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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906516/what-is-the-flynn-effect-and-how-does-it-change-our-understanding-of-iq
#1
REVIEW
David Shenk
In 1981, psychologist James Flynn noticed that IQ scores had risen streadily over nearly a century a staggering difference of 18 points over two generations. After a careful analysis, he concluded the cause to be culture. Society had become more intelligent-come to grips with bigger, more abstract ideas over time-and had made people smarter. This observation, combined with solid evidence that IQ scores are also not fixed within an individual, neatly dispels the idea of intelligence being an innate and fixed entity...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897284/ytterbium-erbium-ion-doped-strontium-molybdate-srmoo4-synthesis-characterization-photophysical-properties-and-application-in-solar-cells
#2
Weifu Sun, Zihan Chen, Junli Zhou, Dongyu Li, Zhen Huang, Xiao Jin, Qin Zhang, Feng Li, Qinghua Li
In this work, ytterbium-erbium co-doped strontium molybdate (SrMoO4, SMO) nanophosphors (NPs), denoted as SMO:Yb/Er, have been successfully prepared. These NPs were then incorporated into TiO2 acceptor films in hybrid solar cells to enhance light harvesting by virtue of an up-conversion process where low energy photons can be converted into high energy photons through multi-photon processes. The results showed that the SMO:Yb/Er single crystal NPs are capable of turning near infrared photons into visible ones that can be easily captured by poly(thieno[3,4-b]-thiophene/benzodithiophene) (PTB7)...
November 29, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893777/simulating-next-generation-sequencing-datasets-from-empirical-mutation-and-sequencing-models
#3
Zachary D Stephens, Matthew E Hudson, Liudmila S Mainzer, Morgan Taschuk, Matthew R Weber, Ravishankar K Iyer
An obstacle to validating and benchmarking methods for genome analysis is that there are few reference datasets available for which the "ground truth" about the mutational landscape of the sample genome is known and fully validated. Additionally, the free and public availability of real human genome datasets is incompatible with the preservation of donor privacy. In order to better analyze and understand genomic data, we need test datasets that model all variants, reflecting known biology as well as sequencing artifacts...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887699/an-improved-method-for-the-analysis-of-2-aminoacetophenone-in-wine-based-on-headspace-solid-phase-microextraction-and-heart-cut-multidimensional-gas-chromatography-with-selective-detection-by-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#4
Hans-Georg Schmarr, Jutta Keiser, Susann Krautwald
Heart-cut multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to selective mass spectrometric detection (H/C MDGC-MS-MS) was shown to be a suitable combination for analysis of the key component for the wine off-flavor named "atypical aging off-flavor" (german: "Untypische Alterungsnote", UTA), 2-aminoacetophenone (2-AAP). Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was applied as an easy to automate sample preparation step suiting routine control situations. During method development two critical aspects were found, of which one is the chemical degradation of the neat substance, leading to signal reduction and a false response behavior...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886655/gas-permeability-and-permselectivity-of-poly-l-lactic-acid-siox-film-and-its-application-in-equilibrium-modified-atmosphere-packaging-for-chilled-meat
#5
Tungalag Dong, Shuxin Song, Min Liang, Yu Wang, Xiaojing Qi, Yuqin Zhang, Xueyan Yun, Ye Jin
A layer of SiOx was deposited on the surface of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) film to fabricate a PLLA/SiOx layered film, by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. PLLA/SiOx film showed Young's modulus and tensile strength increased by 119.2% and 91.6%, respectively, over those of neat PLLA film. At 5 °C, the oxygen (O2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) permeability of PLLA/SiOx film decreased by 78.7% and 71.7%, respectively, and the CO2 /O2 permselectivity increased by 32.5%, compared to that of the neat PLLA film...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886552/three-dimensional-electrospun-pcl-pla-blend-nanofibrous-scaffolds-with-significantly-improved-stem-cells-osteogenic-differentiation-and-cranial-bone-formation
#6
Qingqing Yao, Jaqueline G L Cosme, Tao Xu, Jacob M Miszuk, Paulo H S Picciani, Hao Fong, Hongli Sun
Nanofibrous scaffolds that are morphologically/structurally similar to natural ECM are highly interested for tissue engineering; however, the electrospinning technique has the difficulty in directly producing clinically relevant 3D nanofibrous scaffolds with desired structural properties. To address this challenge, we have developed an innovative technique of thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration (TISA) recently. The aim of this work was to prepare (via the TISA technique) and evaluate 3D electrospun PCL/PLA blend (mass ratio: 4/1) nanofibrous scaffolds having high porosity of ∼95...
November 15, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885750/they-re-nice-and-neat-but-are-they-useful-a-grounded-theory-of-clinical-psychologists-beliefs-about-and-use-of-nice-guidelines
#7
Alex John Court, Anne Cooke, Amanda Scrivener
Guidelines are ubiquitous but inconsistently used in UK mental health services. Clinical psychologists are often influential in guideline development and implementation, but opinion within the profession is divided. This study utilized grounded theory methodology to examine clinical psychologists' beliefs about and use of NICE guidelines. Eleven clinical psychologists working in the NHS were interviewed. The overall emerging theme was; NICE guidelines are considered to have benefits but to be fraught with dangers...
