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Alan Y Hsu, Theodore Gurol, Tiago J P Sobreira, Sheng Zhang, Natalie Moore, Chufan Cai, Zhong-Yin Zhang, Qing Deng
Endotoxemia is a condition in which endotoxins enter the blood stream and cause systemic and sometimes lethal inflammation. Zebra fish provides a genetically tractable model organism for studying innate immunity, with additional advantages in live imaging and drug discovery. However, a bona fide endotoxemia model has not been established in zebra fish. Here, we have developed an acute endotoxemia model in zebra fish by injecting a single dose of LPS directly into the circulation. Hallmarks of human acute endotoxemia, including systemic inflammation, extensive tissue damage, circulation blockade, immune cell mobilization, and emergency hematopoiesis, were recapitulated in this model...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jitender Giri, Rahul Bhosale, Guoqiang Huang, Bipin K Pandey, Helen Parker, Susan Zappala, Jing Yang, Anne Dievart, Charlotte Bureau, Karin Ljung, Adam Price, Terry Rose, Antoine Larrieu, Stefan Mairhofer, Craig J Sturrock, Philip White, Lionel Dupuy, Malcolm Hawkesford, Christophe Perin, Wanqi Liang, Benjamin Peret, Charlie T Hodgman, Jonathan Lynch, Matthias Wissuwa, Dabing Zhang, Tony Pridmore, Sacha J Mooney, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Ranjan Swarup, Malcolm J Bennett
Root traits such as root angle and hair length influence resource acquisition particularly for immobile nutrients like phosphorus (P). Here, we attempted to modify root angle in rice by disrupting the OsAUX1 auxin influx transporter gene in an effort to improve rice P acquisition efficiency. We show by X-ray microCT imaging that root angle is altered in the osaux1 mutant, causing preferential foraging in the top soil where P normally accumulates, yet surprisingly, P acquisition efficiency does not improve. Through closer investigation, we reveal that OsAUX1 also promotes root hair elongation in response to P limitation...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Robin L Webb, Erin E Kaiser, Brian J Jurgielewicz, Samantha Spellicy, Shelley L Scoville, Tyler A Thompson, Raymond L Swetenburg, David C Hess, Franklin D West, Steven L Stice
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recent work from our group suggests that human neural stem cell-derived extracellular vesicle (NSC EV) treatment improves both tissue and sensorimotor function in a preclinical thromboembolic mouse model of stroke. In this study, NSC EVs were evaluated in a pig ischemic stroke model, where clinically relevant end points were used to assess recovery in a more translational large animal model. METHODS: Ischemic stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and either NSC EV or PBS treatment was administered intravenously at 2, 14, and 24 hours post-MCAO...
April 12, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Shannon L Wallace, Shailja Mehta, Sara Farag, Robert S Kelley, Katherine T Chen
INTRODUCTION: Thousands of medical applications (apps) are available for mobile devices. Finding accurate, health care provider-centered apps may be time consuming and frustrating for urogynecologists. The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate urogynecology (urogyn) apps using a modified APPLICATIONS scoring system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urogyn apps were identified from the Apple iTunes and Google Play Stores using the following 10 MeSH terms: urogynecology, incontinence, prolapse, urinary tract infection, pelvic surgery, fecal incontinence, defecation disorder, voiding disorder, urethral diverticulum, and fistula...
April 11, 2018: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
Dae-Keun Jeong, Hyun-Ho Choi, Jeong-Il Kang, Hyun Choi
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of pelvic movements on the back function of patients with lumbar disc herniation when lumbar stabilization exercise was applied to the patients, suggest an intervention method that can be used in future clinical therapies. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients with lumbar disc herniation underwent the intervention 30 minutes per day, three times per week for 4 weeks. Of them, 15 patients were assigned to the balance center stabilization resistance exercise group (experimental group I) and the other 15 were assigned to the three-dimensional stabilization exercise group (experimental group II)...
December 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Zolzaya Erdenebileg, So Hyun Park, Kyung Ja Chang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: College students are in transition from adolescence to adulthood, and it has been reported that they show poor dietary habits. This study was conducted to compare body image perception, nutrition knowledge, dietary attitudes, dietary habits, and health-related lifestyles between Korean college students (KCS) and Mongolian college students (MCS). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Subjects were 314 KCS and 280 MCS. The data includes results of self-administered questionnaires; statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 23...
