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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548370/current-state-of-a-dual-behavior-of-antimicrobial-peptides-therapeutic-agents-and-promising-delivery-vectors
#1
REVIEW
Urszula Piotrowska, Marcin Sobczak, Ewa Oledzka
Microorganism resistance is an important challenge in modern medicine due to the global uncontrolled use of antibiotics. Natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) symbolize a new family of antibiotics, which have stimulated research and clinical interest as new therapeutic options for infections. They represent one of the most promising antimicrobial substances, due to their broad spectrum of biological activity, against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, yeast and even tumour cells. Besides, being antimicrobial, AMPs have been shown to bind and neutralize bacterial endotoxins, as well as possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, angiogenic and antitumour properties...
May 26, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543969/the-public-s-perception-of-the-role-of-community-pharmacists-in-wales
#2
Joanne Kember, Karen Hodson, Delyth H James
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the general public's perceptions of the community pharmacist's (CP) role in Wales by exploring understanding, awareness of services provided and potential interventions for promoting the role of CPs. METHODS: Qualitative methodology using focus group (FG) discussions exploring opinions, facilitated by a moderator (pharmacist) and an assistant. Topics discussed included the following: what a CP does; reasons for visiting; from whom they seek advice on medicines or lifestyle issues; use of traditional and newer services and promotion of services...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543615/improved-image-quality-and-reduced-power-deposition-in-the-spine-at-3-t-using-extremely-high-permittivity-materials
#3
Kirsten Koolstra, Peter Börnert, Wyger Brink, Andrew Webb
PURPOSE: To explore the effect of using extremely high permittivity (εr ∼1,000) materials on image quality and power requirements of spine imaging at 3 T. THEORY AND METHODS: A linear array of high permittivity dielectric blocks made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) was designed and characterized by electromagnetic simulations and experiments. Their effect on the transmit efficiency, receive sensitivity, power deposition, and diagnostic image quality was analyzed in vivo in 10 healthy volunteers...
May 22, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543430/planet-an-ellipse-fitting-approach-for-simultaneous-t1-and-t2-mapping-using-phase-cycled-balanced-steady-state-free-precession
#4
Yulia Shcherbakova, Cornelis A T van den Berg, Chrit T W Moonen, Lambertus W Bartels
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel, ellipse fitting approach, named PLANET, for simultaneous estimation of relaxation times T1 and T2 from a single 3D phase-cycled balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) sequence. METHODS: A method is presented in which the elliptical signal model is used to describe the phase-cycled bSSFP steady-state signal. The fitting of the model to the acquired data is reformulated into a linear convex problem, which is solved directly by a linear least squares method, specific to ellipses...
May 22, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541278/sharing-data-under-the-21st-century-cures-act
#5
REVIEW
Mary A Majumder, Christi J Guerrini, Juli M Bollinger, Robert Cook-Deegan, Amy L McGuire
On 13 December 2016, President Obama signed the 21st Century Cures Act ("the Act") into law. Many of its provisions support the creation of an "Information Commons," an ecosystem of separate but interconnected initiatives that facilitate open and responsible sharing of genomic and other data for research and clinical purposes. For example, the Act supports the National Institutes of Health in mandating data sharing, provides funding and guidance for the large national cohort program now known as All of Us, expresses congressional support for a global pediatric study network, and strengthens patient access to health information...
May 25, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539738/the-mealiness-and-quality-of-herbal-medicine-licorice-for-example
#6
Xueying Liu, Weilong Hou, Deqiang Dou
BACKGROUND: The morphological identification is an effective and simple quality evaluation method in Chinese drugs, and the traits of mealiness and color were widely used in the commercial market of Chinese drugs. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the correlation between mealiness of herbal drugs and its quality; licorice was selected as an example. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mealiness of licorice was graded by its weight; meanwhile, the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection method; the content of polysaccharides, soluble sugars, pectin, total starch, amylose, and amylopectin was measured by colorimetric method; and the number and diameter of starch granule were observed by microscope...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538708/accuracy-in-wrist-worn-sensor-based-measurements-of-heart-rate-and-energy-expenditure-in-a-diverse-cohort
#7
Anna Shcherbina, C Mikael Mattsson, Daryl Waggott, Heidi Salisbury, Jeffrey W Christle, Trevor Hastie, Matthew T Wheeler, Euan A Ashley
The ability to measure physical activity through wrist-worn devices provides an opportunity for cardiovascular medicine. However, the accuracy of commercial devices is largely unknown. The aim of this work is to assess the accuracy of seven commercially available wrist-worn devices in estimating heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) and to propose a wearable sensor evaluation framework. We evaluated the Apple Watch, Basis Peak, Fitbit Surge, Microsoft Band, Mio Alpha 2, PulseOn, and Samsung Gear S2. Participants wore devices while being simultaneously assessed with continuous telemetry and indirect calorimetry while sitting, walking, running, and cycling...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537738/a-peptoid-square-helix-via-synergistic-control-of-backbone-dihedral-angles
#8
Benjamin Craig Gorske, Emily M Mumford, Charles G Gerrity, Imelda Ko
The continued expansion of the fields of macromolecular chemistry and nanoscience has motivated the development of new secondary structures that can serve as architectural elements of innovative materials, molecular machines, biological probes, and even commercial medicines. Synthetic foldamers are particularly attractive systems for developing such elements because they are specifically designed to facilitate synthetic manipulation and functional diversity. However, relatively few predictive design principles exist that permit both rational and modular control of foldamer secondary structure, while maintaining the capacity for facile diversification of displayed functionality...
