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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218827/reduction-of-line-edge-roughness-of-polystyrene-block-poly-methyl-methacrylate-copolymer-nanopatterns-by-introducing-hydrogen-bonding-at-the-junction-point-of-two-block-chains
#1
Kyu Seong Lee, Jaeyong Lee, Jongheon Kwak, Hong Chul Moon, Jin Kon Kim
To apply well-defined block copolymer nanopatterns to next-generation lithography or high-density storage devices, small line edge roughness (LER) of nanopatterns should be realized. Although polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymer (PS-b-PMMA) has been widely used to fabricate nanopatterns because of easy perpendicular orientation of the block copolymer nanodomains and effective removal of PMMA block by dry etching, the fabricated nanopatterns show poorer line edge roughness (LER) due to relatively small Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ) between PS and PMMA chains...
February 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217900/concerning-the-role-of-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-in-sn-1-reactions
#2
Yun X Qiao, Nils Theyssen, Tobias Eifert, Marcel A Liauw, Giancarlo Franciò, Karolin Schenk, Walter Leitner, Manfred T Reetz
A series of SN 1-type reactions has been studied under various conditions to clarify the role of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 ) as reaction medium for this kind of transformations. The application of scCO2 did not result in higher yields in any of the experiments in comparison to those under neat conditions or in the presence of other inert compressed gases. High-pressure UV/Vis spectroscopic measurements were carried out to quantify the degree of carbocation formation of a highly SN 1-active alkyl halide as a function of the applied solvent...
February 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214041/why-intensity-is-not-a-bad-word-optimizing-health-status-at-any-age
#3
REVIEW
Gary R Hunter, Eric P Plaisance, Stephen J Carter, Gordon Fisher
Age-related declines in health and function make locomotion increasingly difficult leading to reductions in non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT), skeletal muscle size and strength, and increased adiposity. Exercise is an important strategy to attenuate loss of function through the life cycle. Despite claims to the contrary, high-intensity exercise is important for the prevention of obesity and sarcopenia with advancing age. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to present literature supporting the contention that low volume, high-intensity aerobic and/or resistance training can slow sarcopenia, sustain ease of movement, stimulate NEAT, and attenuate the accretion of fat mass...
February 9, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212981/development-of-solid-sedds-vi-effect-of-precoating-of-neusilin%C3%A2-us2-with-pvp-on-drug-release-from-adsorbed-self-emulsifying-lipid-based-formulations
#4
Suhas G Gumaste, Beatryz O S Freire, Abu T M Serajuddin
Adsorption of lipid-based formulations, which are usually liquid, onto silicas has been extensively investigated in the past decade to convert them into solid dosage forms. There are conflicting reports on the ability of commercially available porous silicas, like Neusilin® US2, to release lipid formulations completely, especially after long-term storage. In this study, the release of a model drug, probucol, from different formulations of medium chain lipids and a surfactant, Kolliphor EL (Cremophor EL) or polysorbate 80, were studied after adsorbing them onto Neusilin® US2...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212642/beyond-cultural-stereotyping-views-on-end-of-life-decision-making-among-religious-and-secular-persons-in-the-usa-germany-and-israel
#5
Mark Schweda, Silke Schicktanz, Aviad Raz, Anita Silvers
BACKGROUND: End-of-life decision making constitutes a major challenge for bioethical deliberation and political governance in modern democracies: On the one hand, it touches upon fundamental convictions about life, death, and the human condition. On the other, it is deeply rooted in religious traditions and historical experiences and thus shows great socio-cultural diversity. The bioethical discussion of such cultural issues oscillates between liberal individualism and cultural stereotyping...
February 17, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211364/antibacterial-effect-of-novel-biodegradable-and-bioresorbable-plda-mg-composites
#6
M C Fernández-Calderón, S C Cifuentes, M A Pacha-Olivenza, A M Gallardo-Moreno, L Saldaña, J L González-Carrasco, M T Blanco, N Vilaboa, M L González-Martín, C Pérez-Giraldo
Polylactic acid/Mg composites have been recently proposed for biodegradable osteosynthesis devices because, with regards to the neat polymer, they combine an enhanced biocompatibility and bioactivity with better mechanical properties, particularly creep strength. A question still arises about their bacterial behavior. For this purpose, composites of poly-L-D-lactic acid (PLDA) loaded with 1 and 10 wt.% of Mg microparticles were evaluated using Staphylococcus epidermidis, with special emphasis on the study of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation...
February 17, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208658/synthesis-and-transport-properties-of-novel-mof-pim-1-mof-sandwich-membranes-for-gas-separation
#7
Alessio Fuoco, Muhanned R Khdhayyer, Martin P Attfield, Elisa Esposito, Johannes C Jansen, Peter M Budd
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were supported on polymer membrane substrates for the fabrication of composite polymer membranes based on unmodified and modified polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1). Layers of two different MOFs, zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) and Copper benzene tricarboxylate ((HKUST-1), were grown onto neat PIM-1, amide surface-modified PIM-1 and hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) -modified PIM-1. The surface-grown crystalline MOFs were characterized by a combination of several techniques, including powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the film morphology on the neat and modified PIM-1 membranes...
