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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731817/infrared-spectrometer-for-exomars-a-mast-mounted-instrument-for-the-rover
#1
Oleg I Korablev, Yurii Dobrolensky, Nadezhda Evdokimova, Anna A Fedorova, Ruslan O Kuzmin, Sergei N Mantsevich, Edward A Cloutis, John Carter, Francois Poulet, Jessica Flahaut, Andrew Griffiths, Matthew Gunn, Nicole Schmitz, Javier Martín-Torres, Maria-Paz Zorzano, Daniil S Rodionov, Jorge L Vago, Alexander V Stepanov, Andrei Yu Titov, Nikita A Vyazovetsky, Alexander Yu Trokhimovskiy, Alexander G Sapgir, Yurii K Kalinnikov, Yurii S Ivanov, Alexei A Shapkin, Andrei Yu Ivanov
ISEM (Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars) is a pencil-beam infrared spectrometer that will measure reflected solar radiation in the near infrared range for context assessment of the surface mineralogy in the vicinity of the ExoMars rover. The instrument will be accommodated on the mast of the rover and will be operated together with the panoramic camera (PanCam), high-resolution camera (HRC). ISEM will study the mineralogical and petrographic composition of the martian surface in the vicinity of the rover, and in combination with the other remote sensing instruments, it will aid in the selection of potential targets for close-up investigations and drilling sites...
June 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729748/on-flare-cme-characteristics-from-sun-to-earth-combining-remote-sensing-image-data-with-in-situ-measurements-supported-by-modeling
#2
Manuela Temmer, Julia K Thalmann, Karin Dissauer, Astrid M Veronig, Johannes Tschernitz, Jürgen Hinterreiter, Luciano Rodriguez
We analyze the well-observed flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) from 1 October 2011 (SOL2011-10-01T09:18) covering the complete chain of effects - from Sun to Earth - to better understand the dynamic evolution of the CME and its embedded magnetic field. We study in detail the solar surface and atmosphere associated with the flare and CME using the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and ground-based instruments. We also track the CME signature off-limb with combined extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and white-light data from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)...
2017: Solar Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727205/drivers-of-woody-canopy-water-content-responses-to-drought-in-a-mediterranean-type-ecosystem
#3
Tarin Paz-Kagan, Gregory P Asner
Severe droughts increase physiological stress in woody plant species, which can lead to mortality, fundamentally altering the composition, structure, and biogeography of forests in many regions. Little is known, however, about the factors determining the physiological response of woody plants to drought at landscape scales. Our objective was to understand woody plant species responses to ongoing changes in climate, using remotely sensed canopy water content (CWC) as an indicator of plant physiological and phenological status...
July 20, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723205/ultrafast-paper-thermometers-based-on-a-green-sensing-ink
#4
Xinglei Tao, Hanyu Jia, Yonglin He, Shenglong Liao, Yapei Wang
With the use of an ionic liquid as the ultrathermosensitive fluid, a paper thermometer is successfully developed with intrinsic ability of ultrafast response and high stability upon temperature change. The fluidic nature allows the ionic liquid to be easily deposited on paper by pen writing or inkjet printing, affording great promise for large-scale fabrication of low-cost paper sensors. Owing to the advantages of nonvolatilization, excellent continuity and deformability, the thermosensitive ink trapped within the cellulose fibers of paper matrix has no leakage or evaporation at open states, ensuring the excellent stability and repeatability of thermal sensing against arbitrary bending and folding operation...
March 24, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721588/impact-of-highway-construction-on-water-bodies-a-geospatial-assessment
#5
Ritesh Vijay, Vikash K Kushwaha, Trupti Mardikar, P K Labhasetwar
India has witnessed a massive infrastructure boom in the past few years. One of such projects is National Highway-7 (NH-7), a North-South highway connecting Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, to Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, traversing many water bodies. The present study aims to assess the pre- and post-construction impact due to existing, new and widened NH-7 on the physical status of the water bodies, using remote sensing techniques. Satellite images spanning 22 years were procured and analysed for change detection in land use and land cover within the waterbodies...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720703/canopy-structure-drives-orangutan-habitat-selection-in-disturbed-bornean-forests
#6
Andrew B Davies, Marc Ancrenaz, Felicity Oram, Gregory P Asner
The conservation of charismatic and functionally important large species is becoming increasingly difficult. Anthropogenic pressures continue to squeeze available habitat and force animals into degraded and disturbed areas. Ensuring the long-term survival of these species requires a well-developed understanding of how animals use these new landscapes to inform conservation and habitat restoration efforts. We combined 3 y of highly detailed visual observations of Bornean orangutans with high-resolution airborne remote sensing (Light Detection and Ranging) to understand orangutan movement in disturbed and fragmented forests of Malaysian Borneo...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718804/electromagnetic-differential-measuring-method-application-in-microstrip-sensors-developing
#7
Francisco Javier Ferrández-Pastor, Juan Manuel García-Chamizo, Mario Nieto-Hidalgo
Electromagnetic radiation is energy that interacts with matter. The interaction process is of great importance to the sensing applications that characterize material media. Parameters like constant dielectric represent matter characteristics and they are identified using emission, interaction and reception of electromagnetic radiation in adapted environmental conditions. How the electromagnetic wave responds when it interacts with the material media depends on the range of frequency used and the medium parameters...
