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aboriginal health canada

M Anne George, Andrew Jin, Mariana Brussoni, Christopher E Lalonde, Rod McCormick
BACKGROUND: Children and youth worldwide are at high risk of injury resulting in morbidity, disability or mortality. Disparities in risk exist between and within countries, and by sex and ethnicity. Our aim is to contribute data on disparities of injury rates for Aboriginal children and youth compared with those of the general population in British Columbia (BC), Canada, by examining risks for the two populations, utilizing provincial administrative data over a 24-year period. METHODS: Hospital discharge records from the provincial health care database for children and youth were used to identify injury for the years 1986 to 2009...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Michel Landry, Nadia Veilleux, Julie-Eve Arseneault, Saneea Abboud, André Barrieau, Mathieu Bélanger
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance treatment programs implemented in Aboriginal communities have proven to be beneficial for the control of opioid addiction and its associated consequences, but the perceptions and opinions of different community members about these programs remain elusive. The goal of this study was to determine the perceptions of members of a First Nation community in New Brunswick, Canada, on the implementation of a methadone maintenance treatment program and its effects on the community...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
Annette J Browne, Colleen Varcoe, Josée Lavoie, Victoria Smye, Sabrina T Wong, Murry Krause, David Tu, Olive Godwin, Koushambhi Khan, Alycia Fridkin
BACKGROUND: Structural violence shapes the health of Indigenous peoples globally, and is deeply embedded in history, individual and institutional racism, and inequitable social policies and practices. Many Indigenous communities have flourished, however, the impact of colonialism continues to have profound health effects for Indigenous peoples in Canada and internationally. Despite increasing evidence of health status inequities affecting Indigenous populations, health services often fail to address health and social inequities as routine aspects of health care delivery...
October 4, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Russell J de Souza, Michael A Zulyniak, Dipika Desai, Mateen R Shaikh, Natalie C Campbell, Diana L Lefebvre, Milan Gupta, Julie Wilson, Gita Wahi, Stephanie A Atkinson, Koon K Teo, Padmaja Subbarao, Allan B Becker, Piushkumar J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Malcolm R Sears, Sonia S Anand
BACKGROUND: Canada is an ethnically diverse nation, which introduces challenges for health care providers tasked with providing evidence-based dietary advice. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to harmonize food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) across 4 birth cohorts of ethnically diverse pregnant women to derive robust dietary patterns to investigate maternal and newborn outcomes. METHODS: The NutriGen Alliance comprises 4 prospective birth cohorts and includes 4880 Canadian mother-infant pairs of predominantly white European [CHILD (Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development) and FAMILY (Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life)], South Asian [START (SouTh Asian birth cohoRT)-Canada], or Aboriginal [ABC (Aboriginal Birth Cohort)] origins...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Svetlana Popova, Shannon Lange, Charlotte Probst, Nino Parunashvili, Jürgen Rehm
Prenatal alcohol exposure may cause a number of health complications for the mother and developing fetus, including Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). This study aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of i) alcohol use (any amount) and binge drinking (4 or more standard drinks on a single occasion) during pregnancy, and ii) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and FASD among the general and Aboriginal populations in Canada and the United States, based on the available literature. Comprehensive systematic literature searches and meta-analyses, assuming a random-effects model, were conducted...
September 13, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Yelena Bird, Mark Lemstra, Marla Rogers, John Moraros
The transmission and prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among those employed as sex trade workers (STW) is a major public health concern. The present study describes the self-reported responses of 340 STW, at-risk for contracting HIV. The participants were recruited by selective targeting between 2009 and 2010 from within the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR), Saskatchewan, Canada. As of 2012, the SHR has the highest incidence rate of positive test reports for HIV in Canada, at more than three times the national average (17...
December 2016: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
David J DeWit, Samantha Wells, Tara Elton-Marshall, Julie George
We compared the mentoring experiences and mental health and behavioral outcomes associated with program-supported mentoring for 125 Aboriginal (AB) and 734 non-Aboriginal (non-AB) youth ages 6-17 participating in a national survey of Big Brothers Big Sisters community mentoring relationships. Parents or guardians reported on youth mental health and other outcomes at baseline (before youth were paired to a mentor) and at 18 months follow-up. We found that AB youth were significantly less likely than non-AB youth to be in a long-term continuous mentoring relationship...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Primary Prevention
Annalee Yassi, Jennifer Beth Spiegel, Karen Lockhart, Lynn Fels, Katherine Boydell, Judith Marcuse
Academics from diverse disciplines are recognizing not only the procedural ethical issues involved in research, but also the complexity of everyday "micro" ethical issues that arise. While ethical guidelines are being developed for research in aboriginal populations and low-and-middle-income countries, multi-partnered research initiatives examining arts-based interventions to promote social change pose a unique set of ethical dilemmas not yet fully explored. Our research team, comprising health, education, and social scientists, critical theorists, artists and community-activists launched a five-year research partnership on arts-for-social change...
2016: Journal of Academic Ethics
Leeann R Donnelly, Lauren Bailey, Abbas Jessani, Jonathan Postnikoff, Paul Kerston, Mario Brondani
HIV stigma may prevent people from obtaining a timely diagnosis and engaging in life-saving care. It may also prevent those who are HIV infected from seeking health and education resources, particularly if they are from marginalized communities. We inductively explored the roots of stigma and its impact on health services and resource seeking as experienced by HIV-infected members of marginalized communities in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, using a community-based participatory research framework. Five peer-facilitated focus groups were conducted with 33 Aboriginal, Latino, Asian, and African participants...
