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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643784/water-scarcity-hotspots-travel-downstream-due-to-human-interventions-in-the-20th-and-21st-century
#1
T I E Veldkamp, Y Wada, J C J H Aerts, P Döll, S N Gosling, J Liu, Y Masaki, T Oki, S Ostberg, Y Pokhrel, Y Satoh, H Kim, P J Ward
Water scarcity is rapidly increasing in many regions. In a novel, multi-model assessment, we examine how human interventions (HI: land use and land cover change, man-made reservoirs and human water use) affected monthly river water availability and water scarcity over the period 1971-2010. Here we show that HI drastically change the critical dimensions of water scarcity, aggravating water scarcity for 8.8% (7.4-16.5%) of the global population but alleviating it for another 8.3% (6.4-15.8%). Positive impacts of HI mostly occur upstream, whereas HI aggravate water scarcity downstream; HI cause water scarcity to travel downstream...
June 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634404/modelled-responses-of-the-kalahari-desert-to-21-st-century-climate-and-land-use-change
#2
Jerome R Mayaud, Richard M Bailey, Giles F S Wiggs
Drylands are home to over 2 billion people globally, many of whom use the land for agricultural and pastoral activities. These vulnerable livelihoods could be disrupted if desert dunefields become more active in response to climate and land use change. Despite increasing knowledge about the role that wind, moisture availability and vegetation cover play in shaping dryland landscapes, relatively little is known about how drylands might respond to climatic and population pressures over the 21(st) century. Here we use a newly developed numerical model, which fully couples vegetation and sediment-transport dynamics, to simulate potential landscape evolution at three locations in the Kalahari Desert, under two future emissions scenarios: stabilising (RCP 4...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633116/spatial-and-temporal-variation-in-autochthonous-and-allochthonous-contributors-to-increased-organic-carbon-and-nitrogen-burial-in-a-plateau-lake
#3
Changchun Huang, Ling Yao, Yunlin Zhang, Tao Huang, Mingli Zhang, A-Xing Zhu, Hao Yang
Increased organic carbon and nitrogen accumulation rates (OCAR and ONAR) in lake sediment significantly regulate the global carbon cycle. However, the reasons for and contributors to the increased OCAR and ONAR are unclear. Seven sediment cores, collected in July 2014 from Dianchi Lake, China, were used to evaluate the effects of autochthonous and allochthonous sources on OCAR and ONAR. The results indicate that OCAR and ONAR increased by factors of 4.33 and 7.34 over the past hundred years (1900-2000), particularly after algal blooms began to occur frequently (beginning in the 1980s)...
June 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625107/associations-between-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-25-oh-d-and-psychological-distress-among-inuit-in-canada
#4
Hans-Ragnar Skogli, Dominique Geoffroy, Hope A Weiler, Grethe S Tell, Laurence J Kirmayer, Grace M Egeland
BACKGROUND: Inuit in Canada have experienced dietary changes over recent generations, but how this relates to psychological distress has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how nutritional biomarkers are related to psychological distress. DESIGN: A total of 36 communities in northern Canada participated in the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey (2007-2008). Of 2796 households, 1901 (68%) participated; 1699 Inuit adults gave blood samples for biomarker analysis and answered the Kessler 6-item psychological distress questionnaire (K6)...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624605/transplacental-exposure-to-environmental-carcinogens-association-with-childhood-cancer-risks-and-the-role-of-modulating-factors
#5
REVIEW
A Fucic, V Guszak, A Mantovani
Biological responses to carcinogens from environmental exposure during adulthood are modulated over years or decades. Conversely, during transplacental exposure, the effects on the human foetus change within weeks, intertwining with developmental mechanisms: even short periods of transplacental exposure may be imprinted in the organism for a lifetime. The pathways leading to childhood and juvenile cancers, such as leukaemias, neuroblastoma/brain tumours, hepatoblastoma, and Willm's tumor involve prenatally-induced genomic, epigenomic and/or non-genomic effects caused by xenobiotics...
June 14, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623827/changes-in-aquatic-microbial-responses-to-c-substrates-with-stream-water-and-sediment-quality-related-to-land-use-pressures
#6
Marc I Stutter, Jonathan Cains
The degradation of aquatic ecosystems by multiply-acting stressors is a key threat requiring new approaches to identify impairment processes and restoration targets. Heterotrophic respiration of C-substrates can be an integrative indicator of how aquatic ecosystems respond to pollution. We utilised sixteen C-substrates (simple metabolites to dissolved organic matter (DOM)) to characterise substrate induced respiration (SIR) for sediments from sixteen NE Scotland streams covering a range of land use-related pollution pressures...