July 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718202/patterns-of-mortality-in-a-montane-mixed-conifer-forest-in-san-diego-county-california
#8
Mary Pyott Freeman, Douglas A Stow, Li An
We examine spatial patterns of conifer tree mortality and their changes over time for the montane mixed-conifer forests of San Diego County. These forest areas have recently experienced extensive tree mortality due to multiple factors. A spatial contextual image processing approach was utilized with high spatial resolution digital airborne imagery to map dead trees for the years 1997, 2000, 2002, and 2005 for three study areas: Palomar, Volcan, and Laguna mountains. Plot-based fieldwork was conducted to further assess mortality patterns...
July 17, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716196/maximum-entropy-modeling-risk-of-anthrax-in-the-republic-of-kazakhstan
#9
S K Abdrakhmanov, Y Y Mukhanbetkaliyev, F I Korennoy, A A Sultanov, A S Kadyrov, D B Kushubaev, T G Bakishev
The objective of this study was to zone the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK) into risk categories according to the probability of anthrax emergence in farm animals as stipulated by the re-activation of preserved natural foci. We used historical data on anthrax morbidity in farm animals during the period 1933 - 2014, collected by the veterinary service of the RK. The database covers the entire territory of the RK and contains 4058 anthrax outbreaks tied to 1798 unique locations. Considering the strongly pronounced natural focality of anthrax, we employed environmental niche modeling (Maxent) to reveal patterns in the outbreaks' linkages to specific combinations of environmental factors...
September 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715774/model-elucidating-the-sources-and-formation-mechanisms-of-severe-haze-pollution-over-northeast-mega-city-cluster-in-china
#10
Ting Yang, Alex Gbaguidi, Pingzhong Yan, Wending Zhang, Lili Zhu, Xuefeng Yao, Zifa Wang, Hui Chen
Recent studies on regional haze pollution over China come up in general with strong variability of main causes of heavy polluted episodes, in linkage with local specificities, sources and pollution characteristics. This paper therefore aims at elucidating the main specific sources and formation mechanisms of observed strong haze pollution episodes over 1-15 November 2015 in Northeast region considered as one of biggest megacity clusters in China. The Northeast China mega-city cluster, including Heilong Jiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces, is adjacent to Russia in the north, Mongolian at the west, North Korea at east, and representing key geographical location in the regional and transnational air pollution issues in China due to the presence of heavy industries and intense economic activities...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715126/an-engineered-photoswitchable-mammalian-pyruvate-kinase
#11
Stefanie Gehrig, Jamie A Macpherson, Paul C Driscoll, Alastair Symon, Stephen R Martin, James I MacRae, Jens Kleinjung, Franca Fraternali, Dimitrios Anastasiou
Changes in allosteric regulation of glycolytic enzymes have been linked to metabolic reprogramming involved in cancer. Remarkably, allosteric mechanisms control enzyme function at significantly shorter time-scales compared to the long-term effects of metabolic reprogramming on cell proliferation. It remains unclear if and how the speed and reversibility afforded by rapid allosteric control of metabolic enzymes is important for cell proliferation. Tools that allow specific, dynamic modulation of enzymatic activities in mammalian cells would help address this question...
July 17, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713402/unmanned-aerial-vehicle-remote-sensing-for-field-based-crop-phenotyping-current-status-and-perspectives
#12
REVIEW
Guijun Yang, Jiangang Liu, Chunjiang Zhao, Zhenhong Li, Yanbo Huang, Haiyang Yu, Bo Xu, Xiaodong Yang, Dongmei Zhu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Ruyang Zhang, Haikuan Feng, Xiaoqing Zhao, Zhenhai Li, Heli Li, Hao Yang
Phenotyping plays an important role in crop science research; the accurate and rapid acquisition of phenotypic information of plants or cells in different environments is helpful for exploring the inheritance and expression patterns of the genome to determine the association of genomic and phenotypic information to increase the crop yield. Traditional methods for acquiring crop traits, such as plant height, leaf color, leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll content, biomass and yield, rely on manual sampling, which is time-consuming and laborious...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708168/portable-laser-spectrometer-for-airborne-and-ground-based-remote-sensing-of-geological-co-sub-2-sub-emissions
#13
Manuel Queisser, Mike Burton, Graham R Allan, Antonio Chiarugi
A 24 kg, suitcase sized, CW laser remote sensing spectrometer (LARSS) with a ~2 km range has been developed. It has demonstrated its flexibility in measuring both atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> from an airborne platform and terrestrial emission of CO<sub>2</sub> from a remote mud volcano, Bledug Kuwu, Indonesia, from a ground-based sight. This system scans the CO<sub>2</sub> absorption line with 20 discrete wavelengths, as opposed to the typical two-wavelength online offline instrument...