November 2016: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
Robert J Schroth, Carlos Quiñonez, Luke Shwart, Brandon Wagar
INTRODUCTION: Many Canadian children are affected by early childhood caries (ECC) and require treatment under general anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the burden of day surgery for children with ECC in Canada. METHODS: Day surgery abstracts for children 6 years of age with ECC were extracted from the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstract Database and National Ambulatory Care Reporting System for 4 years, 2010/11 to 2013/14...
July 2016: Journal—Canadian Dental Association, Journal de L'Association Dentaire Canadienne
Gisèle Carrière, Evelyne Bougie, Dafna Kohen, Michelle Rotermann, Claudia Sanmartin
BACKGROUND: National data about acute care hospitalization of Aboriginal people are scarce. This study addresses that information gap by describing patterns of hospitalization by Aboriginal identity for leading diagnoses for all provinces and territories except Quebec. DATA AND METHODS: The 2006 Census was linked to the 2006/2007-to-2008/2009 Discharge Abstract Database, which contains hospital records from all acute care facilities in Canada (excluding Quebec)...
August 17, 2016: Health Reports
Robert J Williams, Yale D Belanger, S Yvonne Prusak
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of gambling and problem gambling in urban Aboriginals in the Canadian Prairie provinces and to determine the predictors of problem gambling. METHOD: In total, 1114 Aboriginals living in 15 cities in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba were recruited via posters and direct solicitation at Native Friendship Centres, shopping malls, and other locations where Aboriginals congregated. They each completed a self-administered 5- to 10-minute survey...
November 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Mariam Naqshbandi Hayward, Jann Paquette-Warren, Stewart B Harris
BACKGROUND: Given the dramatic rise and impact of chronic diseases and gaps in care in Indigenous peoples in Canada, a shift from the dominant episodic and responsive healthcare model most common in First Nations communities to one that places emphasis on proactive prevention and chronic disease management is urgently needed. METHODS: The Transformation of Indigenous Primary Healthcare Delivery (FORGE AHEAD) Program partners with 11 First Nations communities across six provinces in Canada to develop and evaluate community-driven quality improvement (QI) initiatives to enhance chronic disease care...
2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
Gabe Lafond, Charlene R A Haver, Valerie McLeod, Sharon Clarke, Beth Horsburgh, Katherine M McLeod
RATIONALE: In Canada, Aboriginal people, particularly First Nations experience significant health disparities and a lower health status compared with the non-Aboriginal population. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the demographic and clinical characteristics of First Nations patients admitted to hospitals in Saskatchewan, and the acute care services used by First Nations compared with non-First Nations, specifically hospital length of stay...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Sarah Coke, Ayelet Kuper, Lisa Richardson, Anita Cameron
BACKGROUND: The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada recognizes education to be necessary for doctors to provide culturally safe care. Communities in northern Canada have large populations of Aboriginal people and other marginalized groups. Our goal was to identify the elements of appropriate predeparture curricula for these medical trainees. METHODS: We conducted our study in Kenora, Ontario. With the help of a core collaborative group and the support of the local Aboriginal Health Access Centre, we interviewed a purposive sample of community members about their interactions with trainees from southern Canada...
April 2016: CMAJ Open
Andrew Jin, Mariana Brussoni, M Anne George, Christopher E Lalonde, Rod McCormick
BACKGROUND: Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC), especially those residing on Indian reserves, have higher risk of unintentional fall injury than the general population. We test the hypothesis that the disparities are attributable to a combination of socioeconomic status, geographic place, and Aboriginal ethnicity. METHODS: Within each of 16 Health Service Delivery Areas in BC, we identified three population groups: total population, Aboriginal off-reserve, and Aboriginal on-reserve...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Janelle N Beaudette, Lynn A Stewart
OBJECTIVE: A current estimate of prevalence rates of mental disorder among Canadian federal offenders is required to facilitate treatment delivery and service planning. METHOD: The study determined prevalence rates of major mental disorders among newly admitted male offenders entering the federal correctional system in Canada. Data were collected at each regional reception site on consecutive admissions for a 6-month period (N = 1110). Lifetime and current prevalence rates were estimated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) and the SCID Axis II Disorders (SCID-II)...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Eva Purkey, Gwendolyn Hollaar
BACKGROUND: Global health (GH) electives are on the rise, but with little consensus on the need or content of pre-departure training (PDT) or post-return debriefing (PRD) for electives in postgraduate medical education. METHODS: Using a 2-iteration Delphi process to encourage discussion and consensus, participants from 14 medical schools across Canada provided input to promote more uniform policy towards defining GH electives, when PDT and PRD should be mandatory and what curriculum should be included...
2016: BMC Medical Education
M A George, M Brussoni, A Jin, C E Lalonde, R McCormick
BACKGROUND: The current study examines what factors contribute to higher injury risk among Aboriginal peoples, compared to the total British Columbia (BC) population. We explore socioeconomic, geographic, and cultural factors, and combinations of these factors, that contribute to increased injury risk for Aboriginal peoples. This follows from our previously reported findings of improvements in injury risk over time for both the total and Aboriginal populations. DATA AND METHODS: We use provincial population-based linked health care databases of hospital discharge records...
2016: SpringerPlus
Chantel Ramraj, Faraz Vahid Shahidi, William Darity, Ichiro Kawachi, Daniyal Zuberi, Arjumand Siddiqi
Prior research suggests that racial inequalities in health vary in magnitude across societies. This paper uses the largest nationally representative samples available to compare racial inequalities in health in the United States and Canada. Data were obtained from ten waves of the National Health Interview Survey (n = 162,271,885) and the Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 19,906,131) from 2000 to 2010. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios, and risk differences across racial groups for a range of health outcomes in each country...
July 2016: Social Science & Medicine
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