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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334680/assessing-driving-forces-of-land-use-and-land-cover-change-by-a-mixed-method-approach-in-north-eastern-ghana-west-africa
#1
Janina Kleemann, Gülendam Baysal, Henry N N Bulley, Christine Fürst
Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is the result of complex human-environmental interactions. The high interdependencies in social-ecological systems make it difficult to identify the main drivers. However, knowledge of key drivers of LULCC, including indirect (underlying) drivers which cannot be easily determined by spatial or economic analyses, is essential for land use planning and especially important in developing countries. We used a mixed-method approach in order to detect drivers of LULCC in the Upper East Region of northern Ghana by different qualitative and quantitative methods which were compared in a confidence level analysis...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324851/assessing-the-impacts-of-best-management-practices-on-nitrate-pollution-in-an-agricultural-dominated-lowland-catchment-considering-environmental-protection-versus-economic-development
#2
Marcelo B Haas, Björn Guse, Nicola Fohrer
Water quality is strongly affected by nitrate inputs in agricultural catchments. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are alternative practices aiming to mitigate the impacts derived from agricultural activities and to improve water quality. Management activities are influenced by different governmental policies like the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). Their distinct goals can be contrasting and hamper an integrated sustainable development. Both need to be addressed in the actual conjuncture in rural areas...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323368/biotic-interactions-modify-multiple-stressor-effects-on-juvenile-brown-trout-in-an-experimental-stream-food-web
#3
Andreas Bruder, Romana K Salis, Peter E Jones, Christoph D Matthaei
Agricultural land use results in multiple stressors affecting stream ecosystems. Flow reduction due to water abstraction, elevated levels of nutrients and chemical contaminants are common agricultural stressors worldwide. Concurrently, stream ecosystems are also increasingly affected by climate change. Interactions among multiple co-occurring stressors result in biological responses that cannot be predicted from single-stressor effects (i.e. synergisms and antagonisms). At the ecosystem level, multiple-stressor effects can be further modified by biotic interactions (e...
March 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322250/effects-of-ecological-restoration-projects-on-changes-in-land-cover-a-case-study-on-the-loess-plateau-in-china
#4
Jun Zhao, Yanzheng Yang, Qingxia Zhao, Zhong Zhao
Changes in land cover have become key components of global environmental change and represent the impact of human activity. To better understand the fundamental processes of land transition characteristics before and after the implementation of ecological programmes, we determined the dominant systematic changes in land cover in Yongshou, a hilly-gully region on the Loess Plateau. This was achieved by performing an in-depth analysis of a cross-tabulation matrix and a modified spatial dynamic degree model. Our results indicated that (1) forest land and cultivated land were the most important land cover types in Yongshou and their persistence would greatly affect the landscape pattern of the entire region; (2) the most significant changing signals in the study area during the periods 1992-2000 and 2000-2013 were from immature forest land to forest land, cultivated land to orchards and orchards to construction land; and (3) the region that experienced the most changes during 1992-2000 was the densely populated county seat of Yongshou; however, from 2000-2013, the region of most changes was Changning, a town located in the northcentral region of Yongshou...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321843/inbreeding-depression-maintained-by-recessive-lethal-mutations-interacting-with-stabilizing-selection-on-quantitative-characters-in-a-partially-self-fertilizing-population
#5
Russell Lande, Emmanuelle Porcher
The bimodal distribution of fitness effects of new mutations and standing genetic variation, due to early-acting strongly deleterious recessive mutations and late-acting mildly deleterious mutations, is analyzed using the Kondrashov model for lethals (K), with either the infinitesimal model for selfing (IMS) or the Gaussian allele model (GAM) for quantitative genetic variance under stabilizing selection. In the combined models (KIMS and KGAM) high genomic mutation rates to lethals and weak stabilizing selection on many characters create strong interactions between early and late inbreeding depression, by changing the distribution of lineages selfed consecutively for different numbers of generations...
March 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318825/riparian-erosion-vulnerability-model-based-on-environmental-features
#6
Alejandra Botero-Acosta, Maria L Chu, Jorge A Guzman, Patrick J Starks, Daniel N Moriasi
Riparian erosion is one of the major causes of sediment and contaminant load to streams, degradation of riparian wildlife habitats, and land loss hazards. Land and soil management practices are implemented as conservation and restoration measures to mitigate the environmental problems brought about by riparian erosion. This, however, requires the identification of vulnerable areas to soil erosion. Because of the complex interactions between the different mechanisms that govern soil erosion and the inherent uncertainties involved in quantifying these processes, assessing erosion vulnerability at the watershed scale is challenging...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314748/flight-control-of-fruit-flies-dynamic-response-to-optic-flow-and-headwind
#7
Kiaran K K Lawson, Mandyam V Srinivasan
Insects are magnificent fliers that are capable of performing many complex tasks such as speed regulation, smooth landings, and collision avoidance, even though their computational abilities are limited by their small brain. To investigate how flying insects respond to changes in wind speed and surrounding optic flow, the open-loop sensorimotor response of female Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni) was examined. 136 flies were exposed to stimuli comprising sinusoidally varying optic flow and air flow (simulating forward movement) under tethered conditions in a virtual reality arena...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303294/sustainability-evaluation
#8
Heinz Stichnothe
The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world...
