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Commercialism in medicine

Xiao-Kui Huo, Jing Liu, Zhen-Long Yu, Yi-Fei Wang, Chao Wang, Xiang-Ge Tian, Jing Ning, Lei Feng, Cheng-Peng Sun, Bao-Jing Zhang, Xiao-Chi Ma
BACKGROUND: Cholestasis is a clinical syndrome of liver damage that is caused by accumulation of bile acids in the liver and systemic circulation. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) can regulate synthesis, metabolism, and excretion of bile acids. The rhizomes of Alisma orientale is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine to treat edema, obesity, gonorrhea, leukorrhea, diarrhea, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes in China. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: We hypothesized Alisma orientale extract (AOE) to exert hepatoprotective effect against α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) induced cholestasis in rat...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Elia Mario Biganzoli, Bruno Mario Cesana
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need to face regulatory aspects as well as ethics and scientific ones in the pharmaceutical research phase after the authorization of a drug. Traditionally, the Phase IV studies, after the authorization for a drug to be marketed by the Competent Authority like the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (in Europe, European Medicine Agency -EMA- through National Procedures or Community Procedures) have been considered mainly aimed to the assessment of the new drug safety profile...
April 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Jun Gong, Kathy Pan, Marwan Fakih, Sumanta Pal, Ravi Salgia
Advancements in next-generation sequencing have greatly enhanced the development of biomarker-driven cancer therapies. The affordability and availability of next-generation sequencers have allowed for the commercialization of next-generation sequencing platforms that have found widespread use for clinical-decision making and research purposes. Despite the greater availability of tumor molecular profiling by next-generation sequencing at our doorsteps, the achievement of value-based care, or improving patient outcomes while reducing overall costs or risks, in the era of precision oncology remains a looming challenge...
March 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Sharlene Hesse-Biber, Bailey Flynn, Keeva Farrelly
The growth of the Internet since the millennium has opened up a myriad of opportunities for education, particularly in medicine. Although those looking for health care information used to have to turn to a face-to-face doctor's visit, an immense library of medical advice is now available at their fingertips. The BRCA genetic predispositions (mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer genes) which expose men and women to greater risk of breast, ovarian, and other cancers can be researched extensively online...
April 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Kareem A Mosa, Sameh Soliman, Ali El-Keblawy, Muna Abdalla Ali, Hessa Ali Hassan, Aysha Ali Bin Tamim, Moza Mohamed Al-Ali
Commercially available herbal and medicinal plants-based products are susceptible to substitution or contamination with other unlabeled or undesired materials. This will reduce the quality of the product, and may lead to intoxication and allergy. DNA Barcoding is a molecular technology that allows the identification of plant materials at the species level, by sequencing short stretches of standardized gene sequences from nuclear or organelle genome in an easy, rapid, accurate and cost-effective manner. The aim of this research is to apply DNA barcoding to investigate the authenticity of commercially available herbal and medicinal plant-based products within the UAE markets...
April 8, 2018: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
Harith Jameel Mahdi, Nurzalina Abdul Karim Khan, Mohd Zaini Bin Asmawi, Roziahanim Mahmud, Vikneswaran A/L Murugaiyah
Background: The medicinal uses of plants are in many cases based exclusively on traditional knowledge without enough scientific evidences. Different parts of Moringa oleifera were traditionally used for the treatment of wide variety of ailments including arthritis and joints pain. The present study had been designed to evaluate the anti-arthritic and anti-nociceptive activities of ethanol extract of Moringa leaves, this being the most abundant plant part suitable for commercial mass production of botanical medicinal products...
March 2018: Integrative Medicine Research
Marta Pacilio, Chiara Lauri, Daniela Prosperi, Agnese Petitti, Alberto Signore
Modern molecular nuclear medicine is rapidly developing in the field of imaging of chronic inflammatory diseases, and many new radiopharmaceuticals have been recently described and tested in animals and man. These can detect early pathophysiological changes before the development of anatomical changes and, often, before clinical onset of symptoms. This field includes new radiopharmaceuticals for SPECT and PET use to define new strategies for imaging immune cells as well as tissue modifications induced by the inflammatory process...
