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Commercialism in medicine

Vagner Bezerra Dos Santos, Daniela Daniel, Melina Singh, Claudimir Lucio do Lago
A capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CE-MS/MS) method for amphetamine (AM), phentermine (PTM), methamphetamine (MAM), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in commercial samples of homeopathic and phytotherapic medicines and dietary supplements is presented. The samples were submitted to a modified QuEChERS extraction procedure (at apparent pH 13) followed by electrophoretic separation in 0.1molL(-1) formic acid electrolyte (pH 2...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Xiao-Ling Wang, Zhong-Yang Ding, Gao-Qiang Liu, Hailong Yang, Guo-Ying Zhou
Triterpene acids (TAs) are the major bioactive constituents in the medicinal fungus Ganoderma lingzhi. However, fermentative production of TAs has not been optimized for commercial use, and whether the TAs isolated from G. lingzhi submerged culture mycelia possess antitumor activity needs to be further proven. In this study, enhanced TA yield and productivity were attained with G. lingzhi using response surface methodology. The interactions of three variables were studied using a Box-Benhnken design, namely initial pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and fermentation temperature...
October 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Thobias Romu, Nils Dahlström, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard, Magnus Borga
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a robust water-fat separation method for T1-weighted symmetric two-point Dixon data. THEORY AND METHODS: A method for water-fat separation by phase unwrapping of the opposite-phase images by phase-sensitive reconstruction (PSR) is introduced. PSR consists of three steps; (1), identification of clusters of tissue voxels; (2), unwrapping of the phase in each cluster by solving Poisson's equation; and (3), finding the correct sign of each unwrapped opposite-phase cluster, so that the water-fat images are assigned the correct identities...
October 24, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Desmond H Y Tse, Christopher J Wiggins, Benedikt A Poser
PURPOSE: In order to fully benefit from the improved signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios at 9.4T, the challenges of B1+ inhomogeneity and the long acquisition time of high-resolution 2D gradient-recalled echo (GRE) imaging were addressed. THEORY AND METHODS: Flip angle homogenized excitations were achieved by parallel transmission (pTx) of 3-spoke pulses, designed by magnitude least-squares optimization in a slice-by-slice fashion; the acquisition time reduction was achieved by simultaneous multislice (SMS) pulses...
October 23, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Joan H Krause
Fueled by massive settlements and concerns about pharmaceutical company influence over medical practice, the fight over off-label promotion has become a rancorous one with little middle ground. For some, off-label restrictions are both bad law and bad medicine, violating the First Amendment while denying physicians access to crucial information. For others, the battle pits the very soul of the FDA against the excesses of a profit-driven marketplace. Far from ameliorating concerns over manufacturer influence, the New Model proposed by Bennett et al...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Yves Bayon, Mark van Dyke, Robert Buehler, Ross Tubo, Timothy A Bertram, Bernard Malfroy-Camine, Michelle Rathman-Josserand, Vincent Ronfard
Regenerative medicine, just entering the phase of maturity, is a fascinating area of research and innovation and this so even after two waves of disillusion from a commercial perspective. The huge potential of the field has been fairly under-exploited so far. Both TERMIS-AM & TERMIS-EU Industry Committees are committed to mentoring and training young entrepreneurs for more successful commercial translation of upstream research. With this objective in mind, the two entities jointly organized an Industry Symposium during the last Termis World Congress (Boston, September 8-11, 2015) and invited senior managers of the Regenerative Medicine industry for lectures and panel discussions...
October 22, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Graciliana Lopes, Eugénia Pinto, Lígia Salgueiro
The increased incidence of fungal infections, associated with the widespread use of antifungal drugs, has resulted in the development of resistance, making it necessary to discover new therapeutic alternatives. Among fungal infections, dermatophytoses constitute a serious public health problem, affecting 20-25 % of the world population. Medicinal plants represent an endless source of bioactive molecules, and their volatile and non-volatile extracts are clearly recognized for being the historical basis of therapeutic health care...
