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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816717/comparison-of-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-and-conventional-therapy-for-cranial-bone-exposed-wounds-in-rabbits
#1
Lin Chen, Guorui Li, Sha Liu, Xianjie Ma, Xueyong Li, Yingjun Su, Shuzhong Guo
BACKGROUND: Bone-exposed wounds with intact or defected periosteum are difficult to heal. To provide relevant experimental evidence for guidance of clinical therapy, we established a rabbit model to compare the efficacies of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) and conventional guaze dressing therapy on the healing of cranial bone-exposed wounds. METHODS: Full-thickness excisional circular wounds of 2.0 cm in diameter with exposed bones covered with or without periosteum were created at the parietal regions in 88 rabbits that were further randomly divided into the following treatment groups: periosteum-intact wounds treated with conventional vaseline gauze dressings (P + Control group), periosteum-intact wounds treated with NPWT (P + NPWT group), periosteum-lacking wounds treated with conventional vaseline gauze dressings (P-Control group), and periosteum-lacking wounds treated with NPWT (P-NPWT group)...
August 14, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815633/the-gas-that-fuels-the-engine-individuals-motivations-for-medicalisation
#2
Ann V Bell
It is well established that the drivers of medicalisation have shifted alongside changes in the institution of medicine. The process of medicalisation is no longer incited by macro processes of institutional prestige or control; rather, individual patients/consumers are pushing the process forward. The present study complicates this neat transition and examines the relationship between structure and agency using the case of assisted reproductive technology (ART), specifically the medicalisation of lesbian reproduction in the US...
August 16, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812902/charge-effects-on-the-efflorescence-in-single-levitated-droplets
#3
Gunter Hermann, Yan Zhang, Bernhard Wassermann, Henry Fischer, Marcel Quennet, Eckart Ruehl
The influence of electrical excess charges on the crystallization from supersaturated aqueous sodium chloride solutions is reported. This is accomplished by efflorescence studies on single levitated microdroplets using optical and electrodynamic levitation. Specifically, a strong increase in efflorescence humidity is observed as a function of the droplet's negative excess charge, ranging up to -2.1 pC, with a distinct threshold behavior, increasing the relative efflorescence humidity, at which spontaneous nucleation occurs, from 44% for the neutral microparticle to 60%...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812354/3d-moldable-nanofiber-reinforced-transparent-composites-with-hierarchically-self-assembled-reverse-nacre-like-architecture
#4
Subir Kumar Biswas, Hironari Sano, Md Iftekhar Shams, Hiroyuki Yano
Achieving structural hierarchy and a uniform nanofiller dispersion simultaneously remains highly challenging for obtaining a robust polymer nanocomposite of immiscible components. In this study, a remarkably facile Pickering emulsification approach is developed to fabricate hierarchical composites of immiscible acrylic polymer and native cellulose nanofibers by taking advantage of the dual role of the nanofibers as both the emulsion stabilizer and polymer reinforcement. The composites feature a unique "reverse" nacre-like microstructure reinforced with well-dispersed two-tier hierarchical nanofiber network, leading to a synergistic high strength, modulus, and toughness (20, 50, and 53 times that of neat polymer, respectively), high optical transparency (89%), high flexibility and a drastically low thermal expansion (13 ppm/K, 1/15th of the neat polymer)...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812182/rheological-characterization-of-molten-polymer-drug-dispersions-as-a-predictive-tool-for-pharmaceutical-hot-melt-extrusion-processability
#5
Jeroen Van Renterghem, Chris Vervaet, Thomas De Beer
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the influence of drug solid-state (crystalline or dissolved in the polymer matrix) on the melt viscosity and (ii) the influence of the drug concentration, temperature and shear rate on polymer crystallization using rheological tests. METHODS: Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) (100.000 g/mol) and physical mixtures (PM) containing 10-20-30-40% (w/w) ketoprofen or 10% (w/w) theophylline in PEO were rheologically characterized...
August 15, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810057/crowders-and-cosolvents-major-contributors-to-the-cellular-milieu-and-efficient-means-to-counteract-environmental-stresses
#6
Roland Hermann Alfons Winter, Mimi Gao, Christoph Held, Satyajit Patra, Loana Arns, Gabriele Sadowski
The free energy and conformational landscape of biomolecular systems as well as biochemical reactions depend not only on temperature and pressure, but also only the particular solution conditions. Such conditions include the effects of cosolvents (for example osmolytes) and macromolecular crowding, which are crucial components to understand the energetics and kinetics of biological processes in living system. Such conditions are also important for the understanding of many debilitating diseases, such as those where misfolding and amyloid formation of proteins are involved...