May 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Gerhard Prinsloo, Noluyolo Nogemane, Renee Street
In many developing countries, populations rely on traditional medicine for primary health care, which have infiltrated commercial markets globally as natural remedies are generally regarded as safe. Traditional and natural remedies are adapted and expanded in commercial products and product ranges to provide alternatives for various diseases and illnesses. These products resemble very little of the traditional use and application and adverse effects are observed in several cases. Some of the herbs and botanical formulations therefore, are not as safe as are commonly contemplated...
April 4, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Rodolfo Saracci
Big Data and precision medicine, two major contemporary challenges for epidemiology, are critically examined from two different angles. In Part 1 Big Data collected for research purposes (Big research Data) and Big Data used for research although collected for other primary purposes (Big secondary Data) are discussed in the light of the fundamental common requirement of data validity, prevailing over "bigness". Precision medicine is treated developing the key point that high relative risks are as a rule required to make a variable or combination of variables suitable for prediction of disease occurrence, outcome or response to treatment; the commercial proliferation of allegedly predictive tests of unknown or poor validity is commented...
April 5, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Florence Malongane, Lyndy J McGaw, Hlengilizwe Nyoni, Fhatuwani N Mudau
Increased preference to herbal drinks has led to global interest in the use and production of different plant species for the preparation of various drink formulations. Medicinal properties derived from bioactive compounds remain the main driver of choice for herbal teas. This study determined the chemical variation in honeybush, rooibos, special and bush tea, profiled compounds responsible for such differences and compared their peak areas. Nuclear magnetic resonance and high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to determine compound variation and profiling...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Raíza de Araújo Setin, Carolina Fortes Cirimbelli, Anna Carolina Mazeto Ercolin, Sâmara Turbay Pires, Tamiris Disselli, Maria Cristina Ferrarini Nunes Soares Hage
The present study aimed to evaluate the applicability of artisanal simulators to teach veterinary and medical students the ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy using a tru-cut needle. The artisanal simulators consisted of bovine liver between two layers of commercially available grape gelatin. Students were paired, with one doing the biopsy and the other the ultrasound guidance. After performing the biopsies, each student answered a questionnaire with close-ended questions using a visual analog scale. The evaluated items were realism of the model, liver scanning, procedure instructions, biopsy feasibility, tru-cut needle handling, technique learning, and confidence to perform in vivo procedures...
June 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Sedigheh Kazemi, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
Inflammation is one of the most important body responses provided by the immune system since it ensures survival when tissues are affected by injuries or infections. The inflammatory response is an important process for maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis. In contrast to acute inflammation, chronic inflammation does not have a useful impact. Prevention and suppression of inflammation are necessary to reduce patient suffering and to preserve the integrity of multiple organs. Unfortunately, commercial available anti-inflammatory drugs are not free from side effects...
April 3, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
John Baptist Nzukizi Mudumbi, Seteno Karabo Obed Ntwampe, Lukhanyo Mekuto, Tandi Matsha, Elie Fereche Itoba-Tombo
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes and it is characterized by high blood sugar and abnormal sera lipid levels. Although the specific reasons for the development of these abnormalities are still not well understood, traditionally, genetic and lifestyle behavior have been reported as the leading causes of this disease. In the last three decades, the number of diabetic patients has drastically increased worldwide, with current statistics suggesting the number is to double in the next two decades...
April 2, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
J A Dusek, M JaKa, S Wallerius, S Fairchild, D Victorson, R L Rivard, A Betzner
OBJECTIVES: Integrative medicine (IM) is whole-person care utilizing complementary health approaches to address numerous physical or emotional influences that can impact an individual's health. Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) are subjective measures that quantify patients' perception of their quality of life. While PRO measures have been routinely assessed in specific oncology clinics, our objective was to assess the ability and utility of routine collection of PRO measures in an IM clinic...
