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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732398/simulation-of-targeted-pollutant-mitigation-strategies-to-reduce-nitrate-and-sediment-hotspots-in-agricultural-watershed
#1
Awoke Dagnew Teshager, Philip W Gassman, Silvia Secchi, Justin T Schoof
About 50% of U.S. water pollution problems are caused by non-point source (NPS) pollution, primarily sediment and nutrients from agricultural areas, despite the widespread implementation of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs). However, the effectiveness of implementation strategies and type of BMPs at watershed scale are still not well understood. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) ecohydrological model was used to assess the effectiveness of pollutant mitigation strategies in the Raccoon River watershed (RRW) in west-central Iowa, USA...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727744/climate-change-and-sugarcane-expansion-increase-hantavirus-infection-risk
#2
Paula Ribeiro Prist, María Uriarte, Katia Fernandes, Jean Paul Metzger
Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726128/on-the-response-of-the-baltic-proper-to-changes-of-the-total-phosphorus-supply
#3
Anders Stigebrandt
Using a time-dependent phosphorus (P) budget model for the Baltic proper, describing sources and sinks at the external borders of the water column, one may compute the e-folding time T of the adjustment of the winter surface water P concentration c 1 to abruptly changed total P supply. The restoration time TR = 3T is introduced as a practical measure of the time it takes to achieve 95% of the change of c 1 towards the final, equilibrium, state c 1e. The P budget model, including an internal source emanating from deep anoxic bottoms, also shows that c 1e is proportional to the total P supply to the water column...
July 19, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725011/observed-trends-in-the-magnitude-and-persistence-of-monthly-temperature-variability
#4
Timothy M Lenton, Vasilis Dakos, Sebastian Bathiany, Marten Scheffer
Climate variability is critically important for nature and society, especially if it increases in amplitude and/or fluctuations become more persistent. However, the issues of whether climate variability is changing, and if so, whether this is due to anthropogenic forcing, are subjects of ongoing debate. Increases in the amplitude and persistence of temperature fluctuations have been detected in some regions, e.g. the North Pacific, but there is no agreed global signal. Here we systematically scan monthly surface temperature indices and spatial datasets to look for trends in variance and autocorrelation (persistence)...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724088/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-assessment-of-aqueously-extractable-estrogens-in-poultry-manure-after-pilot-scale-composting
#5
Kirsten M Hammett, Elizabeth J Mullin, Diana S Aga, Gary K Felton, Daniel J Fisher, Lance T Yonkos
Poultry manure contains free and conjugated forms of the natural estrogens 17β-estradiol and estrone, which can be transported to receiving waters via runoff when land-applied. Previous studies have demonstrated estrogens in runoff from poultry manure-amended fields but have not tracked changes in estrogenicity within this water over time. Microbial conversion of conjugated estrogens (a major portion of water-extractable estrogens) to parent forms may result in temporary increases in estrogenicity in natural water bodies...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722467/the-influence-of-lower-extremity-lean-mass-on-landing-biomechanics-during-prolonged-exercise
#6
Melissa M Montgomery, Amanda J Tritsch, John R Cone, Randy J Schmitz, Robert Henson, Sandra J Shultz
CONTEXT:   The extent to which lower extremity lean mass (LELM) relative to total body mass influences one's ability to maintain safe landing biomechanics during prolonged exercise when injury incidence increases is unknown. OBJECTIVES:   To examine the influence of LELM on (1) pre-exercise lower extremity biomechanics and (2) changes in biomechanics during an intermittent exercise protocol (IEP) and (3) determine whether these relationships differ by sex. We hypothesized that less LELM would predict higher-risk baseline biomechanics and greater changes toward higher-risk biomechanics during the IEP...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717135/projection-of-american-dustiness-in-the-late-21-st-century-due-to-climate-change
#7
Bing Pu, Paul Ginoux
Climate models project rising drought risks over the southwestern and central U.S. in the twenty-first century due to increasing greenhouse gases. The projected drier regions largely overlay the major dust sources in the United States. However, whether dust activity in U.S. will increase in the future is not clear, due to the large uncertainty in dust modeling. This study found that changes of dust activity in the U.S. in the recent decade are largely associated with the variations of precipitation, soil bareness, and surface winds speed...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715855/assessing-long-term-impact-of-land-use-change-on-hydrological-ecosystem-functions-in-a-mediterranean-upland-agro-forestry-catchment
#8
Paolo Nasta, Mario Palladino, Nadia Ursino, Antonio Saracino, Angelo Sommella, Nunzio Romano
