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Julian Bejarano, Rainer Detsch, Aldo R Boccaccini, Humberto Palza
Novel multifunctional scaffolds for bone regeneration can be developed by incorporation of bioactive glasses doped with therapeutic and antibacterial metal ions, such as copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), into a biodegradable polymer. In this context, porous composite materials of biodegradable poly(D, L-lactide) (PDLLA) mixed with sol-gel bioactive glasses (BG) of chemical composition 60SiO2 ; 25CaO; 11Na2 O; and 4P2 O5 (mol.%) doped with either 1 mol% of CuO or ZnO, and with both metals, were prepared. The cytocompatibility of the scaffolds on bone marrow stromal cells (ST-2) depended on both, the amount of glass filler and the concentration of metal ion, as evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, cell viability (water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-8)), and by cell morphology (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) tests...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Stefania Perticaroli, Georg Ehlers, Christopher B Stanley, Eugene Mamontov, Hugh M O'Neill, Qiu Zhang, Xiaolin Cheng, Dean A A Myles, John Katsaras, Jonathan D Nickels
The structurally and dynamically perturbed hydration shells that surround proteins and biomolecules have a substantial influence upon their function and stability. This makes the extent and degree of water perturbation of practical interest for general biological study and industrial formulation. We present an experimental description of the dynamical perturbation of hydration water around green fluorescent protein in solution. Less than two shells (~5.5 Å) were perturbed, with dynamics a factor of 2‒10 times slower than bulk water, depending on their distance from the protein surface and the probe length of the measurement...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Tereza Cervena, Andrea Rossnerova, Jitka Sikorova, Vit Beranek, Michal Vojtisek-Lom, Miroslav Ciganek, Jan Topinka, Pavel Rossner
Internal combustion engine emissions belong among the major anthropogenic sources of air pollution in urban areas. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), there is sufficient evidence of the carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust in humans. Although alternative fuels, mainly biodiesel, have recently become popular, little is still known about the genotoxicity of emissions from these fuels. We analysed DNA damage expressed as the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B), induced by extractable organic matter (EOM; tested concentrations: 1, 10 and 25 μg/ml) obtained from particle emissions from various blends of biodiesel with diesel fuels (including neat diesel fuel (B0), a blend of 70% B0 and 30% biodiesel (B30) and neat biodiesel (B100))...
October 26, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Gordon Gong, Cassandra C Huey, Coleman Johnson, Debra Curti, Billy U Philips
One of the goals of the Affordable Care Act aims to provide affordable health insurance through the health insurance exchange marketplace (the Marketplace). This study explores enrollments in the Marketplace in Texas and in rural vs urban areas in the East, South, and West regions of the state. Data are derived from the US Census Bureau and the Department of Health and Human Services. A total of 92.7% of eligible non-elderly adult Texans (NEATs) had enrolled in Marketplace insurance as of February 2015. Rural residents were less likely than urban residents to use the Marketplace...
October 1, 2016: Texas Medicine
Weifeng Zhao, Jie Kong, Hu Liu, Qiang Zhuang, Junwei Gu, Zhanhu Guo
Self-alignment of thermally reduced graphene sheets (TRG) that enable highly efficient heat transfer paths in their poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO)-based nanocomposite films along the in-plane direction was achieved for the first time without any assistance of an external magnetic or an electric field. In the in-plane direction, the nanocomposite films possess an ultra-high thermal diffusivity (900-1000 mm(2) s(-1)) and a thermal conductivity (50 W m(-1) K(-1)) with a TRG concentration <5.0 vol%, setting a new record for polymer composites with such a low graphene filler loading...
