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U Punjabi, H Van Mulders, I Goovaerts, K Peeters, K Clasen, P Janssens, O Zemtsova, D De Neubourg
BACKGROUND: Sperm DNA fragmentation measured by different techniques make comparisons impossible due to lack of standardization. Induction of DNA damage after sperm preparation in the entire fraction has been observed on independent occasions but findings are not consistent. METHODS: Men presenting at a University hospital setup for infertility treatment. DNA damage via TUNEL assay was validated on fresh semen samples, as conventional semen parameters, to reduce variability of results...
May 21, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Claudia H Marck, Alysha M De Livera, Chelsea R Brown, Sandra L Neate, Keryn L Taylor, Tracey J Weiland, Emily J Hadgkiss, George A Jelinek
BACKGROUND: Modifiable risk factors such as smoking and sedentary lifestyle adversely affect multiple sclerosis (MS) progression. Few multimodal behavioural interventions have been conducted for people with MS, and follow-up beyond 1 year is rare for lifestyle interventions. This study assessed adoption and adherence to healthy lifestyle behaviours and health outcomes 3 years after a lifestyle modification intervention, using generalized estimating equation models to account for within-participant correlation over time...
2018: PloS One
Jun Ma, Jean-Louis Marignier, Pascal Pernot, Chantal Houée-Levin, Anil Kumar, Michael D Sevilla, Amitava Adhikary, Mehran Mostafavi
In irradiated DNA, by the base-to-base and backbone-to-base hole transfer processes, the hole (i.e., the unpaired spin) localizes on the most electropositive base, guanine. Phosphate radicals formed via ionization events in the DNA-backbone must play an important role in the backbone-to-base hole transfer process. However, earlier studies on irradiated hydrated DNA, on irradiated DNA-models in frozen aqueous solution and in neat dimethyl phosphate showed the formation of carbon-centered radicals and not phosphate radicals...
May 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Solmaz Marzooghi, Bryson E Finch, William A Stubblefield, Dominic M Di Toro
The toxicity of petroleum can increase considerably when exposed to solar radiation. It occurs when certain components in the mixture, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), absorb light in ultraviolet and visible portions of the solar radiation spectrum. A phototoxic target lipid model (PTLM), previously developed to predict phototoxicity of single PAHs, is validated for four species: Americamysis bahia, Rhepoxynius abronius, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas exposed to 12 compounds that are components of petroleum, including alkylated PAHs and dibenzothiophene...
May 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Khitam Al-Refu, Awad Al-Tarawneh, Hussein Odeibat
BACKGROUND: Pityriasis rotunda is a rare skin disease characterized by the presence of multiple, round or oval, sharply demarcated hyperpigmented scaly patches. It has been described in Japan, South Africa, and in some other countries. The cause of pityriasis rotunda is usually idiopathic but may be associated with certain internal malignancy or systemic diseases. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe this rare entity in Jordan in a retrospective study during the last 10 years...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Dan-Dan Li, Jia-Wei Zhang, Chun Cai
Palladium nanoparticles were firstly anchored on modified biopolymer as an efficient catalyst for biofuel upgradation. Fluorinated compounds was grafted onto cellulose to obtain amphiphilic supports for on water reactions. Pd catalyst was prepared by straightforward deposition of metal nanoparticles on modified cellulose. The catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic activity and selectivity in hydrodeoxygenation of vanillin (a typical model compound of lignin) to 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol under atmospheric hydrogen pressure in neat water without any other additives under mild conditions...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Nianzu Liu, Ni Hui, Jason J Davis, Xiliang Luo
The construction of sensitive and selective biosensors capable of detecting specific targets in complex biological samples remains a challenge highly relevant to a range of sensor/diagnostic applications. Herein, we have utilized a multifunctional peptide to present an interface that supports the very specific recruitment of targets from serum. The novel peptide sequence designed contains an anchoring domain (CPPPP-), an antifouling domain (-NQNQNQNQDHWRGWVA) and a human immunoglobulin G (IgG) recognition domain (-HWRGWVA), and the whole peptide was designed to be antifouling...