During the second half of the 20th century farming systems in hilly and mountainous areas of Mediterranean Europe were progressively abandoned and the forest cover subsequently re-expanded. This paper investigates the environmental impacts of land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes on hydrological ecosystem functions (HEFs) in the Upper Alento River Catchment (UARC) in southern Italy. We document the human-driven post-war landscape in 1955 with its maximum expansion of pasture and crops. By 1998 forest cover had doubled and cropland had roughly halved due to decades of land abandonment and reduction in human pressure...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715676/modelling-the-impacts-of-altered-management-practices-land-use-and-climate-changes-on-the-water-quality-of-the-millbrook-catchment-reservoir-system-in-south-australia
#9
Hong Hanh Nguyen, Friedrich Recknagel, Wayne Meyer, Jacqueline Frizenschaf, Manoj Kumar Shrestha
Sustainable management of drinking water reservoirs requires taking into account the potential effects of their catchments' development. This study is an attempt to estimate the daily patterns of nutrients transport in the catchment - reservoir systems through the application of the ensemble of complementary models SWAT-SALMO. SWAT quantifies flow, nitrate and phosphate loadings originating in catchments before entering downstream reservoirs meanwhile SALMO determines phosphate, nitrate, and chlorophyll-a concentrations within the reservoirs...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714755/foot-and-ankle-kinematics-during-descent-from-varying-step-heights
#10
Emily E Gerstle, Kristian O'Connor, Kevin G Keenan, Stephen C Cobb
In the general population, one-third of incidences during step negotiation occur during the transition to level walking. Furthermore, falls during curb negotiation are a common cause injury in older adults. Distal foot kinematics may be an important factor in determining injury risk associated with transition step negotiation. The purpose of this study was to identify foot and ankle kinematics of uninjured individuals during descent from varying step heights. A seven-segment foot model was used to quantify kinematics as participants walked on a level walkway, stepped down a single step (heights: 5 cm, 15 cm, 25 cm) and continued walking...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712130/the-role-of-protected-areas-in-land-use-land-cover-change-and-the-carbon-cycle-in-the-conterminous-united-states
#11
Xiaoliang Lu, Yuyu Zhou, Yaling Liu, Le Page Yannick
Protected Areas (PAs) cover about 22% of the conterminous U.S. Understanding their role on historical land use and land cover change (LULCC) and on the carbon cycle is essential to provide guidance for environmental policies. In this study, we compiled historical LULCC and PAs data to explore these interactions within the terrestrial biogeochemistry model (TEM). We found that intensive LULCC occurred in the conterminous U.S. from 1700 to 2005. More than three million km(2) of forest, grassland and shrublands were converted into agricultural lands, which caused 10,607 Tg C release from land ecosystems to atmosphere...
July 16, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711823/using-nitrogen-concentration-and-isotopic-composition-in-lichens-to-spatially-assess-the-relative-contribution-of-atmospheric-nitrogen-sources-in-complex-landscapes
#12
P Pinho, C Barros, S Augusto, M J Pereira, C Máguas, C Branquinho
Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is an important driver of global change, causing alterations in ecosystem biodiversity and functionality. Environmental assessments require monitoring the emission and deposition of both the amount and types of Nr. This is especially important in heterogeneous landscapes, as different land-cover types emit particular forms of Nr to the atmosphere, which can impact ecosystems distinctively. Such assessments require high spatial resolution maps that also integrate temporal variations, and can only be feasibly achieved by using ecological indicators...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709371/relationship-of-fish-indices-with-sampling-effort-and-land-use-change-in-a-large-mediterranean-river
#13
David Almeida, Juan Diego Alcaraz-Hernández, Roberto Merciai, Lluís Benejam, Emili García-Berthou
Fish are invaluable ecological indicators in freshwater ecosystems but have been less used for ecological assessments in large Mediterranean rivers. We evaluated the effects of sampling effort (transect length) on fish metrics, such as species richness and two fish indices (the new European Fish Index EFI+ and a regional index, IBICAT2b), in the mainstem of a large Mediterranean river. For this purpose, we sampled by boat electrofishing five sites each with 10 consecutive transects corresponding to a total length of 20 times the river width (European standard required by the Water Framework Directive) and we also analysed the effect of sampling area on previous surveys...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709097/effects-of-land-use-and-climate-change-on-ecosystem-services-in-central-asia-s-arid-regions-a-case-study-in-altay-prefecture-china
#14
Qi Fu, Bo Li, Ying Hou, Xu Bi, Xinshi Zhang
The sustainable use of ecosystem services (ES) can contribute to enhancing human well-being. Understanding the effects of land use and climate change on ES can provide scientific and targeted guidance for the sustainable use of ES. The objective of this study was to reveal the way in which land use and climate change influence the spatial and temporal variations of ES in the mountain-oasis-desert system (MODS). In this study, we assessed water yield, soil conservation, crop production, and sand fixation in 1990, 2000, and 2010 in Altay Prefecture, which is representative of the MODS, based on widely used biophysical models...
