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Commercialism in medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809470/chelation-controlled-additions-to-chiral-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-silyloxy-%C3%AE-halo-and-%C3%AE-vinyl-carbonyl-compounds
#1
Xinyuan Fan, Patrick J Walsh
The science and art of preventing and managing disease and prolonging life is dependent on advances in medicine, biology, and biochemistry. Many of these advances will involve interactions of small molecules with biological entities. As such, they will rely on the efficient synthesis of active compounds with very high stereochemical purity. Although enantioselective reactions are important in this regard, most stereocenters in complex molecule synthesis are installed in diastereoselective reactions. Perhaps the most well-known diastereoselective C-C bond-forming reaction is the addition of nucleophiles to carbonyl groups with α- or β-stereogenic centers...
August 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809010/bioinformatics-resources-for-interpreting-proteomics-mass-spectrometry-data
#2
Iulia M Lazar
Developments in mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation have supported the advance of a variety of proteomic technologies that have enabled scientists to assess differences between healthy and diseased states. In particular, the ability to identify altered biological processes in a cell has led to the identification of novel drug targets, the development of more effective therapeutic drugs, and the growth of new diagnostic approaches and tools for personalized medicine applications. Nevertheless, large-scale proteomic data generated by modern mass spectrometers are extremely complex and necessitate equally complex bioinformatics tools and computational algorithms for their interpretation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808391/resolving-identification-issues-of-saraca-asoca-from-its-adulterant-and-commercial-samples-using-phytochemical-markers
#3
Satisha Hegde, Harsha Vasudev Hegde, Sunil Satyappa Jalalpure, Malleswara Rao Peram, Sandeep Ramachandra Pai, Subarna Roy
Saraca asoca (Roxb.) De Wilde (Ashoka) is a highly valued endangered medicinal tree species from Western Ghats of India. Besides treating cardiac and circulatory problems, S. asoca provides immense relief in gynecological disorders. Higher price and demand, in contrast to the smaller population size of the plant, have motivated adulteration with other plants such as Polyalthia longifolia (Sonnerat) Thwaites. The fundamental concerns in quality control of S. asoca arise due to its part of medicinal value (Bark) and the chemical composition...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799807/the-acid-base-profile-of-agrochemicals
#4
D T Manallack
Drug-likeness has long been studied in the pursuit of finding new medicines. Similarly, in the agrochemical field there is value in exploring the properties of the chemicals involved. Patterns that emerge can potentially influence future discovery campaigns to improve the probability of commercial success. In this study we investigate the acid/base properties and physicochemical characteristics of three classes of compounds: fungicides, herbicides and insecticides. In comparison with FDA-approved drugs, it was noted that the pesticides were generally smaller, possessed a neutral charge state and were more lipophilic...
August 11, 2017: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799641/new-requirements-for-phase-i-trials-a-challenge-for-italian-clinical-research
#5
Emanuela Marchesi, Manuela Monti, Oriana Nanni, Lisette Bassi, Martina Piccinni-Leopardi, Celeste Cagnazzo
BACKGROUND: In 2015, the Italian Medicines Agency (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco; AIFA) issued the Determination 809/2015 with new requirements for phase I clinical trials. Before it came into force, we explored the extent to which several Italian oncology centers were working to implement it. METHODS: A survey was conducted among 80 Italian centers involved in clinical trials. Investigators and research coordinators were surveyed. RESULTS: Answers from 42 institutions were collected: among them 88...
August 7, 2017: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799235/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-serum-activity-and-concentration-are-increased-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#6
Sindy Blauschmidt, Thomas Greither, Katharina Lampe, Solveig Köller, Petra Kaltwaßer, Hermann M Behre
OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex disease, the etiology of which is not well understood. Alterations in potential candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of androgens, folliculogenesis, and insulin and glucose metabolism have been suggested as possible etiologies. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) plays a key role in glucose homeostasis and, thus, in the regulation of insulin secretion. The aim of our study was to analyze the DPP4 activity and concentrations in the serum of PCOS and non-PCOS patients and, additionally, study the activation of the DPP4 promoter by androgens in vitro...