June 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623349/human-bipedalism-and-body-mass-index
#7
Su Do Yi, Jae Dong Noh, Petter Minnhagen, Mi-Young Song, Tae-Soo Chon, Beom Jun Kim
Body-mass index, abbreviated as BMI and given by M/H (2) with the mass M and the height H, has been widely used as a useful proxy to measure a general health status of a human individual. We generalise BMI in the form of M/H (p) and pursue to answer the question of the value of p for populations of animal species including human. We compare values of p for several different datasets for human populations with the ones obtained for other animal populations of fish, whales, and land mammals. All animal populations but humans analyzed in our work are shown to have p ≈ 3 unanimously...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620759/participative-spatial-scenario-analysis-for-alpine-ecosystems
#8
Marina Kohler, Rike Stotten, Melanie Steinbacher, Georg Leitinger, Erich Tasser, Uta Schirpke, Ulrike Tappeiner, Markus Schermer
Land use and land cover patterns are shaped by the interplay of human and ecological processes. Thus, heterogeneous cultural landscapes have developed, delivering multiple ecosystem services. To guarantee human well-being, the development of land use types has to be evaluated. Scenario development and land use and land cover change models are well-known tools for assessing future landscape changes. However, as social and ecological systems are inextricably linked, land use-related management decisions are difficult to identify...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620680/landscape-climate-and-hantavirus-cardiopulmonary-syndrome-outbreaks
#9
REVIEW
Paula Ribeiro Prist, Paulo Sérgio D Andrea, Jean Paul Metzger
We performed a literature review in order to improve our understanding of how landscape and climate drivers affect HCPS outbreaks. Anthropogenic landscape changes such as forest loss, fragmentation and agricultural land uses are related with a boost in hantavirus reservoir species abundance and hantavirus prevalence in tropical areas, increasing HCPS risk. Additionally, higher precipitation, especially in arid regions, favors an increase in vegetational biomass, which augments the resources for reservoir rodents, also increasing HCPS risk...
June 15, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617271/modelling-and-optimization-of-land-use-land-cover-change-in-a-developing-urban-catchment
#10
Ping Xu, Fei Gao, Junchao He, Xinxin Ren, Weijin Xi
The impacts of land use/cover change (LUCC) on hydrological processes and water resources are mainly reflected in changes in runoff and pollutant variations. Low impact development (LID) technology is utilized as an effective strategy to control urban stormwater runoff and pollution in the urban catchment. In this study, the impact of LUCC on runoff and pollutants in an urbanizing catchment of Guang-Ming New District in Shenzhen, China, were quantified using a dynamic rainfall-runoff model with the EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)...
June 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614605/symbiotic-soil-fungi-enhance-ecosystem-resilience-to-climate-change
#11
Laura B Martinez-Garcia, Gerlinde B De Deyn, Francisco I Pugnaire, David Kothamasi, Marcel G A van der Heijden
Substantial amounts of nutrients are lost from soils through leaching. These losses can be environmentally damaging, causing groundwater eutrophication and also comprise an economic burden in terms of lost agricultural production. More intense precipitation events caused by climate change will likely aggravate this problem. So far it is unresolved to which extent soil biota can make ecosystems more resilient to climate change and reduce nutrient leaching losses when rainfall intensity increases. In this study, we focused on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, common soil fungi that form symbiotic associations with most land plants and which increase plant nutrient uptake...
June 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613883/identifying-land-use-and-land-use-changes-luluc-a-global-luluc-matrix
#12
Michele De Rosa, Mette Vestergaard Odgaard, Jan K Staunstrup, Marie Trydeman Knudsen, John Erik Hermansen
Land Use and Land-use Changes (LULUC) information is essential to determine the environmental impacts of anthropogenic land-use and conversion. However, existing datasets are either local-scale or they quantify land occupation per land-use type rather than providing information on land-use changes. Here we combined the strengths of the remotely-sensed MODIS land cover dataset and FAOSTAT land-use data to obtain a database including a collection of 231 country-specific LULUC matrixes, as suggested by the IPCC...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611453/adaptive-carbon-allocation-by-plants-enhances-the-terrestrial-carbon-sink
#13
Jiangzhou Xia, Wenping Yuan, Ying-Ping Wang, Quanguo Zhang
Carbon allocation is one of the most important physiological processes to optimize the plant growth, which exerts a strong influence on ecosystem structure and function, with potentially large implications for the global carbon budget. However, it remains unclear how the carbon allocation pattern has changed at global scale and impacted terrestrial carbon uptake. Based on the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model, this study shows the increasing partitioning ratios to leaf and wood and reducing ratio to root globally from 1979 to 2014...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609467/land-cover-more-than-monthly-fire-weather-drives-fire-size-distribution-in-southern-qu%C3%A3-bec-forests-implications-for-fire-risk-management
#14
Jean Marchal, Steve G Cumming, Eliot J B McIntire
Fire activity in North American forests is expected to increase substantially with climate change. This would represent a growing risk to human settlements and industrial infrastructure proximal to forests, and to the forest products industry. We modelled fire size distributions in southern Québec as functions of fire weather and land cover, thus explicitly integrating some of the biotic interactions and feedbacks in a forest-wildfire system. We found that, contrary to expectations, land-cover and not fire weather was the primary driver of fire size in our study region...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605858/optimal-implementation-of-green-infrastructure-practices-to-minimize-influences-of-land-use-change-and-climate-change-on-hydrology-and-water-quality-case-study-in-spy-run-creek-watershed-indiana
#15
Yaoze Liu, Bernard A Engel, Paris D Collingsworth, Bryan C Pijanowski
Nutrient loading from the Maumee River watershed is a significant reason for the harmful algal blooms (HABs) problem in Lake Erie. The nutrient loading from urban areas needs to be reduced with the installation of green infrastructure (GI) practices. The Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development 2.1 (L-THIA-LID 2.1) model was used to explore the influences of land use (LU) and climate change on water quantity and quality in Spy Run Creek watershed (SRCW) (part of Maumee River watershed), decide whether and where excess phosphorus loading existed, identify critical areas to understand where the greatest amount of runoff/pollutants originated, and optimally implement GI practices to obtain maximum environmental benefits with the lowest costs...