October 22, 2016: Mycopathologia
Pan Li, Bin Lv, Xiaoqing Jiang, Ting Wang, Xianghui Ma, Nianwei Chang, Xiaoying Wang, Xiumei Gao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Shenfu injection (SFI) is a commercial medicinal product approved by the China Food and Drug Administration that is widely used in the treatment of stroke and coronary heart disease. However, the material basis and the mechanism of SFI are not fully understood. AIM OF THE STUDY: With network pharmacology analysis, our research committed to identify the anti-inflammatory ingredients and mechanism of SFI by combining high-throughput screening...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Hardeep Singh, Mark L Graber, Timothy P Hofer
Timely and accurate diagnosis is foundational to good clinical practice and an essential first step to achieving optimal patient outcomes. However, a recent Institute of Medicine report concluded that most of us will experience at least one diagnostic error in our lifetime. The report argues for efforts to improve the reliability of the diagnostic process through better measurement of diagnostic performance. The diagnostic process is a dynamic team-based activity that involves uncertainty, plays out over time, and requires effective communication and collaboration among multiple clinicians, diagnostic services, and the patient...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
Ellen L Mintz, Juliana A Passipieri, Daniel Y Lovell, George J Christ
Despite the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle, permanent functional and/or cosmetic deficits (e.g., volumetric muscle loss (VML) resulting from traumatic injury, disease and various congenital, genetic and acquired conditions are quite common. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine technologies have enormous potential to provide a therapeutic solution. However, utilization of biologically relevant animal models in combination with longitudinal assessments of pertinent functional measures are critical to the development of improved regenerative therapeutics for treatment of VML-like injuries...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Alistair E W Johnson, Mohammad M Ghassemi, Shamim Nemati, Katherine E Niehaus, David A Clifton, Gari D Clifford
Clinical data management systems typically provide caregiver teams with useful information, derived from large, sometimes highly heterogeneous, data sources that are often changing dynamically. Over the last decade there has been a significant surge in interest in using these data sources, from simply re-using the standard clinical databases for event prediction or decision support, to including dynamic and patient-specific information into clinical monitoring and prediction problems. However, in most cases, commercial clinical databases have been designed to document clinical activity for reporting, liability and billing reasons, rather than for developing new algorithms...
February 2016: Proceedings of the IEEE
Gang Bao, Chuankun Li, Lei Qi, Ning Wang, Baixiang He
Tetrandrine (TET) is a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, which is isolated from a Chinese medicinal herb with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the effects of TET on oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation/reoxygenation (OGSD/R)-induced injury in rat spinal cord astrocytes, which mimics hypoxic/ischemic conditions in vivo. MTT and LDH assays indicated that cell viability was distinctly reduced and LDH leakage was elevated after OGSD/R exposure, which were dose-dependently reversed by pretreatment with TET (0...
October 17, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Vincent Ronfard, Alain Vertes, Michael May, Anne Dupraz, Mark van Dyke, Yves Bayon
"Evaluating the Past & Present of Regenerative Medicine (RM)" was the first part of an Industry Symposium dedicated to the subject during the 2015 World TERMIS Congress in Boston. This working session presented a critical review of the current RM landscape in Europe and North America with possible projections for the future. Interestingly, the RM development cycle seems to obey the Gartner hype cycle, now at the enlightenment phase, after past exaggerated expectations and discouragements, as suggested by increasing numbers of clinical trials and recent market approvals of RM solutions in both Europe (Glybera & Holoclar® from Chiesi Pharma and Strimvelis® from GSK) and Japan (Remestemcel-L from Mesoblast® )...
October 20, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Feng-Li Wu, Guang Zhang, Ang Ren, Zhi-Hao Dang, Liang Shi, Ai-Liang Jiang, Ming-Wen Zhao
Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal macrofungus that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Nonetheless, the scarcity of basic biological studies of this organism has hindered the further development of its commercial value. The pH-responsive transcription factor PacC/Rim101 governs the adaptation to environmental pH, the development and the secondary metabolism of many fungi. In this study, a homologue of PacC/Rim101 that encodes GlPacC was identified in the higher basidiomycete G. lucidum GlPacC is composed of 807 amino acids and contains three typical C2H2 zinc-finger domains, two potential PEST domains, a putative PKA phosphorylation site, and a putative nuclear localization signal (NLS)...