August 15, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809848/a-multimodal-dataset-for-various-forms-of-distracted-driving
#7
Salah Taamneh, Panagiotis Tsiamyrtzis, Malcolm Dcosta, Pradeep Buddharaju, Ashik Khatri, Michael Manser, Thomas Ferris, Robert Wunderlich, Ioannis Pavlidis
We describe a multimodal dataset acquired in a controlled experiment on a driving simulator. The set includes data for n=68 volunteers that drove the same highway under four different conditions: No distraction, cognitive distraction, emotional distraction, and sensorimotor distraction. The experiment closed with a special driving session, where all subjects experienced a startle stimulus in the form of unintended acceleration-half of them under a mixed distraction, and the other half in the absence of a distraction...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800109/effects-of-zno-nanoparticle-on-the-gas-separation-performance-of-polyurethane-mixed-matrix-membrane
#8
Banafsheh Soltani, Morteza Asghari
Polyurethane (PU)-ZnO mixed matrix membranes (MMM) were fabricated and characterized for gas separation. A thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), a scanning electron microscope (SEM) test and an atomic-force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the physical properties and thermal stability of the membranes were improved through filler loading. Hydrogen Bonding Index, obtained from the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), demonstrate that the degree of phase separation in PU-ZnO 0.5 wt % MMM was more than the neat PU, while in PU-ZnO 1...
August 11, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800095/influence-of-polymer-clay-interfacial-interactions-on-the-ignition-time-of-polymer-clay-nanocomposites
#9
Indraneel S Zope, Aravind Dasari, Zhong-Zhen Yu
Metal ions present on smectite clay (montmorillonite) platelets have preferential reactivity towards peroxy/alkoxy groups during polyamide 6 (PA6) thermal decomposition. This changes the decomposition pathway and negatively affects the ignition response of PA6. To restrict these interfacial interactions, high-temperature-resistant polymers such as polyetherimide (PEI) and polyimide (PI) were used to coat clay layers. PEI was deposited on clay by solution-precipitation, whereas PI was deposited through a solution-imidization-precipitation technique before melt blending with PA6...
August 11, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797817/biodegradable-poly-lactic-acid-cellulose-nanocrystals-cncs-composite-microcellular-foam-effect-of-nanofillers-on-foam-cellular-morphology-thermal-and-wettability-behavior
#10
Shasanka Sekhar Borkotoky, Prodyut Dhar, Vimal Katiyar
This article addresses the elegant and green approach for fabrication of bio-based poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/cellulose nanocrystal (CNCs) bionanocomposite foam (PLA/CNC) with cellular morphology and hydrophobic surface behavior. Highly porous (porosity >80%) structure is obtained with interconnected pores and the effect of CNCs in the cell density (Nf) and cell size of foams are thoroughly investigated by morphological analysis. The thermo-mechanical investigations are performed for the foam samples and almost ∼1...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797746/synthesis-of-wrinkled-mesoporous-silica-and-its-reinforcing-effect-for-dental-resin-composites
#11
Ruili Wang, Eric Habib, X X Zhu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to explore the reinforcing effect of wrinkled mesoporous silica (WMS), which should allow micromechanical resin matrix/filler interlocking in dental resin composites, and to investigate the effect of silica morphology, loading, and compositions on their mechanical properties. METHODS: WMS (average diameter of 496nm) was prepared through the self-assembly method and characterized by the use of the electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and the N2 adsorption-desorption measurements...
August 7, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796269/stereospecific-diaza-cope-rearrangement-as-an-efficient-tool-for-the-synthesis-of-dpeda-pyridine-analogs-and-related-c2-symmetric-organocatalysts
#12
A S Kucherenko, A A Kostenko, V V Gerasimchuk, S G Zlotin
A simple and efficient synthesis of enantiomerically pure (1S,2S)-1,2-di(pyridin-2-yl)- and (1R,2R)-1,2-di(pyridin-4-yl)-ethane-1,2-diamines from commercial picolinaldehyde or isonicotinaldehyde and 2,2'-((1S,2S)-1,2-diaminoethane-1,2-diyl)diphenol (HPEN) via a stereospecific diaza-Cope rearrangement has been developed. Diamine (R,R)-2b was readily converted to novel diastereomeric ionic group-supported bis-prolinamides (R,S)-1b and (R,R)-1b which appeared to be efficient organocatalysts of asymmetric cross-aldol reactions in aldehyde/aldehyde, ketone/ketone or ketone/aldehyde reagent systems under neat conditions to afford corresponding aldols in high yields and with up to 99% ee...
