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land change modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351290/land-use-change-in-oil-palm-dominated-tropical-landscapes-an-agent-based-model-to-explore-ecological-and-socio-economic-trade-offs
#1
Claudia Dislich, Elisabeth Hettig, Jan Salecker, Johannes Heinonen, Jann Lay, Katrin M Meyer, Kerstin Wiegand, Suria Tarigan
Land-use changes have dramatically transformed tropical landscapes. We describe an ecological-economic land-use change model as an integrated, exploratory tool used to analyze how tropical land-use change affects ecological and socio-economic functions. The model analysis seeks to determine what kind of landscape mosaic can improve the ensemble of ecosystem functioning, biodiversity, and economic benefit based on the synergies and trade-offs that we have to account for. More specifically, (1) how do specific ecosystem functions, such as carbon storage, and economic functions, such as household consumption, relate to each other? (2) How do external factors, such as the output prices of crops, affect these relationships? (3) How do these relationships change when production inefficiency differs between smallholder farmers and learning is incorporated? We initialize the ecological-economic model with artificially generated land-use maps parameterized to our study region...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343602/bayesian-inference-reveals-positive-but-subtle-effects-of-experimental-fishery-closures-on-marine-predator-demographics
#2
Richard B Sherley, Barbara J Barham, Peter J Barham, Kate J Campbell, Robert J M Crawford, Jennifer Grigg, Cat Horswill, Alistair McInnes, Taryn L Morris, Lorien Pichegru, Antje Steinfurth, Florian Weller, Henning Winker, Stephen C Votier
Global forage-fish landings are increasing, with potentially grave consequences for marine ecosystems. Predators of forage fish may be influenced by this harvest, but the nature of these effects is contentious. Experimental fishery manipulations offer the best solution to quantify population-level impacts, but are rare. We used Bayesian inference to examine changes in chick survival, body condition and population growth rate of endangered African penguins Spheniscus demersus in response to 8 years of alternating time-area closures around two pairs of colonies...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341366/impact-of-multiple-stressors-on-juvenile-fish-in-estuaries-of-the-northeast-pacific
#3
Jason D Toft, Stuart H Munsch, Jeffery R Cordell, Kiira Siitari, Van C Hare, Brett Holycross, Lisa A DeBruyckere, Correigh M Greene, Brent B Hughes
A key step in identifying global change impacts on species and ecosystems is to quantify effects of multiple stressors. To date, the science of global change has been dominated by regional field studies, experimental manipulation, meta-analyses, conceptual models, reviews, and studies focusing on a single stressor or species over broad spatial and temporal scales. Here, we provide one of the first studies for coastal systems examining multiple stressor effects across broad scales, focused on the nursery function of 20 estuaries spanning 1600 km of coastline, 25 years of monitoring, and seven fish and invertebrate species along the northeast Pacific coast...
January 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340745/a-6-week-warm-up-injury-prevention-programme-results-in-minimal-biomechanical-changes-during-jump-landings-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Jeffrey B Taylor, Kevin R Ford, Randy J Schmitz, Scott E Ross, Terry A Ackerman, Sandra J Shultz
PURPOSE: To examine the extent to which an ACL injury prevention programme modifies lower extremity biomechanics during single- and double-leg landing tasks in both the sagittal and frontal plane. It was hypothesized that the training programme would elicit improvements in lower extremity biomechanics, but that these improvements would be greater during a double-leg sagittal plane landing task than tasks performed on a single leg or in the frontal plane. METHODS: Ninety-seven competitive multi-directional sport athletes that competed at the middle- or high-school level were cluster randomized into intervention (n = 48, age = 15...
January 16, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330526/relationship-among-land-surface-temperature-and-lucc-ndvi-in-typical-karst-area
#5
Yuanhong Deng, Shijie Wang, Xiaoyong Bai, Yichao Tian, Luhua Wu, Jianyong Xiao, Fei Chen, Qinghuan Qian
Land surface temperature (LST) can reflect the land surface water-heat exchange process comprehensively, which is considerably significant to the study of environmental change. However, research about LST in karst mountain areas with complex topography is scarce. Therefore, we retrieved the LST in a karst mountain area from Landsat 8 data and explored its relationships with LUCC and NDVI. The results showed that LST of the study area was noticeably affected by altitude and underlying surface type. In summer, abnormal high-temperature zones were observed in the study area, perhaps due to karst rocky desertification...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330138/a-biogeographic-and-ecological-perspective-to-the-evolution-of-reproductive-behaviour-in-the-family-salamandridae
#6
Sarah Kieren, Max Sparreboom, Axel Hochkirch, Michael Veith
Amphibians have a complex reproductive behaviour, which shows the highest diversity among tetrapodes. The family Salamandridae, distributed across the entire Holarctic, is one of the most diverse groups of extant salamanders comprising 114 species in 21 genera. The family has a remarkable diversity of courtship modes, amplexus and sperm transfer. It is often hypothesised that this diversity has evolved in adaptation to a specific mating and/or breeding habitat. We test this hypothesis based upon a phylogenetic reconstruction using the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of 45 Salamandridae species, representing all existing genera...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328658/modelling-net-land-occupation-of-hydropower-reservoirs-in-norway-for-use-in-life-cycle-assessment
#7
Martin Dorber, Roel May, Francesca Verones
Increasing hydropower electricity production constitutes a unique opportunity to mitigate climate change impacts. However, hydropower also impacts aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity through freshwater habitat alteration, water quality degradation, and land use and land use change (LULUC). Today, no operational model exists that covers any of these cause-effect pathways within Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This paper contributes to the assessment of LULUC impacts of hydropower electricity production in Norway in LCA...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323781/soil-phosphorus-does-not-keep-pace-with-soil-carbon-and-nitrogen-accumulation-following-woody-encroachment
#8
Yong Zhou, Thomas W Boutton, X Ben Wu
Soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles are strongly interlinked and controlled through biological processes, and the phosphorus cycle is further controlled through geochemical processes. In dryland ecosystems, woody encroachment often modifies soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus stores, although it remains unknown if these three elements change proportionally in response to this vegetation change. We evaluated proportional changes and spatial patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations following woody encroachment by taking spatially-explicit soil cores to a depth of 1...