March 17, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303148/differentiating-wheat-genotypes-by-bayesian-hierarchical-nonlinear-mixed-modeling-of-wheat-root-density
#9
Anton P Wasson, Grace S Chiu, Alexander B Zwart, Timothy R Binns
Ensuring future food security for a growing population while climate change and urban sprawl put pressure on agricultural land will require sustainable intensification of current farming practices. For the crop breeder this means producing higher crop yields with less resources due to greater environmental stresses. While easy gains in crop yield have been made mostly "above ground," little progress has been made "below ground"; and yet it is these root system traits that can improve productivity and resistance to drought stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301877/using-landscape-habitat-associations-to-prioritize-areas-of-conservation-action-for-terrestrial-birds
#10
Tyler M Harms, Kevin T Murphy, Xiaodan Lyu, Shane S Patterson, Karen E Kinkead, Stephen J Dinsmore, Paul W Frese
Predicting species distributions has long been a valuable tool to plan and focus efforts for biodiversity conservation, particularly because such an approach allows researchers and managers to evaluate species distribution changes in response to various threats. Utilizing data from a long-term monitoring program and land cover data sets, we modeled the probability of occupancy and colonization for 38 bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the robust design occupancy modeling framework, and used results from the best models to predict occupancy and colonization on the Iowa landscape...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297711/bumblebee-family-lineage-survival-is-enhanced-in-high-quality-landscapes
#11
Claire Carvell, Andrew F G Bourke, Stephanie Dreier, Stephen N Freeman, Sarah Hulmes, William C Jordan, John W Redhead, Seirian Sumner, Jinliang Wang, Matthew S Heard
Insect pollinators such as bumblebees (Bombus spp.) are in global decline. A major cause of this decline is habitat loss due to agricultural intensification. A range of global and national initiatives aimed at restoring pollinator habitats and populations have been developed. However, the success of these initiatives depends critically upon understanding how landscape change affects key population-level parameters, such as survival between lifecycle stages, in target species. This knowledge is lacking for bumblebees, because of the difficulty of systematically finding and monitoring colonies in the wild...
March 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294305/differential-impacts-of-wildfire-on-the-population-dynamics-of-an-old-forest-species
#12
Jeremy T Rockweit, Alan B Franklin, Peter C Carlson
Ecological disturbances shape and maintain natural communities, but climate change and human land use can alter disturbance regimes and affect population persistence and vital rates in unpredictable ways. Species inhabiting landscapes shaped by wildfire have evolved mechanisms allowing them to persist under this dynamic disturbance type, which creates habitats of varying quality for these species. We utilized data from a 26-year demographic study of northern spotted owls to analyze the influence of wildfire on apparent survival and recruitment rates...