October 19, 2016: Mycologia
Vojtěch Ledvina, Eva Janečková, Eva Matalová, Karel Klepárník
Analysing the chemical content of individual cells has already been proven to reveal unique information on various biological processes. Single-cell analysis provides more accurate and reliable results for biology and medicine than analyses of extracts from cell populations, where a natural heterogeneity is averaged. To meet the requirements in the research of important biologically active molecules, such as caspases, we have developed a miniaturized device for simultaneous analyses of individual cells. A stainless steel body with a carousel holder enables high-sensitivity parallel detections in eight microvials...
October 18, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
R Soumya, Vijayalakshmi Devarashetty, C R Jayanthi, M Sushma
OBJECTIVES: Pharmacists are one of the crucial focal points for health care in the community. They have tremendous outreach to the public as pharmacies are often the first-port-of-call. With the increase of ready-to-use drugs, the main health-related activity of a pharmacist today is to assure the quality of dispensing, a key element to promote rational medicine use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 200 pharmacies, 100 each in various residential (R) and commercial (C) areas of Bengaluru, was conducted using a prevalidated questionnaire administered to the chief pharmacist or the person-in-charge by the investigators...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Ahmad H Ibrahim, Md Shamsuddin Sultan Khan, Sawsan S Al-Rawi, Aman Shah Bin Abdul Majid, Dan Ji, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid
Fermented Virgin Coconut Oil (FVCO) is widely used in the Southeast Asia as food and traditional medicine. The objective of the present study is the evaluation of chronic safety of the commercialized FVCO of Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries. A single dose of 5000 mg/kg of FVCO was administered orally in rats (each group, n = 5) for the acute toxicity study and 175, 550 and 2000 mg/kg for sub-chronic and chronic studies (each group, n = 10), respectively. The behavior, mortality, and body weight of the rats were assessed to determine the toxic effects of FVCO...
October 15, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Ponnusamy Baskaran, Aloka Kumari, Bhekumthetho Ncube, Johannes Van Staden
Mondia whitei (Hook.f.) Skeels is an important endangered medicinal and commercial plant in South Africa. In vitro propagation systems are required for biomass production and bioactivity analysis to supplement wild resources/stocks. Adventitious roots from somatic embryogenic explants using suspension culture and ex vitro-grown plants produced via somatic embryogenesis were established using different plant growth regulator treatments. The adventitious root biomass and different parts of ex vitro-grown and mother plants were used to investigate the potential for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antibacterial activities...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Mohamed M M Abdel-Latif, Mekky M Abouzied
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Natural honey has been used as a medicine since ancient times. Honey is widely known for its antibacterial properties against H. pylori; however, the mechanisms of its antibacterial activity are not fully known. The present study was performed to examine the molecular mechanisms by which natural honey can inhibit H. pylori infection in gastric epithelial cells. METHODS: Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to measure NF-κB- and AP-1-DNA binding activity...
July 2016: Archives of Medical Research
Alma Fernanda Sanchez-Maldonado, Mueen Aslam, Cara Service, Claudia Narváez-Bravo, Brent P Avery, Roger Johnson, Tineke H Jones
This study investigated the frequency of Salmonella serovars on pig carcasses at various processing steps in two commercial pork processing plants in Alberta, Canada and characterized phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and PFGE patterns of the Salmonella isolates. Over a one year period, 1000 swab samples were collected from randomly selected pigs at two slaughter plants. Sampling points were: carcass swabs after bleeding (CSAB), carcass swabs after de-hairing (CSAD, plant A) or skinning (CSASk, plant B), carcass swabs after evisceration (CSAE), carcass swabs after pasteurization (CSAP, plant A) or washing (CSAW, plants B) and retail pork (RP)...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
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