August 10, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795559/thermoresponsive-cellulose-acetate-poly-n-isopropylacrylamide-core-shell-fibers-for-controlled-capture-and-release-of-moisture
#13
Neha Thakur, Anupama Sargur Ranganath, Kostiantyn V Sopiha, Avinash Baji
In this study, we used core-shell electrospinning to fabricated cellulose acetate-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (CA-PNIPAM) fibrous membrane and demonstrated the ability of these fibers to capture water from a high humid atmosphere and release it when thermally stimulated. The wettability of the fibers was controlled by using a thermoresponsive PNIPAM as the shell layer. Scanning electron microscope and fluorescence microscopes are used to investigate the microstructure of the fibers and confirm the presence of the core and shell phases within the fibers...
August 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794423/on-the-chemistry-of-1-pyrroline-in-solution-and-in-the-gas-phase
#14
Xiaoping Zhang, Konstantin Chingin, Dacai Zhong, Juchao Liang, Yongzhong Ouyang, Huanwen Chen
1-Pyrroline has a highly characteristic odor, which is employed by living organisms for chemical signaling and other purposes, but the mechanism whereby this odor is formed remains poorly understood. Here we used a combination of ambient mass spectrometry (AMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to experimentally address the mechanistic aspects of 1-pyrroline volatility and other controversies regarding the chemistry of this compound. Our results indicate that in solution the volatility of the monomer species is significantly higher than that of the trimer species, and 1-pyrroline is evaporated mainly in its monomer state...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792010/cancer-biology-a-neat-target-of-p53
#15
Eytan Zlotorynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792002/in-vitro-human-skin-permeation-of-benzene-in-gasoline-effects-of-concentration-multiple-dosing-and-skin-preparation
#16
H Frederick Frasch, Ana M Barbero
In vitro human skin benzene permeation was measured from gasoline formulations with benzene concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 10 vol% and from neat benzene. Steady-state fluxes (JSS), permeability coefficients (kp) and lag times (tlag) were calculated from infinite dose exposures. Permeation of benzene from small gasoline doses administered over a two-day period was also studied. The thermodynamic activity of benzene in gasoline at 30 °C was determined and the solution is near-ideal over the range from 0...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783185/sum-frequency-generation-vibrational-spectroscopy-of-methacrylate-based-functional-monomers-at-the-hydrophilic-solid-liquid-interface
#17
Narendra M Adhikari, Uvinduni I Premadasa, Katherine L A Cimatu
2-Substituted ethyl methacrylate monomers were characterized using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFGVS) to study the effect of substituent groups in the organization of the monomers at the monomer-hydrophilic quartz interface. The SFG spectra of the methacrylate-based functional monomers collected at the hydrophilic quartz interface were found to be different from those collected at the air-monomer interface. The various spectral profiles indicated different conformations of the molecular groups at the solid-liquid interface...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774950/energy-expenditure-responses-to-exercise-training-in-older-women
#18
Xuewen Wang, Kimberly P Bowyer, Ryan R Porter, Charity B Breneman, Sabra S Custer
Previous studies have shown inconsistent findings regarding how structured exercise affects energy expenditure (EE). This study was designed to determine the changes in EE and physical activity following exercise training in older women. Nonobese (body mass index = 25.8 ± 3.4 kg·m(-2)) women (60-75 years, n = 72) completed a 4-month supervised aerobic exercise training of lower- or higher-dose (33.6 and 58.8 kJ·kg(-1) body weight weekly, respectively) at 50-55% of heart rate reserve. Total daily EE (TDEE) by the doubly labeled water method, resting metabolic rate (RMR) via indirect calorimetry, and physical activity by accelerometer were determined before and at the end of exercise training...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773881/frontal-conversion-and-uniformity-in-3d-printing-by-photopolymerisation
#19
Alessandra Vitale, João T Cabral
We investigate the impact of the non-uniform spatio-temporal conversion, intrinsic to photopolymerisation, in the context of light-driven 3D printing of polymers. The polymerisation kinetics of a series of model acrylate and thiol-ene systems, both neat and doped with a light-absorbing dye, is investigated experimentally and analysed according to a descriptive coarse-grained model for photopolymerisation. In particular, we focus on the relative kinetics of polymerisation with those of 3D printing, by comparing the evolution of the position of the conversion profile (zf) to the sequential displacement of the object stage (∆z)...
September 7, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773134/effect-of-starch-loading-on-the-thermo-mechanical-and-morphological-properties-of-polyurethane-composites
#20
Tayser Sumer Gaaz, Abu Bakar Sulong, M N M Ansari, Abdul Amir H Kadhum, Ahmed A Al-Amiery, Mohamed H Nassir
The advancements in material science and technology have made polyurethane (PU) one of the most important renewable polymers. Enhancing the physio-chemical and mechanical properties of PU has become the theme of this and many other studies. One of these enhancements was carried out by adding starch to PU to form new renewable materials called polyurethane-starch composites (PUS). In this study, PUS composites are prepared by adding starch at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 wt.% to a PU matrix. The mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of PU and PUS composites were investigated...
July 10, 2017: Materials
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