October 24, 2016: Nanoscale
Sonia Suter
This commentary focuses on the tenuous line between health and disease and the conflicting characterizations of genetic predisposition that sometimes place it on one side of that line, and sometimes on the other. For example, GINA uses the line between health and disease to distinguish between, respectively, the healthy (including, those with genetic predispositions), who are shielded from discrimination, and those with 'manifested illness,' who are not. At the same time, some have argued that the Americans with Disabilities Act protects individuals with genetic predispositions, relying on a label akin to disability, as opposed to health, to characterize this group...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Guorui Jin, Jun Li, Kai Li
Photosensitive semiconducting polymer (SP) combined with light stimulation has shown the capability in promoting the proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). However, the high cytotoxicity of the used SP hindered its further application in bioactive scaffolds. In this contribution, we designed and synthesized a SP, poly (N,N-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-3,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)-2,5-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione-alt-thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PDBTT) with low cytotoxicity and strong absorbance in red and near-infrared region (600-1200nm)...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Viviane Nart, André O'Reilly Beringhs, Maria Terezinha França, Brenda de Espíndola, Bianca Ramos Pezzini, Hellen Karine Stulzer
Mini-tablets are a new tendency in solid dosage form design for overcoming therapeutic obstacles such as impaired swallowing and polypharmacy therapy. Among their advantages, these systems offer therapeutic benefits such as dose flexibility and combined drug release patterns. The use of lipids in the formulation has also drawn considerable interest as means to modify the drug release from the dosage form. Therefore, this paper aimed at developing sustained release mini-tablets containing the highly soluble drugs captopril and metformin hydrochloride...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Xiayin Yao, Deng Liu, Chunsheng Wang, Peng Long, Gang Peng, Yong-Sheng Hu, Hong Li, Liquan Chen, Xiaoxiong Xu
High energy and power densities are the greatest challenge for all-solid-state lithium batteries due to the poor interfacial compatibility between electrodes and electrolytes as well as low lithium ion transfer kinetics in solid materials. Intimate contact at the cathode/solid electrolyte interface and high ionic conductivity of solid electrolyte are crucial to realize high-performance all-solid-state lithium batteries. Here we report a general interfacial architecture, i.e. Li7P3S11 electrolyte particles anchored on cobalt sulfide nanosheets, by an in situ liquid-phase appraoch...
October 21, 2016: Nano Letters
Ning-Jiu Zhao, Yu-Wei Wang, Qian Liu, Zi-Hong Lin, Ran Liang, Li-Min Fu, Xi-Cheng Ai, Zhishan Bo, Jian-Ping Zhang
A pair of 9-arylidene-9H-fluorene and benzothiadiazole based, low-bandgap copolymers differing merely in the para or meta substitution of alkoxy groups to the arylidene linkages, i.e. p-PAFDTBT and m-PAFDTBT respectively, were comparatively investigated by using morphological characterization, ultrafast spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the subtle difference in the alkoxy substitution patterns, p-PAFDTBT molecules in photoactive films were shown to have a higher degree of crystallinity owing to the relatively less rotational torsion of the arylidene linkages...
October 21, 2016: Nanoscale
Qinheng Zheng, Jiajia Dong, K Barry Sharpless
A two-step, on-water procedure for the synthesis of ethenesulfonyl fluoride (ESF) is described. 2-Chloroethanesulfonyl fluoride is made via a neat reaction with an aqueous, near saturated potassium bifluoride solution from readily available 2-chloroethanesulfonyl chloride. The subsequent dehydrochlorination of 2-chloroethanesulfonyl fluoride proceeds neatly with magnesium oxide as the base in an aqueous suspension to give ESF. This recipe enables the preparation of ESF in 98% yield on kilogram scale.
October 20, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Punam Dalai, Hannes Lukas Pleyer, Henry Strasdeit, Stefan Fox
On the Hadean-Early Archean Earth, the first islands must have provided hot and dry environments for abiotically formed organic molecules. The heat sources, mainly volcanism and meteorite impacts, were also available on Mars during the Noachian period. In recent work simulating this scenario, we have shown that neat glycine forms a black, sparingly water-soluble polymer ("thermomelanoid") when dry-heated at 200 °C under pure nitrogen. The present study explores whether relevant minerals and mineral mixtures can change this thermal behavior...
October 18, 2016: Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere
Ariel Bohman, Mark A Arnold
Molar absorptivity is a fundamental molecular property that quantifies absorption strength as a function of wavelength. Absolute measurements of molar absorptivity demand accounting for all mechanisms of light attenuation, including reflective losses at interfaces associated with the sample. Ideally, such measurements are performed in nonabsorbing solvents and reflective losses can be determined in a straightforward manner from Fresnel equations or effectively accounted for by path length difference methods...