April 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
Eleonora Tavazzi, Niels Bergsland, Davide Cattaneo, Elisa Gervasoni, Maria Marcella Laganà, Ottavia Dipasquale, Cristina Grosso, Francesca Lea Saibene, Francesca Baglio, Marco Rovaris
BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation seems to promote brain plasticity, but objective measures of efficacy are lacking and there is a limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying functional recovery. OBJECTIVE: To study functional and structural brain changes induced by gait rehabilitation. METHODS: We enrolled MS inpatients (EDSS 4.5-6.5) undergoing a 4-week neurorehabilitation. Several clinical measures were obtained, including: 2-min walk test (2MWT), dynamic gait index (DGI), Berg balance scale (BBS)...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Jana Wäldchen, Michael Rzanny, Marco Seeland, Patrick Mäder
Current rates of species loss triggered numerous attempts to protect and conserve biodiversity. Species conservation, however, requires species identification skills, a competence obtained through intensive training and experience. Field researchers, land managers, educators, civil servants, and the interested public would greatly benefit from accessible, up-to-date tools automating the process of species identification. Currently, relevant technologies, such as digital cameras, mobile devices, and remote access to databases, are ubiquitously available, accompanied by significant advances in image processing and pattern recognition...
April 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Mario Špadina, Simon Gourdin-Bertin, Goran Dražić, Atiđa Selmani, Jean-François Dufrêche, Klemen Bohinc
Charging of material surfaces in aqueous electrolyte solutions is one of the most important processes in the interactions between biomaterials and surrounding tissue. Other than a biomaterial, titania nanotubes (TiO2 NTs) represent a versatile material for numerous applications such as heavy metal adsorption or photocatalysis. In this article, the surface charge properties of titania NTs in NaNO3 solution were investigated through electrophoretic mobility and polyelectrolyte colloid titration measuring techniques...
April 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Brady Hunt, Jose Humberto Tavares Fregnani, Richard A Schwarz, Naitielle Pantano, Suelen Tesoni, Julio Cesar Possati-Resende, Marcio Antoniazzi, Bruno de Oliveira Fonseca, Graziela de Macedo Matsushita, Cristovam Scapulatempo-Neto, Ligia Kerr, Philip E Castle, Kathleen Schmeler, Rebecca Richards-Kortum
Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death in underserved areas of Brazil. This prospective randomized trial involved 200 women in southern/central Brazil with abnormal Papanicolaou tests. Participants were randomized by geographic cluster and referred for diagnostic evaluation either at a mobile van upon its scheduled visit to their local community, or at a central hospital. Participants in both arms underwent colposcopy, in vivo microscopy, and cervical biopsies. We compared rates of diagnostic follow-up completion between study arms, and also evaluated the diagnostic performance of in vivo microscopy compared to colposcopy...
April 4, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Ana C Vidal, Paula Banca, Augusto G Pascoal, Gustavo Cordeiro, João Sargento-Freitas, Ana Gouveia, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Background Understanding of interhemispheric interactions in stroke patients during motor control is an important clinical neuroscience quest that may provide important clues for neurorehabilitation. In stroke patients bilateral overactivation in both hemispheres has been interpreted as a poor prognostic indicator of functional recovery. In contrast, ipsilesional patterns have been linked with better motor outcomes. Aim We investigated the pathophysiology of hemispheric interactions during limb movement without and with contralateral restraint, to mimic the effects of constraint-induced movement therapy...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Marcos S Tatagiba, Rocío Evangelista-Zamora, Stefan Lieber
The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) usually runs loosely within the cerebellopontine cistern; in rare cases, however, it is firmly adherent to the petrous dura mater.1,2 Recognizing this variation is particularly important in vestibular schwannoma surgery via the retrosigmoid transmeatal approach to prevent the high morbidity associated with vascular injury. This video demonstrates a surgical technique to effectively mobilize the AICA when firmly adherent to the petrous dura mater. A 39-year-old man presented with a history of progressive right-sided hearing loss without facial weakness or other associated symptoms3...
March 29, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Chun-Yu Cheng, Rakshith Shetty, Vicente Martinez, Laligam N Sekhar
A 73-yr-old man presented with intractable left hemifacial spasm of 4 yr duration. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed significant compression of left facial nerve by the left vertebral artery (VA) and anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA).The patient underwent a left retrosigmoid craniotomy and a microvascular decompression of the cranial nerve (CN) VII. Intraoperatively, we found that the distal AICA had a protracted subarcuate extradural course.1 This was relieved by intra/extradural dissection...