May 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535049/unusual-undergraduate-training-in-medicinal-chemistry-in-collaboration-between-academia-and-industry
#9
Thomas McInally, Simon J F Macdonald
Globalization has driven new paradigms for drug discovery and development. Activities previously carried out predominantly in the United States, Europe, and Japan are now carried out globally. This has caused considerable change in large pharma including how medicinal chemists are trained. Described here is the training of chemistry undergraduates in medicinal chemistry (as practiced in industry) in two modules developed in collaboration between the University of Nottingham (UoN) and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). The students complete several design-synthesize-test iterations on medicinal chemistry projects where they carry out the design and synthesis, and GSK tests the compounds...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533783/progress-on-azadirachta-indica-based-biopesticides-in-replacing-synthetic-toxic-pesticides
#10
REVIEW
Suman Chaudhary, Rupinder K Kanwar, Alka Sehgal, David M Cahill, Colin J Barrow, Rakesh Sehgal, Jagat R Kanwar
Over the years, extensive use of commercially available synthetic pesticides against phytophagous insects has led to their bioaccumulation in the environment causing increased resistance and reduction in soil biodiversity. Further, 90% of the applied pesticides enter the various environmental resources as a result of run-off, exposing the farmers as well as consumers of the agricultural produce to severe health issues. Therefore, growing attention has been given toward the development of alternate environmentally friendly pesticides/insecticides that would aid an efficient pest management system and also prevent chronic exposures leading to diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532071/in-vitro-antibacterial-and-cytotoxic-activities-of-plasma-modified-polyethylene-terephthalate-nonwoven-dressing-with-aqueous-extract-of-rhizome-atractylodes-macrocephala
#11
Yi-Ting Shu, Kuo-Ting Kao, Ching-Sung Weng
In this study, a natural and non-cytotoxic antibacterial dressing containing aqueous extract of Rhizome Atractylodes macrocephala (RAM), which has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine and documented with antibacterial activities in literatures, was developed by aid of the extraction technique, nonwoven substrates and plasma-induced grafting technology. The effectiveness of these herbal antibacterial dressings with different treatment were investigated through the assays of grafting yield, SEM, FTIR, antibacterial activities and cytotoxicity...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529883/smrt-sequencing-data-for-garcinia-mangostana-l-variety-mesta
#12
Mohd Razik Midin, Kok-Keong Loke, Maria Madon, Mohd Shukor Nordin, Hoe-Han Goh, Normah Mohd Noor
The "Queen of Fruits" mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) produces commercially important fruits with desirable taste of flesh and pericarp rich in xanthones with medicinal properties. To date, only limited knowledge is available on the cytogenetics and genome sequences of a common variety of mangosteen (Abu Bakar et al., 2016 [1]). Here, we report the first single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing data from whole genome sequencing of mangosteen of Mesta variety. Raw reads of the SMRT sequencing project can be obtained from SRA database with the accession numbers SRX2718652 until SRX2718659...
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527517/holistic-evaluation-of-san-huang-tablets-using-a-combination-of-multi-wavelength-quantitative-fingerprinting-and-radical-scavenging-assays
#13
Yan Wang, Guo-Xiang Sun, Yang Jin, Xiu-Man Xie, Ying-Chun Liu, Di-Di Ma, Jing Zhang, Jia-Yue Gao, Yan-Fei Li
The present study was designed to establish a multi-wavelength quantitative fingerprinting method for San-Huang Tablets (SHT), a widely used and commercially available herbal preparation, where high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD) was employed to obtain the fingerprint profiles. A simple linear quantitative fingerprint method (SLQFM) coupled with multi-ingredient simultaneous determination was developed to evaluate the quality consistency of the tested samples qualitatively and quantitatively...