May 17, 2018: ACS Sensors
Intan Diana Mat Azmi, Jesper Ostergaard, Stefan Sturup, Bente Gammelgaard, Arto Urtti, Seyed Moein Moghimi, Anan Yaghmur
Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II)) is among the most potent cytotoxic agents used in cancer chemotherapy. The encapsulation of cisplatin in lipid-based drug carriers has been challenging owing to its low solubility in both aqueous and lipid phases. Here, we investigated cisplatin encapsulation in non-lamellar liquid crystalline (LC) nanodispersions formed from a ternary mixture of phytantriol (PHYT), vitamin E (Vit E) and an anionic phospholipid [either phosphatidylglycerol (DSPG) or phosphatidylserine (DPPS)]...
May 16, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Daniel G Beach, Elliott S Kerrin, Krista Thomas, Michael A Quilliam, Pearse McCarron
Polar marine toxins are more challenging to analyze by mass spectrometry-based methods than lipophilic marine toxins, which are now routinely measured in shellfish by multiclass reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods. Capillary electrophoresis (CE)-MS/MS is a technique that is well suited for the analysis of polar marine toxins, and has the potential of providing very high resolution separation. Here, we present a CE-MS/MS method developed, with use of a custom-built interface, for the sensitive multiclass analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins, tetrodotoxins, and domoic acid in seafood...
May 16, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Hao Liu, Jianzhang Wang, Pengfei Jiang, Fengyuan Yan
The performance of polymer composites in seawater, under high hydrostatic pressure (typically few tens of MPa), for simulating exposures at great depths in seas and oceans, has been little studied. In this paper, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and its composites reinforced by carbon fibres and glass fibres were prepared. The seawater environment with different seawater hydrostatic pressure ranging from normal pressure to 40 MPa was simulated with special equipment, in which the seawater absorption and wear behaviour of PEEK and PEEK-based composites were examined in situ ...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Karuna Anna Sajeevan, Durba Roy
Judicious choice of solvent, temperature and strategic mutations along a peptide backbone can minimize formation of non-native disulfide bond isoforms in chemical synthesis of multiple cysteine containing venom toxins. By exploiting these controls, one can drive the population distribution in favor of a particular isoform. Some chosen ionic liquids (ILs), like 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate, [Im21][OAc], have proven efficient in favoring the native globular isoform in some conotoxins. To comprehend such a preference, we report an explicit solvent replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) study of two conotoxins, AuIB and GI, solvated in either neat water or ~50% (v/v) mixture of water-[Im21][OAc]...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
O J Clark, M J Neat, K Okawa, L Bawden, I Marković, F Mazzola, J Feng, V Sunko, J M Riley, W Meevasana, J Fujii, I Vobornik, T K Kim, M Hoesch, T Sasagawa, P Wahl, M S Bahramy, P D C King
We study the low-energy surface electronic structure of the transition-metal dichalcogenide superconductor PdTe_{2} by spin- and angle-resolved photoemission, scanning tunneling microscopy, and density-functional theory-based supercell calculations. Comparing PdTe_{2} with its sister compound PtSe_{2}, we demonstrate how enhanced interlayer hopping in the Te-based material drives a band inversion within the antibonding p-orbital manifold well above the Fermi level. We show how this mediates spin-polarized topological surface states which form rich multivalley Fermi surfaces with complex spin textures...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Edward Rea, Karine G Le Roch, Rita Tewari
Understanding how malaria parasites commit to sexual development is key to the development of transmission-blocking strategies. Recent work by Filarsky and colleagues extends our understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving this process by characterizing an early factor in gametocytogenesis, and showing how this fits neatly into our current knowledge of sexual commitment.
May 8, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Yin-Le Tan, Cheng-Huan Huang, Zhao-Xia Guo, Jian Yu
Polyamide 6 (PA6)/polystyrene (PS) blend pellets were prepared by diffusion and subsequent polymerization of styrene in commercial PA6 pellets and processed into cuboid-shaped bars by injection molding. The average PS particle size in the bars was 240 nm, slightly higher than that in the blend pellets (120 nm), showing that only limited coalescence occurs during injection molding. The mechanical properties of PA6/PS bars were investigated by tensile, flexural, and notched impact tests. A 41% increase in notched impact strength was found without decreasing the modulus, tensile, and flexural strengths and elongation to break, when compared with those of neat PA6 bars...