November 25, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876009/lifestyle-medication-and-socio-demographic-determinants-of-mental-and-physical-health-related-quality-of-life-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#8
George A Jelinek, Alysha M De Livera, Claudia H Marck, Chelsea R Brown, Sandra L Neate, Keryn L Taylor, Tracey J Weiland
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (QOL) is a key outcome for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). While modifiable lifestyle factors, like smoking, physical activity and vitamin D, have strong associations with development and progression of MS, few studies have examined such associations with QOL. METHODS: Using patient-reported data from 2312 people with MS from 54 countries, regression models explored associations of socio-demographic, therapeutic and lifestyle factors with QOL, using the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54)...
November 22, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875123/synergetic-and-redundant-information-flow-detected-by-unnormalized-granger-causality-application-to-resting-state-fmri
#9
Sebastiano Stramaglia, Leonardo Angelini, Guorong Wu, Jesus M Cortes, Luca Faes, Daniele Marinazzo
OBJECTIVES: We develop a framework for the analysis of synergy and redundancy in the pattern of information flow between subsystems of a complex network. METHODS: The presence of redundancy and/or synergy in multivariate time series data renders difficulty to estimate the neat flow of information from each driver variable to a given target. We show that adopting an unnormalized definition of Granger causality, one may put in evidence redundant multiplets of variables influencing the target by maximizing the total Granger causality to a given target, over all the possible partitions of the set of driving variables...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874177/the-differentiation-of-menstrual-from-venous-blood-and-other-body-fluids-on-various-substrates-using-atr-ft-ir-spectroscopy
#10
Alicia A Quinn, Kelly M Elkins
Crime scene investigators and laboratory analysts use chemical tests to detect and differentiate body fluids. Testing often requires a sample of the stain, and the chemicals may cause degradation of the fluid or interfere with subsequent tests. Colorimetric chemical tests do not differentiate between different types of the same fluid, such as venous and menstrual blood, and there is no presumptive test available to simultaneously differentiate several body fluids. In this study, we recorded ATR FT-IR spectra of venous and menstrual blood, semen, saliva, and breastmilk...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872618/time-series-analysis-of-the-bacillus-subtilis-sporulation-network-reveals-low-dimensional-chaotic-dynamics
#11
Paola Lecca, Ivan Mura, Angela Re, Gary C Barker, Adaoha E C Ihekwaba
Chaotic behavior refers to a behavior which, albeit irregular, is generated by an underlying deterministic process. Therefore, a chaotic behavior is potentially controllable. This possibility becomes practically amenable especially when chaos is shown to be low-dimensional, i.e., to be attributable to a small fraction of the total systems components. In this case, indeed, including the major drivers of chaos in a system into the modeling approach allows us to improve predictability of the systems dynamics. Here, we analyzed the numerical simulations of an accurate ordinary differential equation model of the gene network regulating sporulation initiation in Bacillus subtilis to explore whether the non-linearity underlying time series data is due to low-dimensional chaos...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864053/studies-for-improved-understanding-of-lipid-distributions-in-human-skin-by-combining-stimulated-and-spontaneous-raman-microscopy
#12
A Klossek, S Thierbach, F Rancan, A Vogt, U Blume-Peytavi, E Rühl
Advanced Raman techniques, such as stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS), have become a valuable tool for investigations of distributions of substances in biological samples. However, these techniques lack spectral information and are therefore highly affected by cross-sensitivities, which are due to blended Raman bands. One typical example is the symmetric CH2 stretching vibration of lipids, which is blended with the more intense Raman band of proteins. We report in this work an approach to reduce such cross-sensitivities by a factor of 8 in human skin samples...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863671/oral-transmucosal-delivery-of-naratriptan
#13
Mohammed Sattar, Majella E Lane
Naratriptan (NAR) is currently used as the hydrochloride salt (NAR.HCl) for the treatment of migraine and is available in tablet dosage forms for oral administration. Buccal drug delivery offers a number of advantages compared with conventional oral delivery including rapid absorption, avoidance of first pass metabolism and improved patient compliance. We have previously prepared and characterised the base form of NAR and shown that it has more favourable properties for buccal delivery compared with NAR.HCl...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862986/analysing-the-emergency-department-patient-journey-discovery-of-bottlenecks-to-emergency-department-patient-flow
#14
Sankalp Khanna, Justin Boyle, Norm Good, Anthony Bell, James Lind
OBJECTIVE: Despite significant workflow reform to comply with the federally mandated National Emergency Access Target (NEAT), Australian public hospitals continue to face significant barriers in achieving good ED patient flow. This study was undertaken to identify and analyse the impact of individual waypoints on an ED patient's journey and identify which waypoints act as bottlenecks to a hospital's 4 h ED disposition performance. METHODS: This study involves retrospective analysis and simulation employing 2 years of ED administrative data from a sample of two major and two large metropolitan hospitals in Queensland, Australia...
