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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933263/manifold-regularization-for-sparse-unmixing-of-hyperspectral-images
#1
Junmin Liu, Chunxia Zhang, Jiangshe Zhang, Huirong Li, Yuelin Gao
BACKGROUND: Recently, sparse unmixing has been successfully applied to spectral mixture analysis of remotely sensed hyperspectral images. Based on the assumption that the observed image signatures can be expressed in the form of linear combinations of a number of pure spectral signatures known in advance, unmixing of each mixed pixel in the scene is to find an optimal subset of signatures in a very large spectral library, which is cast into the framework of sparse regression. However, traditional sparse regression models, such as collaborative sparse regression, ignore the intrinsic geometric structure in the hyperspectral data...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929067/the-stim1-binding-site-nexus-remotely-controls-orai1-channel-gating
#2
Yandong Zhou, Xiangyu Cai, Natalia A Loktionova, Xianming Wang, Robert M Nwokonko, Xizhuo Wang, Youjun Wang, Brad S Rothberg, Mohamed Trebak, Donald L Gill
The ubiquitously expressed Orai Ca(2+) channels are gated through a unique process of intermembrane coupling with the Ca(2+)-sensing STIM proteins. Despite the significance of Orai1-mediated Ca(2+) signals, how gating of Orai1 is triggered by STIM1 remains unknown. A widely held gating model invokes STIM1 binding directly to Orai1 pore-forming helix. Here we report that an Orai1 C-terminal STIM1-binding site, situated far from the N-terminal pore helix, alone provides the trigger that is necessary and sufficient for channel gating...
December 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923574/assimilation-of-optical-and-radar-remote-sensing-data-in-3d-mapping-of-soil-properties-over-large-areas
#3
Laura Poggio, Alessandro Gimona
Soil is very important for many land functions. To achieve sustainability it is important to understand how soils vary over space in the landscape. Remote sensing data can be instrumental in mapping and spatial modelling of soil properties, resources and their variability. The aims of this study were to compare satellite sensors (MODIS, Landsat, Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2) with varying spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions for Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) of a set of soil properties in Scotland, evaluate the potential benefits of adding Sentinel-1 data to DSM models, select the most suited mix of sensors for DSM to map the considered set of soil properties and validate the results of topsoil (2D) and whole profile (3D) models...
December 3, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922592/distributed-solar-photovoltaic-array-location-and-extent-dataset-for-remote-sensing-object-identification
#4
Kyle Bradbury, Raghav Saboo, Timothy L Johnson, Jordan M Malof, Arjun Devarajan, Wuming Zhang, Leslie M Collins, Richard G Newell
Earth-observing remote sensing data, including aerial photography and satellite imagery, offer a snapshot of the world from which we can learn about the state of natural resources and the built environment. The components of energy systems that are visible from above can be automatically assessed with these remote sensing data when processed with machine learning methods. Here, we focus on the information gap in distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, of which there is limited public data on solar PV deployments at small geographic scales...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922018/non-thermal-hydrogen-atoms-in-the-terrestrial-upper-thermosphere
#5
Jianqi Qin, Lara Waldrop
Model predictions of the distribution and dynamical transport of hydrogen atoms in the terrestrial atmosphere have long-standing discrepancies with ultraviolet remote sensing measurements, indicating likely deficiencies in conventional theories regarding this crucial atmospheric constituent. Here we report the existence of non-thermal hydrogen atoms that are much hotter than the ambient oxygen atoms in the upper thermosphere. Analysis of satellite measurements indicates that the upper thermospheric hydrogen temperature, more precisely the mean kinetic energy of the atomic hydrogen population, increases significantly with declining solar activity, contrary to contemporary understanding of thermospheric behaviour...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919557/trend-shifts-in-satellite-derived-vegetation-growth-in-central-eurasia-1982-2013
#6
Hao-Jie Xu, Xin-Ping Wang, Tai-Bao Yang
Central Eurasian vegetation is critical for the regional ecological security and the global carbon cycle. However, climatic impacts on vegetation growth in Central Eurasia are uncertain. The reason for this uncertainty lies in the fact that the response of vegetation to climate change showed nonlinearity, seasonality and differences among plant functional types. Based on remotely sensed vegetation index and in-situ meteorological data for the years 1982-2013, in conjunction with the latest land cover type product, we analyzed how vegetation growth trend varied across different seasons and evaluated vegetation response to climate variables at regional, biome and pixel scales...