July 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708165/optical-heterodyne-enhanced-chirped-laser-dispersion-spectroscopy
#14
Genevieve Plant, Yifeng Chen, Gerard Wysocki
A proof-of-concept heterodyne-enhanced chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy system is presented. In remote sensing systems where low return powers are expected, the addition of an optical local oscillator and subsequent nonlinear processing can provide improved performance in chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy. Details about the system configuration, phase noise cancellation, and experimental verification are discussed.
July 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708141/static-ft-imaging-spectrometer-based-on-a-modified-waveguide-mzi-array
#15
Minyue Yang, Mingyu Li, Jian-Jun He
We proposed a large aperture push-broom static Fourier transform (FT) imaging spectrometer for hyper-spectral imaging. The spectroscopic system was based on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform, consisting of spot size converters, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) array, and a detector array. The arm length differences of the 201 MZI arrays are linearly varied. It is one on-chip FT spectrometer operating in a large spectral range from 1100 to 1700 nm with a resolution of 24  cm<sup>-1</sup> and small foot print (chip size: 11  mm×15  mm)...
July 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704948/sea-ice-detection-based-on-differential-delay-doppler-maps-from-uk-techdemosat-1
#16
Yongchao Zhu, Kegen Yu, Jingui Zou, Jens Wickert
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals can be exploited to remotely sense atmosphere and land and ocean surface to retrieve a range of geophysical parameters. This paper proposes two new methods, termed as power-summation of differential Delay-Doppler Maps (PS-D) and pixel-number of differential Delay-Doppler Maps (PN-D), to distinguish between sea ice and sea water using differential Delay-Doppler Maps (dDDMs). PS-D and PN-D make use of power-summation and pixel-number of dDDMs, respectively, to measure the degree of difference between two DDMs so as to determine the transition state (water-water, water-ice, ice-ice and ice-water) and hence ice and water are detected...
July 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704920/a-synergy-cropland-of-china-by-fusing-multiple-existing-maps-and-statistics
#17
Miao Lu, Wenbin Wu, Liangzhi You, Di Chen, Li Zhang, Peng Yang, Huajun Tang
Accurate information on cropland extent is critical for scientific research and resource management. Several cropland products from remotely sensed datasets are available. Nevertheless, significant inconsistency exists among these products and the cropland areas estimated from these products differ considerably from statistics. In this study, we propose a hierarchical optimization synergy approach (HOSA) to develop a hybrid cropland map of China, circa 2010, by fusing five existing cropland products, i.e., GlobeLand30, Climate Change Initiative Land Cover (CCI-LC), GlobCover 2009, MODIS Collection 5 (MODIS C5), and MODIS Cropland, and sub-national statistics of cropland area...
July 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704676/trehs-an-open-access-software-tool-for-investigating-and-evaluating-temporary-river-regimes-as-a-first-step-for-their-ecological-status-assessment
#18
Francesc Gallart, Núria Cid, Jérôme Latron, Pilar Llorens, Núria Bonada, Justin Jeuffroy, Sara-María Jiménez-Argudo, Rosa-María Vega, Carolina Solà, Maria Soria, Mònica Bardina, Antoni-Josep Hernández-Casahuga, Aránzazu Fidalgo, Teodoro Estrela, Antoni Munné, Narcís Prat
When the regime of a river is not perennial, there are four main difficulties with the use of hydrographs for assessing hydrological alteration: i) the main hydrological features relevant for biological communities are not quantitative (discharges) but qualitative (phases such as flowing water, stagnant pools or lack of surface water), ii) stream flow records do not inform on the temporal occurrence of stagnant pools, iii) as most of the temporary streams are ungauged, their regime has to be evaluated by alternative methods such as remote sensing or citizen science, and iv) the biological quality assessment of the ecological status of a temporary stream must follow a sampling schedule and references adapted to the flow- pool-dry regime...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704461/assessing-the-performance-of-remotely-sensed-flooding-indicators-and-their-potential-contribution-to-early-warning-for-leptospirosis-in-cambodia
#19
Julia Ledien, Sopheak Sorn, Sopheak Hem, Rekol Huy, Philippe Buchy, Arnaud Tarantola, Julien Cappelle
Remote sensing can contribute to early warning for diseases with environmental drivers, such as flooding for leptospirosis. In this study we assessed whether and which remotely-sensed flooding indicator could be used in Cambodia to study any disease for which flooding has already been identified as an important driver, using leptospirosis as a case study. The performance of six potential flooding indicators was assessed by ground truthing. The Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) was used to estimate the Risk Ratio (RR) of being infected by leptospirosis when exposed to floods it detected, in particular during the rainy season...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701505/remotely-sensed-wind-speed-predicts-soaring-behaviour-in-a-wide-ranging-pelagic-seabird
#20
Rory Gibb, Akiko Shoji, Annette L Fayet, Chris M Perrins, Tim Guilford, Robin Freeman
Global wind patterns affect flight strategies in many birds, including pelagic seabirds, many of which use wind-powered soaring to reduce energy costs during at-sea foraging trips and migration. Such long-distance movement patterns are underpinned by local interactions between wind conditions and flight behaviour, but these fine-scale relationships are far less well understood. Here we show that remotely sensed ocean wind speed and direction are highly significant predictors of soaring behaviour in a migratory pelagic seabird, the Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus)...
July 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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