March 29, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Xiang Li, Dawei Song, Peng Zhang, Yazhou Zhang, Yuexian Hou, Bin Hu
Recognizing cross-subject emotions based on brain imaging data, e.g., EEG, has always been difficult due to the poor generalizability of features across subjects. Thus, systematically exploring the ability of different EEG features to identify emotional information across subjects is crucial. Prior related work has explored this question based only on one or two kinds of features, and different findings and conclusions have been presented. In this work, we aim at a more comprehensive investigation on this question with a wider range of feature types, including 18 kinds of linear and non-linear EEG features...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jean-Paul J E Kleijnen, Bram van Asselen, Martijn Intven, Johannes P M Burbach, Marielle E P Philippens, Jan J W Lagendijk, Bas W Raaymakers
BACKGROUND: Rectal cancer patients that show a pathological complete response (pCR) after neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy, have better prognosis. To increase pCR rates several studies escalate the tumor irradiation dose. However, due to lacking tumor contrast on online imaging techniques, no direct tumor setup can be performed and large boost margins are needed to ensure tumor coverage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of performing a setup on rectal wall for rectal cancer boost radiotherapy, thereby using rectal wall nearby the tumor as tumor position surrogate...
April 4, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Evangelia-Regkina Symeonidou, Andrew D Nordin, W David Hairston, Daniel P Ferris
More neuroscience researchers are using scalp electroencephalography (EEG) to measure electrocortical dynamics during human locomotion and other types of movement. Motion artifacts corrupt the EEG and mask underlying neural signals of interest. The cause of motion artifacts in EEG is often attributed to electrode motion relative to the skin, but few studies have examined EEG signals under head motion. In the current study, we tested how motion artifacts are affected by the overall mass and surface area of commercially available electrodes, as well as how cable sway contributes to motion artifacts...
April 3, 2018: Sensors
Ho Yee Tiong, Benjamin Yen Seow Goh, Edmund Chiong, Lincoln Guan Lim Tan, Anatharaman Vathsala
Robotic-assisted kidney transplantation (RKT) with the Da Vinci (Intuitive, USA) platform has been recently developed to improve outcomes by decreasing surgical site complications and morbidity, especially in obese patients. This potential paradigm shift in the surgical technique of kidney transplantation is performed in only a few centers. For wider adoption of this high stake complex operation, we aimed to develop a procedure-specific simulation platform in a porcine model for the training of robotic intracorporeal vascular anastomosis and evaluating vascular anastomoses patency...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Robotic Surgery
Esther Garcia, Jorge Bernardino de la Serna
Quantitative fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy from optical microscopy datasets is a very powerful tool to resolve multiple spatiotemporal cellular and subcellular processes at the molecular level. In particular, raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) and number and brightness analyses (N&B) yield molecular mobility and clustering dynamic information extracted from real-time cellular processes. This quantitative information can be inferred in a highly flexible and detailed manner, i.e. 1) at the localisation level: from full-frame datasets and multiple regions of interest within; and 2) at the temporal level: not only from full-frame and multiple regions, but also intermediate temporal events...
March 29, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Alexey A Makarov, Benjamin F Mann, Erik L Regalado, Gregory F Pirrone, Cheng Sun, Shuwen Sun, Timothy Nowak, Heather Wang, Ian Mangion
Column temperature control is a fundamental component of liquid chromatography experiments. However, it is typically monitored indirectly by tracking the temperature of an adjacent heating element that exchanges heat with the column in a controlled environment. The practice of not directly measuring the column temperature means that uncontrolled contributions of heat, such as frictional heating inside the column, can be overlooked. The present work describes the use of a high-resolution infrared thermal imaging camera to directly measure the column heat map during mobile phase flow...
August 14, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
V I Hinojos-Armendáriz, S J Mejía-Rosales, M C Franco-Cabrera
PURPOSE: To optimise the radiation dose and image quality for chest radiography in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) by increasing the mean beam energy. METHODS: Two techniques for the acquisition of NICU AP chest X-ray images were compared for image quality and radiation dose. 73 images were acquired using a standard technique (56 kV, 3.2 mAs and no additional filtration) and 90 images with a new technique (62 kV, 2 mAs and 2 mm Al filtration). The entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) was measured using a phantom and compared between the techniques and against established diagnostic reference levels (DRL)...
May 2018: Radiography
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