature constant, W') may theoretically predict maximal performance capability for exercise above the CP. The CP and W' are associated with the parameters of oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2) kinetics, which can be altered by manipulation of the work-rate forcing function. We tested the hypothesis that the CP and W' derived from constant work-rate (CWR) prediction trials would overestimate ramp incremental exercise performance...
December 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688431/w-expenditure-and-reconstitution-during-severe-intensity-constant-power-exercise-mechanistic-insight-into-the-determinants-of-w
#17
Ryan M Broxterman, Phillip F Skiba, Jesse C Craig, Samuel L Wilcox, Carl J Ade, Thomas J Barstow
The sustainable duration of severe intensity exercise is well-predicted by critical power (CP) and the curvature constant (W'). The development of the W'BAL model allows for the pattern of W' expenditure and reconstitution to be characterized and this model has been applied to intermittent exercise protocols. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of relaxation phase duration and exercise intensity on W' reconstitution during dynamic constant power severe intensity exercise. Six men (24...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639491/a-multitechnique-approach-on-adsorption-self-assembly-and-quercetin-solubilization-by-tetronics-%C3%A2-micelles-in-aqueous-solutions-modulated-by-glycine
#18
Sadafara A Pillai, Bhavesh Bharatiya, Matilde Casas, Emílio V Lage, Isabel Sandez-Macho, Haridas Pal, Pratap Bahadur
Ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EO-PO) block copolymer micelles are useful potential nanoreservoirs for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs. Considering that glycine is an excipient and can favorably affect the surface/micellar behavior and thus improve solubilization power/dispersion stability/wetting characteristics we have reported here studies on aqueous solution behavior of two commercially available branched block copolymers (Tetronics(®)) with differing hydrophobicities namely Tetronics(®) 1307 and 1304, hereafter referred as T1307 and T1304, in the presence of glycine...
December 1, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593391/degree-based-statistic-and-center-persistency-for-brain-connectivity-analysis
#19
Kwangsun Yoo, Peter Lee, Moo K Chung, William S Sohn, Sun Ju Chung, Duk L Na, Daheen Ju, Yong Jeong
Brain connectivity analyses have been widely performed to investigate the organization and functioning of the brain, or to observe changes in neurological or psychiatric conditions. However, connectivity analysis inevitably introduces the problem of mass-univariate hypothesis testing. Although, several cluster-wise correction methods have been suggested to address this problem and shown to provide high sensitivity, these approaches fundamentally have two drawbacks: the lack of spatial specificity (localization power) and the arbitrariness of an initial cluster-forming threshold...
January 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551939/high-intensity-interval-training-in-the-boundaries-of-the-severe-domain-effects-on-sprint-and-endurance-performance
#20
T Turnes, R A de Aguiar, R S de Oliveira Cruz, K Pereira, A F Salvador, F Caputo
In order to compare the effects of two 4-week interval training programs performed at the lower (Critical Power, CP) or at the higher (The highest intensity at which V˙O2max is attained, IHIGH) intensities of the severe exercise domain on sprint and endurance cycling performance, 21 recreationally trained cyclists performed the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) and a 250-kJ time trial. Accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD), surface electromyography (RMS), and blood lactate kinetics were measured during the WAnT. Subjects were assigned to 105% CP or IHIGH groups...
November 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
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