April 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Kayoko Shimada-Takaura, Yuto Nakamura, Masaya Kawase, Katsuko Komatsu, Kyoko Takahashi
Paeoniae Radix is one of the crude drugs frequently used in traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo medicine). It takes abundant labor and time to cultivate Paeonia lactiflora for medicinal use; high production cost is one of the main reasons why the domestic production of Paeoniae Radix is decreasing in Japan. To promote the production of Paeoniae Radix, we focused on Paeonia cultivars that produce commercially valuable flowers and investigated their possibility for medicinal use. We prepared 28 batches of peony roots derived from P...
2018: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Guenter Froeschl, Marcus Beissner, Kristina Huber, Gisela Bretzel, Michael Hoelscher, Camilla Rothe
BACKGROUND: Thailand is a major destination for German travellers with more than 760,000 arrivals in 2015. At the same time, malaria is a concern in travel recommendations with regard to this destination. The World Malaria Report of 2016 mentions only P. falciparum and P. vivax as prevalent species for Thailand, however, P. knowlesi infections have been occasionally reported in Thailand. In German travellers, only five cases of P. knowlesi infections have been reported to date. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old German male tourist travelled to Thailand from 25 December 2016 to 13 January 2017...
April 2, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ts R Balabekyan, K J Karapetyan, T V Khachatryan, G E Khachatryan, S Sh Tatikyan
Use of antimicrobials in both human and animal populations over the past several decades has led to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria populations that are resistant to many commercially available drugs. For example, acquired resistance to first-line antimicrobial agents increasingly complicates the management of extra-intestinal infections due to Escherichia coli, which are a major source of illness and death. The continued development of new classes of natural antimicrobial agents, possessing antibacterial activity, has become of increasing importance for medicine and veterinary...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Alan Hanna, Lezley-Anne Hanna
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to provide a comprehensive overview (using pertinent examples) of the various ways that Google Trends and Google data could inform pharmacy practice. The objectives were to: examine what type of information people search for in relation to a common class of medicines; ascertain where people are directed to (websites) following an initial search for a medicine or medical condition; and establish information about when they search. METHODS: The methodology differed depending on whether Google Trends or Google was being interrogated, but the search domain was always limited to the United Kingdom...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Cindy Parks Thomas, Grant A Ritter, Alex H S Harris, Deborah W Garnick, Kenneth I Freedman, Barbara Herbert
OBJECTIVES: ASAM's Standards of Care for the Addiction Specialist established appropriate care for the treatment of substance use disorders. ASAM identified three high priority performance measures for specification and testing for feasibility in various systems using administrative claims: use of pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorder (AUD); use of pharmacotherapy for opioid use disorder (OUD); and continuity of care after withdrawal management services. This study adds to the initial testing of these measures in the Veteran's Health Administration (VHA) by testing the feasibility of specifications in commercial insurance data (Cigna)...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Enrique Gómez-Barrena, Philippe Rosset, Florian Gebhard, Philippe Hernigou, Nicola Baldini, Helène Rouard, Luc Sensebé, Rosa M Gonzalo-Daganzo, Rosaria Giordano, Norma Padilla-Eguiluz, Eduardo García-Rey, José Cordero-Ampuero, Juan Carlos Rubio-Suárez, Julien Stanovici, Christian Ehrnthaller, Markus Huber-Lang, Charles Henri Flouzat-Lachaniette, Nathalie Chevallier, Davide Maria Donati, Gabriela Ciapetti, Sandrine Fleury, Manuel-Nicolás Fernandez, José-Rafael Cabrera, Cristina Avendaño-Solá, Tiziana Montemurro, Carmen Panaitescu, Elena Veronesi, Markus Thomas Rojewski, Ramin Lotfi, Massimo Dominici, Hubert Schrezenmeier, Pierre Layrolle
BACKGROUND: ORTHO-1 is a European, multicentric, first in human clinical trial to prove safety and feasibility after surgical implantation of commercially available biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramic granules associated during surgery with autologous mesenchymal stromal cells expanded from bone marrow (BM-hMSC) under good manufacturing practices, in patients with long bone pseudarthrosis. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with femur, tibia or humerus diaphyseal or metaphyso-diaphyseal non-unions were recruited and surgically treated in France, Germany, Italy and Spain with 100 or 200 million BM-hMSC/mL associated with 5-10 cc of bioceramic granules...
March 19, 2018: Biomaterials
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