June 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592810/historical-and-projected-surface-temperature-over-india-during-the-20-th-and-21-st-century
#16
Ghouse Basha, P Kishore, M Venkat Ratnam, A Jayaraman, Amir Agha Kouchak, Taha B M J Ouarda, Isabella Velicogna
Surface Temperature (ST) over India has increased by ~0.055 K/decade during 1860-2005 and follows the global warming trend. Here, the natural and external forcings (e.g., natural and anthropogenic) responsible for ST variability are studied from Coupled Model Inter-comparison phase 5 (CMIP5) models during the 20(th) century and projections during the 21(st) century along with seasonal variability. Greenhouse Gases (GHG) and Land Use (LU) are the major factors that gave rise to warming during the 20(th) century...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591146/recent-tree-cover-increases-in-eastern-china-linked-to-low-declining-human-pressure-steep-topography-and-climatic-conditions-favoring-tree-growth
#17
Jonas Nüchel, Jens-Christian Svenning
Globally, the extent of forest continues to decline, however, some countries have increased their forest extent in recent years. China is one of these countries and has managed to increase their tree cover through huge reforestation and afforestation programs during recent decades as well as land abandonment dynamics. This study investigates tree cover change in the eastern half of China between 2000 and 2010 on three different scales, using random forest modeling of remote sensing data for tree cover in relation to environmental and anthropogenic predictor variables...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590592/decadal-changes-in-habitat-characteristics-influence-population-trajectories-of-southern-elephant-seals
#18
Mark A Hindell, Michael Sumner, Sophie Bestley, Simon Wotherspoon, Robert G Harcourt, Mary-Anne Lea, Rachael Alderman, Clive R McMahon
Understanding divergent biological responses to climate change is important for predicting ecosystem level consequences. We use species habitat models to predict the winter foraging habitats of female southern elephant seals and investigate how changes in environmental variables within these habitats may be related to observed decreases in the Macquarie Island population. There were three main groups of seals that specialised in different ocean realms (the sub-Antarctic, the Ross Sea and the Victoria Land Coast)...
June 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589455/terrestrially-derived-glomalin-related-soil-protein-quality-as-a-potential-ecological-indicator-in-a-peri-urban-watershed
#19
Xueyan Sui, Zhipeng Wu, Chen Lin, Shenglu Zhou
Glomalin, which sequesters substantial amounts of carbon, plays a critical role in sustaining terrestrial biome functions and contributes to the fate of many pollutants from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. Despite having focused on the amount of glomalin produced, very few attempts have been made to understand how landscapes and environmental conditions influence glomalin composition and characteristics. This study focused on glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) exported as storm runoff including eroded sediment and water that was collected before flowing to surface waters in a peri-urban watershed...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587912/development-of-groundwater-vulnerability-zones-in-a-data-scarce-eogenetic-karst-area-using-head-guided-zonation-and-particle-tracking-simulation-methods
#20
Dua K S Y Klaas, Monzur Alam Imteaz, Arul Arulrajah
Delineation of groundwater vulnerability zones based on a valid groundwater model is crucial towards an accurate design of management strategies. However, limited data often restrain the development of a robust groundwater model. This study presents a methodology to develop groundwater vulnerability zones in a data-scarce area. The Head-Guided Zonation (HGZ) method was applied on the recharge area of Oemau Spring in Rote Island, Indonesia, which is under potential risk of contamination from rapid land use changes...
May 28, 2017: Water Research
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