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Anaerobic work capacity

Premsuda Saman, Kieran M Tuohy, José A Vázquez, Glenn Gibson, Severino S Pandiella
The prebiotic ability of several rice bran fractions obtained by debranning (RBD) using human microbiota was studied in anaerobic batch cultures with agitation and pH-controlled. Fraction C (3.8-5% w/w pearling) from RBD increased the number of bifidobacteria and lactobacteria compared with the positive control, raftilose P95. RBD fermentation induced changes in the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile. In addition, Fraction C revealed the highest growth of positive lactobacteria than commercial control. The present work illustrates the prebiotic capacity of RBD to modulate human microbiota and highlights that fraction C could be an economical source for use in human food as well as an interesting alternative to valorise a by-product of cereal industry...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Jujun Ruan, Chao Zhang, Ya Li, Peiyi Li, Zaizhi Yang, Xiaohong Chen, Mingzhi Huang, Tao Zhang
This work proposes an on-line hybrid intelligent control system based on a genetic algorithm (GA) evolving fuzzy wavelet neural network software sensor to control dissolved oxygen (DO) in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process for treating papermaking wastewater. With the self-learning and memory abilities of neural network, handling the uncertainty capacity of fuzzy logic, analyzing local detail superiority of wavelet transform and global search of GA, this proposed control system can extract the dynamic behavior and complex interrelationships between various operation variables...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Shahid Manzoor, Erik Bongcam-Rudloff, Anna Schnürer, Bettina Müller
Syntrophaceticus schinkii is a mesophilic, anaerobic bacterium capable of oxidising acetate to CO2 and H2 in intimate association with a methanogenic partner, a syntrophic relationship which operates close to the energetic limits of microbial life. Syntrophaceticus schinkii has been identified as a key organism in engineered methane-producing processes relying on syntrophic acetate oxidation as the main methane-producing pathway. However, due to strict cultivation requirements and difficulties in reconstituting the thermodynamically unfavourable acetate oxidation, the physiology of this functional group is poorly understood...
2016: PloS One
Rebecca Garlock Ong, Alan Higbee, Scott Bottoms, Quinn Dickinson, Dan Xie, Scott A Smith, Jose Serate, Edward Pohlmann, Arthur Daniel Jones, Joshua J Coon, Trey K Sato, Gregg R Sanford, Dustin Eilert, Lawrence G Oates, Jeff S Piotrowski, Donna M Bates, David Cavalier, Yaoping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Interannual variability in precipitation, particularly drought, can affect lignocellulosic crop biomass yields and composition, and is expected to increase biofuel yield variability. However, the effect of precipitation on downstream fermentation processes has never been directly characterized. In order to investigate the impact of interannual climate variability on biofuel production, corn stover and switchgrass were collected during 3 years with significantly different precipitation profiles, representing a major drought year (2012) and 2 years with average precipitation for the entire season (2010 and 2013)...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Zach Rozenbaum, Shafik Khoury, Galit Aviram, Yaniv Gura, Jack Sherez, Avi Man, Jason Shimiaie, Thierry Le Tourneau, Amir Halkin, Simon Biner, Gad Keren, Yan Topilsky
BACKGROUND: Discriminating circulatory problems with reduced stroke volume from de-conditioning in which the muscles cannot consume O2 normally by gas exchange parameters is difficult. METHODS: We performed combined stress echo and cardio-pulmonary (CPET) tests in 110 patients (20 normal effort capacity, 54 attenuated stroke volume response, 36 de-conditioning) to evaluate multiple hemodynamic parameters and oxygen content difference (A-VO2 Difference) in four predefined activity levels to assess which of the gas measures may help in the discrimination...