November 8, 2016: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857134/germline-encoded-neutralization-of-a-staphylococcus-aureus-virulence-factor-by-the-human-antibody-repertoire
#15
Yik Andy Yeung, Davide Foletti, Xiaodi Deng, Yasmina Abdiche, Pavel Strop, Jacob Glanville, Steven Pitts, Kevin Lindquist, Purnima D Sundar, Marina Sirota, Adela Hasa-Moreno, Amber Pham, Jody Melton Witt, Irene Ni, Jaume Pons, David Shelton, Arvind Rajpal, Javier Chaparro-Riggers
Staphylococcus aureus is both an important pathogen and a human commensal. To explore this ambivalent relationship between host and microbe, we analysed the memory humoral response against IsdB, a protein involved in iron acquisition, in four healthy donors. Here we show that in all donors a heavily biased use of two immunoglobulin heavy chain germlines generated high affinity (pM) antibodies that neutralize the two IsdB NEAT domains, IGHV4-39 for NEAT1 and IGHV1-69 for NEAT2. In contrast to the typical antibody/antigen interactions, the binding is primarily driven by the germline-encoded hydrophobic CDRH-2 motifs of IGHV1-69 and IGHV4-39, with a binding mechanism nearly identical for each antibody derived from different donors...
November 18, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847860/morphology-of-anterolateral-ligament-of-the-knee-a-cadaveric-observation-with-clinical-insight
#16
Bhagath Kumar Potu, Abdel Halim Salem, Marwan F Abu-Hijleh
Background. The morphology and function of anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee are not clearly understood even today with all the sophisticated techniques available. There have been differing descriptions of the ALL of the knee in literature, and not all of them have been named or described clearly. Aim. The present study was undertaken to provide a clear structure/relationship description on ALL. Materials and Methods. We used 24 formalin-fixed cadaveric limbs. Knee regions of the all the limbs were neatly dissected and the ALL was exposed...
2016: Advances in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847300/a-review-of-the-progress-and-pitfalls-of-fda-policy-process-planning-a-pathway-for-pharmaceutical-interventions-for-hearing-loss-development
#17
Tanisha L Hammill
The Federal Food and Drug Administration, or FDA is generally considered a powerful gatekeeper, able to deliver or withhold life-saving cures and create or destroy economic windfalls. As the decades go by, and technologies, diseases, public health demands, and politics evolve, we can identify patterns of change, action and inter-action among some of these traditional stakeholders in the FDA's policy sphere. A careful examination of this agency's colorful history can shed light on central features of the agency's policy process, which has been quite receptive to its stakeholders and adaptive to change over the decades and, in turn, show the way for development in lanes which do not fit neatly into the current paradigms offered by the agency...
November 12, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842886/potential-of-electrospun-chitosan-fibers-as-a-surface-layer-in-functionally-graded-gtr-membrane-for-periodontal-regeneration
#18
Saad B Qasim, Shariq Najeeb, Robin M Delaine-Smith, Andrew Rawlinson, Ihtesham Ur Rehman
OBJECTIVE: The regeneration of periodontal tissues lost as a consequence of destructive periodontal disease remains a challenge for clinicians. Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has emerged as the most widely practiced regenerative procedure. Aim of this study was to electrospin chitosan (CH) membranes with a low or high degree of fiber orientation and examines their suitability for use as a surface layer in GTR membranes, which can ease integration with the periodontal tissue by controlling the direction of cell growth...
November 11, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842853/cellulose-nanofibrils-polyvinyl-acetate-nanocomposite-adhesives-with-improved-mechanical-properties
#19
Ons Chaabouni, Sami Boufi
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are nanoscale cellulose produced from renewable resources with strong reinforcing potential when included in a polymer matrix. In this work, the effect of the addition of CNFs on the properties of waterborne polyvinylacetate (PVA) adhesive was investigated. Adhesive formulations with different contents in CNFs from 1 to 10wt.% was prepared by simple mixing of PVA dispersion with CNFs suspension in water. The viscosity of the adhesive increased with the addition of CNFs, namely over a content of 5%...
January 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832353/a-proof-of-principal-study-on-the-use-of-direct-pcr-of-semen-and-spermatozoa-and-development-of-a-differential-isolation-protocol-for-use-in-cases-of-alleged-sexual-assault
#20
Shanan S Tobe, Yuvaneswari C Swaran, Lynn Dennany, Ursula Sibbing, Kristina Schulze Johann, Lindsey Welch, Marielle Vennemann
Sexual assault samples are some of the most common samples encountered in forensic analysis. These samples can require a significant time investment due to differential extraction processes. We report on the first record of successful direct amplification of semen for STR analysis. Neat seminal fluid, dilutions ranging from 1:5 to 1:160 and GEDNAP samples were successfully amplified using a direct method. A mild differential isolation technique to enrich spermatozoa was developed and successfully implemented to separate and directly amplify a mixture of semen and female epithelial cells...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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