February 11, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208443/density-of-states-and-dynamical-crossover-in-a-dense-fluid-revealed-by-exponential-mode-analysis-of-the-velocity-autocorrelation-function
#8
S Bellissima, M Neumann, E Guarini, U Bafile, F Barocchi
Extending a preceding study of the velocity autocorrelation function (VAF) in a simulated Lennard-Jones fluid [Phys. Rev. E 92, 042166 (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.92.042166] to cover higher-density and lower-temperature states, we show that the recently demonstrated multiexponential expansion method allows for a full account and understanding of the basic dynamical processes encompassed by a fundamental quantity as the VAF. In particular, besides obtaining evidence of a persisting long-time tail, we assign specific and unambiguous physical meanings to groups of exponential modes related to the longitudinal and transverse collective dynamics, respectively...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203080/a-fully-integrated-new-paradigm-for-lithium-s-mode-of-action-lithium-utilizes-latent-cellular-fail-safe-mechanisms
#9
Arthur Ernst van Woerkom
It is proposed that lithium's therapeutic effects occur indirectly by augmenting a cascade of protective "fail-safe" pathways pre-configured to activate in response to a dangerous low cell [Mg(++)] situation, eg, posttraumatic brain injury, alongside relative cell adenosine triphosphate depletion. Lithium activates cell protection, as it neatly mimics a lowered intracellular [Mg(++)] level.
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202135/discovering-pockets-of-complexity-socioeconomic-status-stress-exposure-and-the-nuances-of-the-health-gradient
#10
Scott Schieman, Jonathan Koltai
One of the most pervasive statements about stratification and health identifies the strong inverse relationship-or gradient-between socioeconomic status (SES) and poor health. We elaborate on the ways that the SES-based gradient in stress exposure contributes to nuances in the SES-health association. In analyses of the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, we find some evidence that the inverse association between SES and health outcomes is finely graded-but several 'pockets of complexity' emerge. First, education and income have different associations with health and well-being...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199926/molecular-interactions-in-ethyl-acetate-chlorobenzene-binary-solution-dielectric-spectroscopic-studies-and-quantum-chemical-calculations
#11
N K Karthick, A C Kumbharkhane, Y S Joshi, A Mahendraprabu, R Shanmugam, A Elangovan, G Arivazhagan
Dielectric studies using Time Domain Reflectometry method has been carried out on the binary solution of Ethyl acetate (EA) with Chlorobenzene (CBZ) over the entire composition range. Spectroscopic (FTIR and (13)C NMR) signatures of neat EA, CBZ and their equimolar binary solution have also been recorded. The results of the spectroscopic studies favour the presence of (CBZ) CH⋯OC (EA), (EA) methylene CH⋯π electrons (CBZ) and (EA) methyl CH⋯Cl (CBZ) contacts which have been validated using quantum chemical calculations...
February 3, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193026/detection-of-sub-ppm-concentrations-of-ammonia-in-an-ionic-liquid-enhanced-current-density-using-filled-recessed-microarrays
#12
Ghulam Hussain, Debbie S Silvester
The voltammetric detection of less than 1 ppm of ammonia gas in the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C2mim][NTf2]) is demonstrated using low-cost planar electrode devices. Three commercially available planar devices were employed, all with platinum (Pt) working electrodes: a thin-film electrode (TFE), a screen-printed electrode (SPE), and a microarray thin film electrode (MATFE), along with an "ideal" conventional Pt microdisk electrode for comparison...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192361/synthesis-and-performance-of-antifouling-and-self-cleaning-polyethersulfone-graphene-oxide-composite-membrane-functionalized-with-photoactive-semiconductor-catalyst
#13
Nadir Dizge, Hakan Gonuldas, Yasin Ozay, Hasan Ates, Kasim Ocakoglu, Ersan Harputlu, Saadet Yildirimcan, Ali Unyayar
This study was performed to synthesize membranes of polyethersulfone (PES) blended with graphene oxide (GO) and PES blended with GO functionalized with photoactive semiconductor catalyst (TiO2 and ZnO). The antifouling and self-cleaning properties of composite membranes were also investigated. The GO was prepared from natural graphite powder by oxidation method at low temperature. TiO2 and ZnO nanopowders were synthesized by anhydrous sol-gel method. The surface of TiO2 and ZnO nanopowders was modified by a surfactant (myristic acid) to obtain a homogeneously dispersed mixture in a solvent, and then GO was functionalized by loading with these metal oxide nanopowders...