December 2, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918482/fuzzy-computing-model-of-activity-recognition-on-wsn-movement-data-for-ubiquitous-healthcare-measurement
#7
Shu-Yin Chiang, Yao-Chiang Kan, Yun-Shan Chen, Ying-Ching Tu, Hsueh-Chun Lin
Ubiquitous health care (UHC) is beneficial for patients to ensure they complete therapeutic exercises by self-management at home. We designed a fuzzy computing model that enables recognizing assigned movements in UHC with privacy. The movements are measured by the self-developed body motion sensor, which combines both accelerometer and gyroscope chips to make an inertial sensing node compliant with a wireless sensor network (WSN). The fuzzy logic process was studied to calculate the sensor signals that would entail necessary features of static postures and dynamic motions...
December 3, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912134/uncertainties-in-mapping-forest-carbon-in-urban-ecosystems
#8
Gang Chen, Emre Ozelkan, Kunwar K Singh, Jun Zhou, Marilyn R Brown, Ross K Meentemeyer
Spatially explicit urban forest carbon estimation provides a baseline map for understanding the variation in forest vertical structure, informing sustainable forest management and urban planning. While high-resolution remote sensing has proven promising for carbon mapping in highly fragmented urban landscapes, data cost and availability are the major obstacle prohibiting accurate, consistent, and repeated measurement of forest carbon pools in cities. This study aims to evaluate the uncertainties of forest carbon estimation in response to the combined impacts of remote sensing data resolution and neighborhood spatial patterns in Charlotte, North Carolina...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907834/effects-of-drought-on-child-health-in-marsabit-district-northern-kenya
#9
Jan M Bauer, Samuel Mburu
This study uses five years of panel data (2009-2013) for Northern Kenya's Marsabit district to analyze the levels and extent of malnutrition among children aged five and under in that area. We measure drought based on the standardized normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and assess its effect on child health using mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). The results show that approximately 20 percent of the children in the study area are malnourished and a one standard deviation increase in NDVI z-score decreases the probability of child malnourishment by 12-16 percent...
November 17, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907256/quantifying-the-human-influence-on-fire-ignition-across-the-western-usa
#10
Emily J Fusco, John T Abatzoglou, Jennifer K Balch, John T Finn, Bethany A Bradley
Humans have a profound effect on fire regimes by increasing the frequency of ignitions. Although ignition is an integral component of understanding and predicting fire, to date fire models have not been able to isolate the ignition location, leading to inconsistent use of anthropogenic ignition proxies. Here, we identified fire ignitions from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Burned Area Product (2000-2012) to create the first remotely sensed, consistently derived, and regionally comprehensive fire ignition data set for the western United States...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907255/a-hyperspectral-image-can-predict-tropical-tree-growth-rates-in-single-species-stands
#11
T Trevor Caughlin, Sarah J Graves, Gregory P Asner, Michiel van Breugel, Jefferson S Hall, Roberta E Martin, Mark S Ashton, Stephanie A Bohlman
Remote sensing is increasingly needed to meet the critical demand for estimates of forest structure and composition at landscape to continental scales. Hyperspectral images can detect tree canopy properties, including species identity, leaf chemistry and disease. Tree growth rates are related to these measurable canopy properties but whether growth can be directly predicted from hyperspectral data remains unknown. We used a single hyperspectral image and light detection and ranging-derived elevation to predict growth rates for 20 tropical tree species planted in experimental plots...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907253/decadal-shifts-in-grass-and-woody-plant-cover-are-driven-by-prolonged-drying-and-modified-by-topo-edaphic-properties
#12
Seth M Munson, Temuulen T Sankey, George Xian, Miguel L Villarreal, Collin G Homer
Woody plant encroachment and overall declines in perennial vegetation in dryland regions can alter ecosystem properties and indicate land degradation, but the causes of these shifts remain controversial. Determining how changes in the abundance and distribution of grass and woody plants are influenced by conditions that regulate water availability at a regional scale provides a baseline to compare how management actions alter the composition of these vegetation types at a more local scale and can be used to predict future shifts under climate change...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906349/single-longitudinal-mode-diamond-raman-laser-in-the-eye-safe-spectral-region-for-water-vapor-detection
#13
Oliver Lux, Soumya Sarang, Robert J Williams, Aaron McKay, Richard P Mildren
We report a narrowband and tunable diamond Raman laser generating eye-safe radiation suitable for water vapor detection. Frequency conversion of a tunable pump laser operating from 1063 to 1066 nm to the second order Stokes component in an external standing-wave cavity yielded 7 W of multimode output power in the wavelength range from 1483 to 1488 nm at a conversion efficiency of 21%. Stable single longitudinal mode operation was achieved over the whole tuning range at low power (0.1 W), whereas incorporation of a volume Bragg grating as an output coupler enabled much higher stable power to be attained (0...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903060/satellite-imagery-technology-in-public-health-analysis-of-site-catchment-areas-for-assessment-of-poliovirus-circulation-in-nigeria-and-niger
#14
Marina Takane, Shizu Yabe, Yumiko Tateshita, Yusuke Kobayashi, Akihiko Hino, Kazuo Isono, Hiromasa Okayasu, Ousmane M Diop, Takeo Tadono
Environmental surveillance supplements the surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis by monitoring wastewater for poliovirus circulation. Building on previous work, we analysed wastewater flow to optimise selection and placement of sampling sites with higher digital surface model (DSM) resolution. The newly developed 5-m mesh DSM from the panchromatic, remote-sensing instruments for stereo mapping on-board the Japanese advanced land observing satellite was used to estimate catchment areas and flow of sewage water based on terrain topography...