October 11, 2016: Chest
Marta Z Pacia, Jan Pukalski, Katarzyna Turnau, Malgorzata Baranska, Agnieszka Kaczor
Various species of yeasts are gaining attention as producers of nutraceuticals and biofuels and due to their capacity to biodegrade chemical waste. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa is one of the most oleaginous species of yeast, an efficient de novo carotenoid producer and was reported to be capable of decomposing of organic pesticides. In this work we studied the influence of a toxic pesticide, diazinone, on production of storage (lipids) and protective (carotenoids, hemoproteins) compounds by Rh. mucilaginosa alive cells with the help of Raman imaging...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Haley Bergstrom, Terry Housh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Alan J Richardson, Rebecca L Relf, Arron Saunders, Oliver R Gibson
Sprint interval training (SIT) is an efficient intervention capable of improving aerobic capacity and exercise performance. This experiment aimed to determine differences in training adaptations and the inflammatory responses following 2 weeks of SIT (30 s maximal work, 4 min recovery; 4-7 repetitions) performed in normoxia or hypoxia. Forty-two untrained participants [(mean ± SD), age 21 ±1 years, body mass 72.1 ±11.4 kg, and height 173 ±10 cm] were equally and randomly assigned to one of three groups; control (CONT; no training, n = 14), normoxic (NORM; SIT in FiO2: 0...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Raquel M Cadete, Alejandro M de Las Heras, Anders G Sandström, Carla Ferreira, Francisco Gírio, Marie-Françoise Gorwa-Grauslund, Carlos A Rosa, César Fonseca
BACKGROUND: The production of ethanol and other fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic materials is dependent of efficient xylose conversion. Xylose fermentation capacity in yeasts is usually linked to xylose reductase (XR) accepting NADH as cofactor. The XR from Scheffersomyces stipitis, which is able to use NADH as cofactor but still prefers NADPH, has been used to generate recombinant xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Novel xylose-fermenting yeasts species, as those from the Spathaspora clade, have been described and are potential sources of novel genes to improve xylose fermentation in S...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Lilit Gabrielyan, Harutyun Sargsyan, Armen Trchounian
The present work was focused on the effects of low-intensity (the flux capacity was of 0.06mWcm(-2)) electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of extremely high frequencies or millimeter waves on the growth and hydrogen (H2) photoproduction by purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides MDC6521 (from Armenian mineral springs). After exposure of R. sphaeroides, grown under anaerobic conditions upon illumination, to EMI (51.8GHz and 53.0GHz) for 15min an increase of specific growth rate by ~1.2-fold, in comparison with control (non-irradiated cells), was obtained...
September 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Luc J Martin, Scott H Anderson, Matthew S Schmale, Jillian R Hallworth, Tom J Hazell
Sprint interval training (SIT) can elicit improvements in aerobic and anaerobic capacity. While variations in SIT protocols have been investigated, the influence of social processes cannot be overlooked. As research supports the use of groups to influence individual cognitions and behaviours, the current project assessed the effectiveness of a group-based intervention with participants conducting SIT. Specifically, 53 amateur athletes (age, 21.9 ± 2.9 years; 53% females) took part in a 4-week training program (3 sessions per week, 30-s "all-out" efforts with 4 min active recovery, repeated 4-6 times per session), and were assigned to "true group", aggregate, or individual conditions...
August 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Libera Fresiello, Roselien Buys, Steven Jacobs, Joeri Van Puyvelde, Walter Droogne, Filip Rega, Bart Meyns
BACKGROUND: In the present work, we investigated the exercise capacities of patients with partial flow left ventricular assist devices and its evolution over time. We then compared the exercise capacities of these patients with those of full support ventricular assist device patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the data of maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests of ten partial support patients (CircuLite Synergy® Micropump) collected before (PS0), at 3 (PS3) and 6 months (PS6) after implantation...
June 27, 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Sarah E Barchinger, Sahand Pirbadian, Christine Sambles, Carol S Baker, Kar Man Leung, Nigel J Burroughs, Mohamed Y El-Naggar, John H Golbeck
UNLABELLED: In limiting oxygen as an electron acceptor, the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 rapidly forms nanowires, extensions of its outer membrane containing the cytochromes MtrC and OmcA needed for extracellular electron transfer. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis was employed to determine differential gene expression over time from triplicate chemostat cultures that were limited for oxygen. We identified 465 genes with decreased expression and 677 genes with increased expression...