February 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191005/significance-of-anti-hla-antibodies-on-adult-and-pediatric-heart-allograft-outcomes
#14
REVIEW
Massimo Mangiola, Marilyn Marrari, Brian Feingold, Adriana Zeevi
As methods for human leukocyte antigens (HLA) antibody detection have evolved and newer solid phase assays are much more sensitive, the last 15 years has seen a renewed focus on the importance of HLA antibodies in solid organ transplant rejection. However, there is still much controversy regarding the clinical significance of antibody level as depicted by the mean fluorescence intensity of a patient's neat serum. Emerging techniques, including those that identify antibody level and function, show promise for the detection of individuals at risk of allograft rejection, determination of the effectiveness of desensitization prior to transplant, and for monitoring treatment of rejection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185564/comparative-genomics-meets-topology-a-novel-view-on-genome-median-and-halving-problems
#15
Nikita Alexeev, Pavel Avdeyev, Max A Alekseyev
BACKGROUND: Genome median and genome halving are combinatorial optimization problems that aim at reconstruction of ancestral genomes by minimizing the number of evolutionary events between them and genomes of the extant species. While these problems have been widely studied in past decades, their solutions are often either not efficient or not biologically adequate. These shortcomings have been recently addressed by restricting the problems solution space. RESULTS: We show that the restricted variants of genome median and halving problems are, in fact, closely related...
November 11, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185447/highly-efficient-deep-blue-electroluminescence-from-a-charge-transfer-emitter-with-stable-donor-skeleton
#16
Wen-Cheng Chen, Yi Yuan, Shao-Fei Ni, Ze-Lin Zhu, Jinfeng Zhang, Zuo-Quan Jiang, Liang-Sheng Liao, Fu-Lung Wong, Chun-Sing Lee
Organic materials containing arylamines have been widely used as hole-transporting materials as well as emitters in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). However, it has been pointed out that the C-N bonds in these arylamines can easily suffer from degradation in excited states, especially in deep-blue OLEDs. In this work, phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazole (PI) is proposed as a potential donor with higher stability than those of arylamines. Using PI as the donor, a donor-acceptor type deep-blue fluorophore 1-phenyl-2-(4″-(1-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-[1,1':4',1″-terphenyl]-4-yl)-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazole (BITPI) is designed and synthesized...
February 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183617/physical-chemical-and-antimicrobial-evaluation-of-a-composite-material-containing-quaternary-ammonium-salt-for-braces-cementation
#17
Mari Miura Sugii, Fábio Augusto de Souza Ferreira, Karina Cogo Müller, Debora Alves Nunes Leite Lima, Francisco Carlos Groppo, Hidetake Imasato, Ubirajara Pereira Rodrigues-Filho, Flávio Henrique Baggio Aguiar
The antibiofilm effect of iodide quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate (IQAMS) in Transbond XT Light Cure Adhesive resin used for braces cementation was evaluated. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed IQAMS formation and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled to Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) revealed that as coating, the quaternary ammonium groups from IQAMS were homogeneously dispersed throughout the surface. When incorporated, the composite material presented homogeneous dispersion throughout the resin...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183599/electrospun-curcumin-loaded-cellulose-acetate-polyvinylpyrrolidone-fibrous-materials-with-complex-architecture-and-antibacterial-activity
#18
Petya B Tsekova, Mariya G Spasova, Nevena E Manolova, Nadya D Markova, Iliya B Rashkov
Novel fibrous materials from cellulose acetate (CA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) containing curcumin (Curc) with original design were prepared by one-pot electrospinning or dual spinneret electrospinning. The electrospun materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), water contact angle measurements, and microbiological tests. It was found that the incorporation of Curc into the CA and PVP solutions resulted in an increase of the solution viscosity and obtaining fibers with larger diameters (ca...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182435/rewriting-the-story-of-excimer-formation-in-liquid-benzene
#19
E Siva Subramaniam Iyer, Arman Sadybekov, Oleg Lioubashevski, Anna I Krylov, Sanford Ruhman
Formation of benzene excimer following UV excitation of the neat liquid is moni- tored with femtosecond spectroscopy. A prompt rise component in excimer transient absorption, which contradicts the classical scenario of gradual reorientation and pairing of the excited monomers, is observed. Three-pulse experiments in which the evolving excimers are probed by a secondary dump pulse demonstrate that the excimer absorption band is polarized along the inter-fragment axis. The experi- ments furthermore prove that the subsequent 4-fold increase in excimer absorption over ∼50 ps is primarily due to an increase in the transition dipole of pairs which are formed early on, and not to excited monomers forming excimers in a delayed fashion due to unfavorable initial geometry...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177597/zero-order-antibiotic-release-from-multilayer-contact-lenses-nonuniform-drug-and-diffusivity-distributions-produce-constant-rate-drug-delivery
#20
Gustavo Guzman, Siamak Shams Es-Haghi, Turgut Nugay, Mukerrem Cakmak
A novel approach to zero-order constant-rate drug delivery from contact lenses is presented. Quasi-Case II non-Fickian transport is achieved by nonuniform drug and diffusivity distributions within three-layer bimodal amphiphilic conetworks (β-APCNs). The center layer is a highly oxygen permeable β-APCN matrix, which contains the drug and exhibits a high drug diffusivity. The outer β-APCN layers contain no-drug and are loaded with vitamin E, which slows diffusion. In contrast to single-layer neat-polymer and vitamin E-loaded films that display first-order "burst" kinetics, it is demonstrated experimentally and by modeling that the combined effect of nonuniform distribution of drug loading and diffusion constants within the three-layer lens maintains low local drug concentration at the lens-fluid interface and yields zero-order drug delivery...
February 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
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