March 14, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294123/quantitative-analysis-of-the-impacts-of-terrestrial-environmental-factors-on-precipitation-variation-over-the-beibu-gulf-economic-zone-in-coastal-southwest-china
#13
Yinjun Zhao, Qiyu Deng, Qing Lin, Chunting Cai
Taking the Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone as the study area, this paper utilizes the geographical detector model to quantify the feedback effects from the terrestrial environment on precipitation variation from 1985 to 2010 with a comprehensive consideration of natural factors (forest coverage rate, vegetation type, terrain, terrestrial ecosystem types, land use and land cover change) and social factors (population density, farmland rate, GDP and urbanization rate). First, we found that the precipitation trend rate in the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone is between -47 and 96 mm/10a...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289265/contact-structure-mobility-environmental-impact-and-behaviour-the-importance-of-social-forces-to-infectious-disease-dynamics-and-disease-ecology
#14
REVIEW
Ronan F Arthur, Emily S Gurley, Henrik Salje, Laura S P Bloomfield, James H Jones
Human factors, including contact structure, movement, impact on the environment and patterns of behaviour, can have significant influence on the emergence of novel infectious diseases and the transmission and amplification of established ones. As anthropogenic climate change alters natural systems and global economic forces drive land-use and land-cover change, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the ecological and social factors that impact infectious disease outcomes for human populations...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289226/pacific-north-american-circulation-pattern-links-external-forcing-and-north-american-hydroclimatic-change-over-the-past-millennium
#15
Zhongfang Liu, Yanlin Tang, Zhimin Jian, Christopher J Poulsen, Jeffrey M Welker, Gabriel J Bowen
Land and sea surface temperatures, precipitation, and storm tracks in North America and the North Pacific are controlled to a large degree by atmospheric variability associated with the Pacific North American (PNA) pattern. The modern instrumental record indicates a trend toward a positive PNA phase in recent decades, which has led to accelerated warming and snowpack decline in northwestern North America. The brevity of the instrumental record, however, limits our understanding of long-term PNA variability and its directional or cyclic patterns...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286602/climate-change-allergy-and-asthma-and-the-role-of-tropical-forests
#16
REVIEW
Gennaro D'Amato, Carolina Vitale, Nelson Rosario, Herberto Josè Chong Neto, Deborah Carla Chong-Silva, Francisco Mendonça, Josè Perini, Loraine Landgraf, Dirceu Solé, Mario Sánchez-Borges, Ignacio Ansotegui, Maria D'Amato
BACKGROUND: Tropical forests cover less than 10 per cent of all land area (1.8 × 107 km(2)) and over half of the tropical-forest area (1.1 × 107 Km(2)) is represented by humid tropical forests (also called tropical rainforests). The Amazon basin contains the largest rainforest on Earth, almost 5.8 million km(2), and occupies about 40% of South America; more than 60% of the basin is located in Brazil and the rest in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela...
2017: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286551/systems-analysis-of-ethanol-production-in-the-genetically-engineered-cyanobacterium-synechococcus-sp-pcc-7002
#17
Joachim Kopka, Stefanie Schmidt, Frederik Dethloff, Nadin Pade, Susanne Berendt, Marco Schottkowski, Nico Martin, Ulf Dühring, Ekaterina Kuchmina, Heike Enke, Dan Kramer, Annegret Wilde, Martin Hagemann, Alexandra Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Future sustainable energy production can be achieved using mass cultures of photoautotrophic microorganisms, which are engineered to synthesize valuable products directly from CO2 and sunlight. As cyanobacteria can be cultivated in large scale on non-arable land, these phototrophic bacteria have become attractive organisms for production of biofuels. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, one of the cyanobacterial model organisms, provides many attractive properties for biofuel production such as tolerance of seawater and high light intensities...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285854/dynamic-response-of-land-use-and-river-nutrient-concentration-to-long-term-climatic-changes
#18
Gianbattista Bussi, Victoria Janes, Paul G Whitehead, Simon J Dadson, Ian P Holman
The combined indirect and direct impacts of land use change and climate change on river water quality were assessed. A land use allocation model was used to evaluate the response of the catchment land use to long-term climatic changes. Its results were used to drive a water quality model and assess the impact of climatic alterations on freshwater nitrate and phosphorus concentrations. Climatic projections were employed to estimate the likelihood of such response. The River Thames catchment (UK) was used as a case-study...
March 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284136/the-importance-of-socio-ecological-system-dynamics-in-understanding-adaptation-to-global-change-in-the-forestry-sector
#19
Victor Blanco, Calum Brown, Sascha Holzhauer, Gregor Vulturius, Mark D A Rounsevell
Adaptation is necessary to cope with or take advantage of the effects of climate change on socio-ecological systems. This is especially important in the forestry sector, which is sensitive to the ecological and economic impacts of climate change, and where the adaptive decisions of owners play out over long periods of time. Relatively little is known about how successful these decisions are likely to be in meeting demands for ecosystem services in an uncertain future. We explore adaptation to global change in the forestry sector using CRAFTY-Sweden; an agent-based model that represents large-scale land-use dynamics, based on the demand and supply of ecosystem services...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283136/temporal-dynamics-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-population-in-response-to-ambient-temperature-variation-bam-kerman-province-of-iran
#20
Mansour Halimi, Zahra Zarei Cheghabaleki, Mohammad Jafari Modrek, Mahdi Delavari
BACKGROUND: Variations in climate condition may have changed the dynamic of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) and its agents such as sand flies and reservoir in the Bam Kerman the dry region of Iran. OBJECTIVES: In this study we intend to examine the seasonal and interannual dynamics of the phlebotomine mosquito as a function of ambient temperature in Bam, Kerman one of the main leshmaniasis prevalence area in Iran. METHODS: The MODIS land surface temperature product (LST; MODIS/Terra LST/E Monthly L3 Global 0...
September 2016: Annals of Global Health
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