October 18, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
Alan Winston, Wolfgang Stöhr, Andrea Antinori, Helene Amieva, Philippe Perré, Stephane De Wit, Jacques Reynes, Mark Gompels, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Jose-Maria Gatell, Jesper Grarup, Anton Pozniak, Abdel Babiker, François Raffi, Laura Richert
BACKGROUND: Improvements in cognitive function are described after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), with sparse data on differences between cART strategies. METHODS: We assessed changes in cognition, over 96 weeks, in therapy naïve HIV-positive adults randomised to darunavir/ritonavir (800/100mg once daily) with either raltegravir (400mg twice daily, Arm1) or tenofovir/emtricitabine (245/200mg once daily, Arm2). Seven cognitive tests were administered at baseline and week 96...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Fereshteh Esfandiari, Mohammad Kazemi Ashtiani, Mehdi Sharifi-Tabar, Maryam Saber, Hamed Daemi, Mohammad Hossein Ghanian, Abdolhossein Shahverdi, Hossein Baharvand
Producing meiosis-competent germ cells (GCs) from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is essential for developing advanced therapies for infertility. Here, a novel approach is presented for generation of GCs from ESCs. In this regard, microparticles (MPs) have been developed from alginate sulfate loaded with bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4). The results here show that BMP4 release from alginate sulfate MPs is significantly retarded by the sulfated groups compared to neat alginate. Then, BMP4-laden MPs are incorporated within the aggregates during differentiation of GCs from ESCs...
October 17, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Miao Ai, Zhiyun Du, Siqi Zhu, Hongjuan Geng, Xu Zhang, Qing Cai, Xiaoping Yang
OBJECTIVE: The object is to find a functional one-dimensional nanofibrous filler for composite resin, which is able to provide both efficient reinforcement and high antibacterial activity. METHODS: Hydroxyapatite (HA) nanowires were synthesized via hydrothermal technique using calcium oleate as the precursor. Polydopamine (PDA)-coated HA (HA-PDA) nanowires were prepared by soaking HA nanowires in dopamine (DA) aqueous solution. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)-laden HA (HA-PDA-Ag) nanowires were prepared via reduction reaction by adding silver nitrate and glucose into HA-PDA suspensions in DI water...
October 10, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Yan Zhang, Richard G Weiss
The structural and dynamic properties of molecular gels, made from 9 structurally-related mono-, di, and tri-hydroxymethylated alkanamide gelators, have been examined at different distance scales. The subtle changes in the gelator structures, in terms of the number of hydroxymethyl groups and the length of the alkanamide chain, have been correlated with the type of the self-assembled fibrillar networks and the viscoelasticity of the gels as well as the characteristics of the liquid as indicated by Hansen solubility parameters...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Matthew Kochem, Paul A S Breslin
T1R2-T1R3 is a heteromeric receptor that binds sugars, high potency sweeteners, and sweet taste blockers. In rodents, T1R2-T1R3 is largely responsible for transducing sweet taste perception. T1R2-T1R3 is also expressed in non-taste tissues, and a growing body of evidence suggests that it helps regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. It was previously shown that clofibric acid, a blood lipid-lowering drug, binds T1R2-T1R3 and inhibits its activity in vitro The purpose of this study was to determine whether clofibric acid inhibits sweetness perception in humans and is, therefore, a T1R2-T1R3 antagonist in vivo Fourteen participants rated the sweetness intensity of 4 sweeteners (sucrose, sucralose, Na cyclamate, acesulfame K) across a broad range of concentrations...
October 14, 2016: Chemical Senses
Pei T Mah, Dunja Novakovic, Jukka Saarinen, Stijn Van Landeghem, Leena Peltonen, Timo Laaksonen, Antti Isomäki, Clare J Strachan
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of compression on the crystallization behavior in amorphous tablets using sum frequency generation (SFG) microscopy imaging and more established analytical methods. METHOD: Tablets containing neat amorphous griseofulvin with/without excipients (silica, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)) were prepared. They were analyzed upon preparation and storage using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SFG microscopy...
October 13, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Antonio G Zippo, Maurizio Valente, Gian Carlo Caramenti, Gabriele E M Biella
Chronic pain (CP) is a condition with a large repertory of clinical signs and symptoms with diverse expressions. Though widely analyzed, an appraisal at the level of single neuron and neuronal networks in CP is however missing. The present research proposes an empirical and theoretic framework which identifies a complex network correlate nested in the somatosensory thalamocortical (TC) circuit in diverse CP models. In vivo simultaneous extracellular neuronal electrophysiological high-density recordings have been performed from the TC circuit in rats...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
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