January 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321897/nutrient-stoichiometry-and-land-use-rather-than-species-richness-determine-plant-functional-diversity
#9
Verena Busch, Valentin H Klaus, Caterina Penone, Deborah Schäfer, Steffen Boch, Daniel Prati, Jörg Müller, Stephanie A Socher, Ülo Niinemets, Josep Peñuelas, Norbert Hölzel, Markus Fischer, Till Kleinebecker
Plant functional traits reflect individual and community ecological strategies. They allow the detection of directional changes in community dynamics and ecosystemic processes, being an additional tool to assess biodiversity than species richness. Analysis of functional patterns in plant communities provides mechanistic insight into biodiversity alterations due to anthropogenic activity. Although studies have consi-dered of either anthropogenic management or nutrient availability on functional traits in temperate grasslands, studies combining effects of both drivers are scarce...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319630/exposure-to-ambient-ultrafine-particles-and-nitrogen-dioxide-and-incident-hypertension-and-diabetes
#10
Li Bai, Hong Chen, Marianne Hatzopoulou, Michael Jerrett, Jeffrey C Kwong, Richard T Burnett, Aaron van Donkelaar, Ray Copes, Randall V Martin, Keith van Ryswyk, Hong Lu, Alexander Kopp, Scott Weichenthal
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported that long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution may increase the incidence of hypertension and diabetes. However, little is known about the associations of ultrafine particles (≤0.1 micrometers in diameter) with these two conditions. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study to investigate the associations between exposures to ultrafine particles and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and the incidence of diabetes and hypertension...
January 9, 2018: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315266/preventive-effect-of-residential-green-space-on-infantile-atopic-dermatitis-associated-with-prenatal-air-pollution-exposure
#11
Ji-Young Lee, Dirga Kumar Lamichhane, Myeongjee Lee, Shinhee Ye, Jung-Hyun Kwon, Myung-Sook Park, Hwan-Cheol Kim, Jong-Han Leem, Yun-Chul Hong, Yangho Kim, Mina Ha, Eunhee Ha
Few birth cohort studies have examined the role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) in the development of infantile atopic dermatitis (AD), but none have investigated the role of preventive factors such as green spaces. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <10 μm (PM10) during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of development of AD in 6-month-old children and also to examine how this association changes with residential green space...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311604/effects-of-urban-sprawl-on-arthropod-communities-in-peri-urban-farmed-landscape-in-shenbei-new-district-shenyang-liaoning-province-china
#12
Zhen-Xing Bian, Shuai Wang, Qiu-Bing Wang, Miao Yu, Feng-Kui Qian
Peri-urban farmland provides a diversity of ecological services. However, it is experiencing increasing pressures from urban sprawl. While the effects of land use associated with farming on arthropod assemblages has received increasing attention, most of this research has been conducted by comparing conventional and organic cropping systems. The present study identifies the effects of urban sprawl and the role of non-cropped habitat in defining arthropod diversity in peri-urban farmed landscapes. Multi-scale arthropod data from 30 sampling plots were used with linear-mixed models to elucidate the effects of distance from urban areas (0-13 km; 13-25 km and >25 km, zones I, II, and III, respectively) on arthropods...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304503/landscape-evolution-and-agricultural-land-salinization-in-coastal-area-a-conceptual-model
#13
Aplena Elen Bless, François Colin, Armand Crabit, Nicolas Devaux, Olivier Philippon, Stéphane Follain
Soil salinization is a major threat to agricultural lands. Among salt-affected lands, coastal areas could be considered as highly complex systems, where salinization degradation due to anthropogenic pressure and climate-induced changes could significantly alter system functioning. For such complex systems, conceptual models can be used as evaluation tools in a preliminary step to identify the main evolutionary processes responsible for soil and water salinization. This study aimed to propose a conceptual model for water fluxes in a coastal area affected by salinity, which can help to identify the relationships between agricultural landscape evolution and actual salinity...