September 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Matthias Held, Philipp Kolb, Maria Grün, Berthold Jany, Gudrun Hübner, Aleksandar Grgic, Regina Holl, Hans-Joachim Schaefers, Heinrike Wilkens
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease (CTED) have persistent pulmonary vascular obstruction and exercise intolerance without pulmonary hypertension at rest and may benefit from pulmonary endarterectomy. However, up to now, CTED has been poorly characterized. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze the exercise capacity and limiting factors in CTED. METHODS: We compared right heart catheterization and cardiopulmonary exercise test results of patients with CTED [mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) at rest <25 mm Hg, n = 10], chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH, n = 31) and a control group (n = 41) presenting with dyspnea but normal pulmonary vascular imaging and excluded pulmonary hypertension...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Tim Hülsen, Edward M Barry, Yang Lu, Daniel Puyol, Damien J Batstone
Low wastewater temperatures affect microbial growth rates and microbial populations, as well as physical chemical characteristics of the wastewater. Wastewater treatment plant design needs to accommodate changing temperatures, and somewhat limited capacity is a key criticism of low strength anaerobic treatment such as Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors (AnMBR). This study evaluates the applicability of an alternative platform utilizing purple phototrophic bacteria for low temperature domestic wastewater treatment...
September 1, 2016: Water Research
Stanisław Sterkowicz, Janusz Jaworski, Grzegorz Lech, Tomasz Pałka, Katarzyna Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Przemysław Bujas, Paweł Pięta, Zenon Mościński
Years of training in competitive sports leads to human body adaptation to a specific type of exercise. In judo bouts, maintaining hand grip on an opponent's clothes and postural balance is essential for the effective technical and tactical actions. This study compares changes after maximal anaerobic exercise among judo athletes and untrained subjects regarding 1) maximum isometric handgrip strength (HGSmax) and accuracy at the perceived 50% maximum handgrip force (1/2HGSmax) and 2) the balance of 13 judo athletes at national (n = 8) and international (n = 5) competitive levels and 19 untrained university students...
2016: PloS One
Sylvie D Richer, Volker W Nolte, Dan J Bechard, Glen R Belfry
Richer, SD, Nolte, VW, Bechard, DJ, and Belfry, GR. Effects of novel supramaximal interval training versus continuous training on performance in preconditioned collegiate, national, and international class rowers. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1752-1762, 2016-This investigation compared supramaximal oxygen uptake interval training with continuous training in collegiate, national, and international class rowers. It was hypothesized that 6 supramaximal intensity sessions over 11 days would increase power on selected power measures...
June 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Baruch Vainshelboim, Jose Oliveira, Benjamin Daniel Fox, Mordechai Reuven Kramer
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, and fatal interstitial lung disease associated with poor prognosis and limited effective treatment options. Reliable predictors of outcome in daily clinical practice are needed to determine high-risk patients for urgent lung transplantation referral. This study aimed to identify practical prognostic predictors of mortality using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in IPF subjects. METHODS: Thirty-four subjects with IPF (22 men and 12 women), median age 68 (range 50-81) y were prospectively studied...
August 2016: Respiratory Care
Pedro P M Scariot, Fúlvia de Barros Manchado-Gobatto, Adriana S Torsoni, Ivan G M Dos Reis, Wladimir R Beck, Claudio A Gobatto
Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Because every movement in daily life (i.e., SPA) is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 1 and 4 in soleus (oxidative) and white gastrocnemius (glycolytic) muscles...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Konstantinos Gkoudas, Jose Afonso, Vicente Clemente-Suarez, Beat Knechtle, Stavros Kasabalis, Athanasios Kasabalis, Helen Douda, Savvas Tokmakidis, Gema Torres-Luque
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of vertical jump (Abalakov jump, AJ) with anthropometric and physiological parameters in youth elite female volleyball players. METHODS: Seventy-two selected volleyball players from the region of Athens (age 13.3±0.7 yrs, body mass 62.0±7.2 kg, height 171.5±5.7 cm, body fat 21.2±4.5%), classified into quartiles according to AJ performance (group A, 21.4-26.5 cm; group B, 26.8-29.9 cm; group C, 30...
May 3, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
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