April 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520403/integrated-strategy-for-unknown-ei-ms-identification-using-quality-control-calibration-curve-multivariate-analysis-ei-ms-spectral-database-and-retention-index-prediction
#14
Teruko Matsuo, Hiroshi Tsugawa, Hiromi Miyagawa, Eiichiro Fukusaki
Compound identification using unknown electron ionization (EI) mass spectra in gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is challenging in untargeted metabolomics, natural product chemistry, or exposome research. While the total count of EI-MS records included in publicly or commercially available databases is over 900 000, efficient use of this huge database has not been achieved in metabolomics. Therefore, we proposed a "four-step" strategy for the identification of biologically significant metabolites using an integrated cheminformatics approach: (i) quality control calibration curve to reduce background noise, (ii) variable selection by hypothesis testing in principal component analysis for the efficient selection of target peaks, (iii) searching the EI-MS spectral database, and (iv) retention index (RI) filtering in combination with RI predictions...
May 26, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517983/personalised-medicine-and-the-economy-of-biotechnological-promise
#15
Steve Sturdy
Rather than seek to distinguish hype from legitimate promise, it may be more helpful to think about personalised medicine as embodying a promissory economy which serves both to mobilize resources for research and - partly at least - to determine the ends to which that research is directed. Personalised medicine is a development of the larger promissory economy of medical biotechnology. As such, it systematically conflates public benefit with the pursuit of commercial and especially pharmaceutical interests...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515181/measuring-ability-to-assess-claims-about-treatment-effects-the-development-of-the-claim-evaluation-tools
#16
Astrid Austvoll-Dahlgren, Daniel Semakula, Allen Nsangi, Andrew David Oxman, Iain Chalmers, Sarah Rosenbaum, Øystein Guttersrud
OBJECTIVES: To describe the development of the Claim Evaluation Tools, a set of flexible items to measure people's ability to assess claims about treatment effects. SETTING: Methodologists and members of the community (including children) in Uganda, Rwanda, Kenya, Norway, the UK and Australia. PARTICIPANTS: In the iterative development of the items, we used purposeful sampling of people with training in research methodology, such as teachers of evidence-based medicine, as well as patients and members of the public from low-income and high-income countries...
May 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513854/verification-of-dose-profiles-generated-by-the-convolution-algorithm-of-the-gamma-knife-%C3%A2-radiosurgery-planning-system
#17
Hyun-Tai Chung, Jeong-Hoon Park, Kook Jin Chun
PURPOSE: A convolution algorithm that takes into account electron-density inhomogeneity was recently introduced to calculate dose distributions for the Gamma Knife (GK) Perfexion(™) treatment planning program. The accuracies of the dose distributions computed using the convolution method were assessed using an anthropomorphic phantom and film dosimetry. METHODS: Absorbed-dose distributions inside a phantom (CIRS Radiosurgery Head Phantom, Model 605) were calculated using the convolution method of the GK treatment-planning software (Leksell Gamma Plan(®) version 10...
May 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511597/understanding-sleep-wake-mechanisms-and-drug-discovery
#18
Ana Clementina Equihua-Benítez, Khalil Guzmán-Vásquez, René Drucker-Colín
Although not discernible at first glance, sleep is a highly active and regulated brain state. Although we spend practically one third of our lifetimes in this stage, its importance is often taken for granted. Sleep loss can lead to disease, error and economic loss. Our understanding of how sleep is achieved has greatly advanced in recent years, and with that, the management of sleep disorders has improved. Nevertheless, there is still room for improvement and recently many new compounds have reached clinical trials with a few being approved for commercial use...
May 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511111/adaptive-conditions-and-safety-of-the-application-of-penicillium-frequentans-as-a-biocontrol-agent-on-stone-fruit
#19
Belén Guijarro, Inmaculada Larena, Paloma Melgarejo, Antonieta De Cal
Penicillium frequentans (Pf909) reduces brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. in stone fruit. The registration of a microbial biocontrol agent in Europe requires information on the risks and safety of a biological product. This study focused on the impact of the physical environment on Pf909 survival and growth, Pf909 mycotoxin production on fruit surface, and the Pf909 resistance to commercial antifungal compounds used in animal and human medicine. The effect of temperature (4 to 37°C), water activity (0.999 to 0...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510497/clinical-development-and-commercialization-of-advanced-therapy-medicinal-products-atmps-in-the-eu-how-are-the-product-pipeline-and-regulatory-framework-evolving
#20
Tomáš Boráň, Margarida Menezes-Ferreira, Ilona Reischl, Patrick Celis, Nicolas Ferry, Bernd Gänsbacher, Hartmut Krafft, Michele Lipucci Di Paola, Dariusz Sladowski, Paula Salmikangas
The research and development of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMPs) has been active in Europe and worldwide during recent years, yet the number of licensed products remains still low. The main expected legal change in near future in the EU concerns the regulation on clinical trials (536/2014), which will come into force in 2018. With this new framework a more harmonized and swift process for approval of clinical trials is awaited, which is expected to support the entry of new innovations into the EU market...
May 16, 2017: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
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