January 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291565/a-regional-scale-investigation-on-factors-controlling-the-groundwater-chemistry-of-various-aquifers-in-a-rapidly-urbanized-area-a-case-study-of-the-pearl-river-delta
#14
Guanxing Huang, Chunyan Liu, Jichao Sun, Ming Zhang, Jihong Jing, Liangping Li
A growing population accompanied by urbanization has increased groundwater resource demands in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area, southern China, and a comprehensive understanding of the groundwater chemistry in the PRD is necessary. The aims of this study were to investigate the groundwater chemistry in various aquifers in the PRD on a regional scale and to discuss the factors that control the groundwater chemistries of different types of aquifers. In addition, the effect of the expansion of construction land on the groundwater chemistry was also taken into consideration in this study...
December 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291560/wildfires-as-collateral-effects-of-wildlife-electrocution-an-economic-approach-to-the-situation-in-spain-in-recent-years
#15
Francisco Guil, Mª Ángeles Soria, Antoni Margalida, Juan M Pérez-García
The interaction between wildlife and power lines has collateral effects that include wildfires and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, currently available information is scarce and so new approaches are needed to increase our understanding of this issue. Here, we present the first analysis of wildfires and their incidence as a result of this interaction in Spain during the period 2000-2012. Amongst the 2788 Power-Line Mediated Wildfires (PLMW recorded) during this period, 30 records of Fauna Mediated Wildfires (FMW) were found, with an average affected vegetation cover of 9...
December 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291556/substantial-impacts-of-landscape-changes-on-summer-climate-with-major-regional-differences-the-case-of-china
#16
Qian Cao, Deyong Yu, Matei Georgescu, Jianguo Wu
China's rapid socioeconomic development during the past few decades has resulted in large-scale landscape changes across the country. However, the impacts of these land surface modifications on climate are yet to be adequately understood. Using a coupled process-based land-atmospheric model, therefore, we quantified the climatic effects of land cover and land management changes over mainland China from 2001 to 2010, via incorporation of real-time and high-quality satellite-derived landscape representation (i...
December 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285630/preeclampsia-and-hypertension-during-pregnancy-in-areas-with-relatively-low-levels-of-traffic-air-pollution
#17
Christian Madsen, Siri Eldevik Håberg, Geir Aamodt, Hein Stigum, Per Magnus, Stephanie J London, Wenche Nystad, Per Nafstad
Objectives Air pollution exposure may contribute to the development of preeclampsia and hypertension during pregnancy. However, the evidence for such a relation is still limited. We investigated the associations between exposure for moderate to low levels of air pollution during pregnancy and preeclampsia and gestational hypertension in selected urban and county areas of Norway. Methods This study used a sub-group of 17,533 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Air pollution levels at residential addresses were estimated using land use regression models and back-extrapolated to the period of each pregnancy...
December 28, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284201/australian-wheat-production-expected-to-decrease-by-the-late-21st-century
#18
Bin Wang, De Li Liu, Garry J O'Leary, Senthold Asseng, Ian Macadam, Rebecca Lines-Kelly, Xihua Yang, Anthony Clark, Jason Crean, Timothy Sides, Hongtao Xing, Chunrong Mi, Qiang Yu
Climate change threatens global wheat production and food security, including the wheat industry in Australia. Many studies have examined the impacts of changes in local climate on wheat yield per hectare, but there has been no assessment of changes in land area available for production due to changing climate. It is also unclear how total wheat production would change under future climate when autonomous adaptation options are adopted. We applied species distribution models to investigate future changes in areas climatically suitable for growing wheat in Australia...
December 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284050/the-decreasing-range-between-dry-and-wet-season-precipitation-over-land-and-its-effect-on-vegetation-primary-productivity
#19
Guillermo Murray-Tortarolo, Víctor J Jaramillo, Manuel Maass, Pierre Friedlingstein, Stephen Sitch
One consequence of climate change is the alteration of global water fluxes, both in amount and seasonality. As a result, the seasonal difference between dry- (p < 100 mm/month) and wet-season (p > 100 mm/month) precipitation (p) has increased over land during recent decades (1980-2005). However, our analysis expanding to a 60-year period (1950-2009) showed the opposite trend. This is, dry-season precipitation increased steadily, while wet-season precipitation remained constant, leading to reduced seasonality at a global scale...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282822/climate-warming-and-land-use-changes-drive-broad-scale-floristic-changes-in-southern-sweden
#20
Torbjörn Tyler, Lina Herbertsson, Pål Axel Olsson, Lars Fröberg, Kjell-Arne Olsson, Åke Svensson, Ola Olsson
Land-use changes, pollution and climate warming during the 20th century have caused changes in biodiversity across the world. However, in many cases the environmental drivers are poorly understood. To identify and rank the drivers currently causing broad-scale floristic changes in N Europe, we analyzed data from two vascular plant surveys of 200 randomly selected 2.5×2.5 km grid squares in Scania, southernmost Sweden, conducted 1989-2006 and 2008-2015, respectively, and related the change in frequency (performance) of the species to a wide range of species-specific plant traits...
December 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
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