August 11, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798195/cross-sectional-study-to-evaluate-trichomonas-vaginalis-positivity-in-women-tested-for-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-and-chlamydia-trachomatis-attending-genitourinary-medicine-and-primary-care-clinics-in-bristol-south-west-england
#7
Jane E Nicholls, Katy M E Turner, Paul North, Ralph Ferguson, Margaret T May, Karen Gough, John Macleod, Peter Muir, Patrick J Horner
BACKGROUND: Highly sensitive, commercial nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for Trichomonas vaginalis have only recently been recommended for use in the UK. While testing for T. vaginalis is routine in symptomatic women attending genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics, it is rare in asymptomatic women or those attending primary care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the positivity of T. vaginalis using a commercial NAAT, in symptomatic and asymptomatic women undergoing testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in GUM and primary care settings...
August 10, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796828/acid-free-glyoxal-as-a-substitute-of-formalin-for-structural-and-molecular-preservation-in-tissue-samples
#8
Gianni Bussolati, Laura Annaratone, Enrico Berrino, Umberto Miglio, Mara Panero, Marco Cupo, Patrizia Gugliotta, Tiziana Venesio, Anna Sapino, Caterina Marchiò
Tissue fixation in phosphate buffered formalin (PBF) remains the standard procedure in histopathology, since it results in an optimal structural, antigenic and molecular preservation that justifies the pivotal role presently played by diagnoses on PBF-fixed tissues in precision medicine. However, toxicity of formaldehyde causes an environmental concern and may demand substitution of this reagent. Having observed that the reported drawbacks of commercially available glyoxal substitutes of PBF (Prefer, Glyo-fix, Histo-Fix, Histo-CHOICE, and Safe-Fix II) are likely related to their acidity, we have devised a neutral fixative, obtained by removing acids from the dialdehyde glyoxal with an ion-exchange resin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790914/ethnopharmacological-and-chemical-characterization-of-salvia-species-used-in-valencian-traditional-herbal-preparations
#9
Vanessa Martínez-Francés, Emeline Hahn, Segundo Ríos, Diego Rivera, Eike Reich, Roser Vila, Salvador Cañigueral
In Valencia Region (Spain), some wild and cultivated sages are used for medicinal purposes. Among them, Salvia officinalis subsp. lavandulifolia (SL) is widely employed and known for production of Spanish sage oil and herbal products. Nevertheless, it shares the market with S. blancoana subsp. mariolensis (SB) and, to a lesser extent, with their hybrid S. x hegelmaieri (SH). The knowledge on these two species is far low and confusion between them is possible. The aim of the present paper is to improve the ethnopharmacological, morphological and chemical knowledge of these sages, and to contribute to setting up quality specifications for improving identification and distinction from other Salvia species, such as, S...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789798/development-of-a-validated-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-determination-of-acid-diterpenes-in-copaifera-oleoresins
#10
Jonas Joaquim Mangabeira da Silva, Eduardo José Crevelin, Luiza Junqueira Carneiro, Hervé Rogez, Rodrigo Cassio Sola Veneziani, Sérgio Ricardo Ambrósio, Luiz Alberto Beraldo Moraes, Jairo Kenupp Bastos
Species of Copaifera genus (Fabaceae - Caesalpinoiodidaeae) produces an important commercial oleoresin that displays many medicinal properties. Copaifera oleoresins (COR) are composed mainly of a mixture of diterpenes and sequiterpenes, and the main reported acid diterpenes for this genus are kaurenoic, copalic, hardwickiic and polyaltic acids. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for identification and quantification of nine acid diterpenes...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783743/andrographis-paniculata-chu%C3%A4-n-x%C3%A4-n-li%C3%A3-n-for-symptomatic-relief-of-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-adults-and-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Xiao-Yang Hu, Ruo-Han Wu, Martin Logue, Clara Blondel, Lily Yuen Wan Lai, Beth Stuart, Andrew Flower, Yu-Tong Fei, Michael Moore, Jonathan Shepherd, Jian-Ping Liu, George Lewith