May 11, 2018: Materials
Ran Wei, Xiaoqun Wang, Xu Zhang, Chen Chen, Shanyi Du
To solve the drawbacks of poor dispersion and weak interface in gas barrier nanocomposites, a novel epoxy-diamine adduct (DDA) was synthesized by reacting epoxy monomer DGEBA with curing agent D400 to functionalize montmorillonite (MMT), which could provide complete compatibility and reactivity with a DGEBA/D400 epoxy matrix. Thereafter, sodium type montmorillonite (Na-MMT) and organic-MMTs functionalized by DDA and polyether amines were incorporated with epoxy to manufacture nanocomposites. The effects of MMT functionalization on the morphology and gas barrier property of nanocomposites were evaluated...
May 3, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tasnuva Haque, Khondaker Miraz Rahman, David E Thurston, Jonathan Hadgraft, Majella E Lane
Anthramycin (ANT) is a member of the pyrolobenzodiazepine family and is a potent cytotoxic agent. Previously, we reported the topical delivery of ANT from a range of solvents that may also act as skin penetration enhancers (SPEs). The skin penetration and uptake was monitored for simple solutions of ANT in propylene glycol (PG), dipropylene glycol (DiPG), Transcutol P (TC), isopropyl myristate (IPM), propylene glycol monocaprylate (PGMC) and propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML). The amounts of PG, DiPG and TC that were taken up by, and that penetrated the skin were also measured, with a clear dependence of ANT penetration on the rate and extent of PG and TC permeation...
May 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Alessandra Soriente, Ines Fasolino, Maria Grazia Raucci, Christian Demitri, Marta Madaghiele, Antonella Giuri, Alessandro Sannino, Luigi Ambrosio
The present work is focused on the design of a bioactive chitosan-based scaffold functionalized with organic and inorganic signals to provide the biochemical cues for promoting stem cell osteogenic commitment. The first approach is based on the use of a sequence of 20 amino acids corresponding to a 68-87 sequence in knuckle epitope of BMP-2 that was coupled covalently to the carboxyl group of chitosan scaffold. Meanwhile, the second approach is based on the biomimetic treatment, which allows the formation of hydroxyapatite nuclei on the scaffold surface...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Yuvarajan Devarajan, Arulprakasajothi Mahalingam, Dinesh Babu Munuswamy, Beemkumar Nagappan
The current work focuses on the experimental investigation to analyze the combustion and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine fueled with neat biodiesel (BD100) and different proportions of cyclohexanol blends as a fuel additive in various volume fractions. Cyclohexanol is dispersed into a neat biodiesel in a volume fraction of 10, 20, and 30 vol%. The biodiesel is produced from neem oil by the conventional transesterification process. The experimental results revealed that with the increased cyclohexanol fraction, the combustion was found smooth...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Craig Miller, Mauren Emanuelli, Elizabeth Fink, Esther Musselman, Ryan Mackie, Ryan Troyer, John Elder, Sue VandeWoude
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is the feline analogue to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and utilizes parallel modes of receptor-mediated entry. The FIV surface glycoprotein (SU) is an important target for induction of neutralizing antibodies, and autoantibodies to the FIV binding receptor (CD134) block infection ex vivo; thus highlighting the potential for immunotherapies which utilize anti-receptor antibodies to block viral infection. To determine whether vaccination with CD134-SU complexes could induce protection against FIV infection, cats ( n  = 5 per group) were immunized with soluble CD134, recombinant FIV-SU protein, and/or CD134+SU complexes...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
Alexander Lin, Matthew A Kupinski, Todd E Peterson, Sepideh Shokouh, Lindsay C Johnson
PURPOSE: In traditional multi-pinhole SPECT systems, image multiplexing - the overlapping of pinhole projection images - may occur on the detector, which can inhibit quality image re-constructions due to photon-origin uncertainty. One proposed system to mitigate the effects of multiplexing is the synthetic-collimator SPECT system. In this system, two detectors, a silicon detector and a germanium detector, are placed at different distances behind the multi-pinhole aperture, allowing for image detection to occur at different magnifications and photon energies, resulting in higher overall sensitivity while maintaining high resolution...
May 7, 2018: Medical Physics
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