July 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708878/reforestation-induced-changes-of-landscape-composition-and-configuration-modulate-freshwater-supply-and-flooding-risk-of-tropical-watersheds
#15
Qiong Gao, Mei Yu
Impact of changes in land cover and land use on hydrological service of tropical watersheds is one of the focal research tropics in both hydrology and Land Cover Land Use Changes (LCLUC). Land fragmentation is an important feature of LCLUC, however, its impact on hydrological service of tropical watershed is unclear despite a few theoretical frameworks. In this paper, we described a simulation study of eight tropical watersheds in Puerto Rico using the Soil Water Assessment Tool. Annual average stream discharge was derived according to the simulations with the land cover maps in 1977, 1991, and 2000...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707260/historical-effects-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-export-and-land-management-decisions-on-the-watershed-scale-forest-carbon-budget-of-a-coastal-british-columbia-douglas-fir-dominated-landscape
#16
B P Smiley, J A Trofymow
BACKGROUND: To address how natural disturbance, forest harvest, and deforestation from reservoir creation affect landscape-level carbon (C) budgets, a retrospective C budget for the 8500 ha Sooke Lake Watershed (SLW) from 1911 to 2012 was developed using historical spatial inventory and disturbance data. To simulate forest C dynamics, data was input into a spatially-explicit version of the Carbon Budget Model-Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3). Transfers of terrestrial C to inland aquatic environments need to be considered to better capture the watershed scale C balance...
December 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698464/leaf-area-index-estimation-using-chinese-gf-1-wide-field-view-data-in-an-agriculture-region
#17
Xiangqin Wei, Xingfa Gu, Qingyan Meng, Tao Yu, Xiang Zhou, Zheng Wei, Kun Jia, Chunmei Wang
Leaf area index (LAI) is an important vegetation parameter that characterizes leaf density and canopy structure, and plays an important role in global change study, land surface process simulation and agriculture monitoring. The wide field view (WFV) sensor on board the Chinese GF-1 satellite can acquire multi-spectral data with decametric spatial resolution, high temporal resolution and wide coverage, which are valuable data sources for dynamic monitoring of LAI. Therefore, an automatic LAI estimation algorithm for GF-1 WFV data was developed based on the radiative transfer model and LAI estimation accuracy of the developed algorithm was assessed in an agriculture region with maize as the dominated crop type...
July 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693674/the-imperative-for-regenerative-agriculture
#18
Christopher J Rhodes
A review is made of the current state of agriculture, emphasising issues of soil erosion and dependence on fossil fuels, in regard to achieving food security for a relentlessly enlarging global population. Soil has been described as "the fragile, living skin of the Earth", and yet both its aliveness and fragility have all too often been ignored in the expansion of agriculture across the face of the globe. Since it is a pivotal component in a global nexus of soil-water-air-energy, how we treat the soil can impact massively on climate change - with either beneficial or detrimental consequences, depending on whether the soil is preserved or degraded...
March 1, 2017: Science Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691156/aquatic-exercise-for-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-a-meta-analysis
#19
Jordan L Rees, Steven T Johnson, Normand G Boulé
AIMS: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effects of aquatic exercise (AquaEx) on indicators of glycemic control (i.e., glycated hemoglobin [A1c] and fasting plasma glucose) in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It was hypothesized that AquaEx would improve glycemic control to a similar extent as land-based exercise (LandEx), but to a greater extent than non-exercise control (Ctrl). METHODS: A literature search was completed in February 2017 for studies examining AquaEx training in adults with T2DM...
July 10, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690800/do-plant-populations-on-distinct-inselbergs-talk-to-each-other-a-case-study-of-genetic-connectivity-of-a-bromeliad-species-in-an-ocbil-landscape
#20
Karina Vanessa Hmeljevski, Alison Gonçalves Nazareno, Marcelo Leandro Bueno, Maurício Sedrez Dos Reis, Rafaela Campostrini Forzza
Here, we explore the historical and contemporaneous patterns of connectivity among Encholirium horridum populations located on granitic inselbergs in an Ocbil landscape within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, using both nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers. Beyond to assess the E. horridum population genetic structure, we built species distribution models across four periods (current conditions, mid-Holocene, Last Glacial Maximum [LGM], and Last Interglacial) and inferred putative dispersal corridors using a least-cost path analysis to elucidate biogeographic patterns...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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