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a substantial threat to public health. Safe and effective alternatives are required to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing. Andrographis Paniculata (A. Paniculata, Chuān Xīn Lián) has traditionally been used in Indian and Chinese herbal medicine for cough, cold and influenza, suggesting a role in respiratory tract infections (RTIs). This systematic review aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of A. Paniculata for symptoms of acute RTIs (ARTIs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782622/banxia-houpu-decoction-restores-glucose-intolerance-in-cums-rats-through-improvement-of-insulin-signaling-and-suppression-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-liver-and-brain
#12
Ke-Ke Jia, Yan-Jing Zheng, Yan-Xiu Zhang, Jia-Hui Liu, Rui-Qing Jiao, Ying Pan, Ling-Dong Kong
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Banxia-houpu decoction is a famous formula in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with the powerful anti-depressant activity. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the effect of Banxia-houpu decoction on glucose intolerance associated with anhedonia in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats, then to explore its underlying pharmacological mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After 6-week CUMS procedure, male Wistar rats were given Banxia-houpu decoction (3...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780856/direct-aldehyde-c-h-arylation-and-alkylation-via-the-combination-of-nickel-hydrogen-atom-transfer-and-photoredox-catalysis
#13
Xiaheng Zhang, David W C MacMillan
A mechanism that enables direct aldehyde C-H functionalization has been achieved via the synergistic merger of photoredox, nickel, and hydrogen atom transfer catalysis. This mild, operationally simple protocol transforms a wide variety of commercially available aldehydes, along with aryl or alkyl bromides, into the corresponding ketones in excellent yield. This C-H abstraction coupling technology has been successfully applied to the expedient synthesis of the medicinal agent haloperidol.
August 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777903/hypertension-screening-of-commercial-divers-from-an-occupational-medicine-perspective
#14
Alejandro Garbino, Robert W Sanders, Charles H Mathers
Hypertension is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world: in the United States, it affects one-third of the adult population. Most cases are primary hypertension - with no identified cause - and significantly increase risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke. At NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), there is a cadre of professional divers who provide underwater support during extravehicular activity training (EVAs, commonly referred to as "spacewalks") for astronauts. The NBL occupational health program requires regular "work-site" physical exams, including blood pressure checks, on at least a weekly basis...
March 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766824/ekg-based-detection-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-fmri-studies
#15
Eric Fiveland, Radhika Madhavan, Julia Prusik, Renee Linton, Marisa Dimarzio, Jeffrey Ashe, Julie Pilitsis, Ileana Hancu
PURPOSE: To assess the impact of synchronization errors between the assumed functional MRI paradigm timing and the deep brain stimulation (DBS) on/off cycling using a custom electrocardiogram-based triggering system METHODS: A detector for measuring and predicting the on/off state of cycling deep brain stimulation was developed and tested in six patients in office visits. Three-electrode electrocardiogram measurements, amplified by a commercial bio-amplifier, were used as input for a custom electronics box (e-box)...
August 2, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758221/biological-medicinal-and-toxicological-significance-of-eucalyptus-leaf-essential-oil-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Ashok K Dhakad, Vijay V Pandey, Sobia Beg, Janhvi M Rawat
The genus Eucalyptus L'Heritier comprises about 900 species, of which more than 300 species contain volatile essential oil in their leaves. About 20 species, within these, have a high content of 1,8-cineole (more than 70 %), commercially used for the production of essential oils in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. However, Eucalyptus is extensively planted for pulp, plywood, solid wood production but its leaf aromatic oil has astounding widespread biological activities including antimicrobial, antiseptic, antioxidant, chemotherapy agent, respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders treatment, wound healing, and insecticidal/insect repellent, herbicidal, acaricidal, nematicidal, and perfumes, soap making and grease remover...
July 31, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757310/recommendations-for-harmonization-of-data-collection-and-analysis-of-developmental-neurotoxicity-endpoints-in-regulatory-guideline-studies-proceedings-of-workshops-presented-at-society-of-toxicology-and-joint-teratology-society-and-neurobehavioral-teratology
#17
REVIEW
Abby A Li, Larry P Sheets, Kathleen Raffaele, Virginia Moser, Angela Hofstra, Alan Hoberman, Susan L Makris, Robert Garman, Brad Bolon, Wolfgang Kaufmann, Roland Auer, Edmund Lau, Thomas Vidmar, Wayne J Bowers
The potential for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of environmental chemicals may be evaluated using specific test guidelines from the US Environmental Protection Agency or the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). These guidelines generate neurobehavioral, neuropathological, and morphometric data that are evaluated by regulatory agencies globally. Data from these DNT guideline studies, or the more recent OECD extended one-generation reproductive toxicity guideline, play a pivotal role in children's health risk assessment in different world areas...
July 27, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757016/characterization-of-corynebacterium-diphtheriae-c-confusum-and-c-amycolatum-isolated-from-sows-with-genitourinary-infection
#18
André P Poor, Luisa Z Moreno, Carlos E C Matajira, Beatriz M Parra, Vasco T M Gomes, Ana Paula S Silva, Mauricio C Dutra, Ana Paula G Christ, Mikaela R F Barbosa, Maria Inês Z Sato, Andrea M Moreno
Porcine Corynebacterium infection is still poorly studied, even though the pig has been described as an asymptomatic carrier of Corynebacterium species, including the zoonotic species C. ulcerans, C. confusum and C. amycolatum. Here we present the identification, molecular and antimicrobial susceptibility characterization of coryneform bacteria isolated from sows with urinary tract infection. C. diphtheriae, C. confusum and C. amycolatum were isolated from sows with urinary infection and metritis. Corynebacterium species were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and confirmed by 16S rRNA and rpoB sequencing...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753733/lost-in-translation-no-effect-of-a-high-profile-publication-on-the-concomitant-use-of-interacting-drugs
#19
Emily K Acton, Charles E Leonard, Warren B Bilker, Shobha Phansalkar, Sean Hennessy
We sought to assess whether a high-profile publication that demonstrated serious clinical consequences of specific drug-drug interactions (DDIs) reduced the concomitant use of those drugs. We conducted a quasi-experimental study using 2000-2008 prescription claims from a commercial health insurer to examine trends in the dispensing of the interacting drug pairs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors[ACEI] + potassium-sparing diuretic, digoxin + clarithromycin, and glyburide + cotrimoxazole) and control drug pairs previously reported in a top-tier general medicine journal...
July 28, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747591/assessment-of-genetic-and-chemical-variability-in-curcumae-longae-rhizoma-curcuma-longa-l-based-on-dna-barcoding-markers-and-hplc-fingerprints
#20
Zhonggang Duan, Wei Song, Kuan Chen, Xue Qiao, Min Ye
Curcumae Longae Rhizoma (Curcuma Longa L.) is an important traditional Chinese medicine with multiple beneficial effects. To elucidate the genetic and chemical differences among Curcumae Longae Rhizoma samples, three DNA barcoding markers (rbcL, matK, and ITS-LSU D1/D3) and HPLC fingerprinting were employed in this study. The discriminatory power of rbcL and matK was low, as they only detected one sequence type that showed 100% similarity with more than 20 congeneric species in the BOLD database. In contrast, ITS-LSU D1/D3 showed sufficient discriminatory power to precisely identify all of the market samples as C...
July 26, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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