November 21, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898790/assessment-of-carbon-stocks-in-the-topsoil-using-random-forest-and-remote-sensing-images
#15
Jongsung Kim, Sabine Grunwald
Wetland soils are able to exhibit both consumption and production of greenhouse gases, and they play an important role in the regulation of the global carbon (C) cycle. Still, it is challenging to accurately evaluate the actual amount of C stored in wetlands. The incorporation of remote sensing data into digital soil models has great potential to assess C stocks in wetland soils. Our objectives were (i) to develop C stock prediction models utilizing remote sensing images and environmental ancillary data, (ii) to identify the prime environmental predictor variables that explain the spatial distribution of soil C, and (iii) to assess the amount of C stored in the top 20-cm soils of a prominent nutrient-enriched wetland...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898178/pre-rain-green-up-is-ubiquitous-across-southern-tropical-africa-implications-for-temporal-niche-separation-and-model-representation
#16
Casey M Ryan, Mathew Williams, John Grace, Emily Woollen, Caroline E R Lehmann
Tree phenology mediates land-atmosphere mass and energy exchange and is a determinant of ecosystem structure and function. In the dry tropics, including African savannas, many trees grow new leaves during the dry season - weeks or months before the rains typically start. This syndrome of pre-rain green-up has long been recognized at small scales, but the high spatial and interspecific variability in leaf phenology has precluded regional generalizations. We used remote sensing data to show that this precocious phenology is ubiquitous across the woodlands and savannas of southern tropical Africa...
November 29, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898028/estimating-leaf-area-index-lai-in-vineyards-using-the-pocketlai-smart-app
#17
Francesca Orlando, Ermes Movedi, Davide Coduto, Simone Parisi, Lucio Brancadoro, Valentina Pagani, Tommaso Guarneri, Roberto Confalonieri
Estimating leaf area index (LAI) of Vitis vinifera using indirect methods involves some critical issues, related to its discontinuous and non-homogeneous canopy. This study evaluates the smart app PocketLAI and hemispherical photography in vineyards against destructive LAI measurements. Data were collected during six surveys in an experimental site characterized by a high level of heterogeneity among plants, allowing us to explore a wide range of LAI values. During the last survey, the possibility to combine remote sensing data and in-situ PocketLAI estimates (smart scouting) was evaluated...
November 26, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896583/use-of-ultra-high-spatial-resolution-aerial-imagery-in-the-estimation-of-chaparral-wildfire-fuel-loads
#18
Ian T Schmidt, John F O'Leary, Douglas A Stow, Kellie A Uyeda, Phillip J Riggan
Development of methods that more accurately estimate spatial distributions of fuel loads in shrublands allows for improved understanding of ecological processes such as wildfire behavior and postburn recovery. The goal of this study is to develop and test remote sensing methods to upscale field estimates of shrubland fuel to broader-scale biomass estimates using ultra-high spatial resolution imagery captured by a light-sport aircraft. The study is conducted on chaparral shrublands located in eastern San Diego County, CA, USA...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896036/detecting-sedimentation-impacts-to-coral-reefs-resulting-from-dredging-the-port-of-miami-florida-usa
#19
Margaret W Miller, Jocelyn Karazsia, Carolyn E Groves, Sean Griffin, Tom Moore, Pace Wilber, Kurtis Gregg
The federal channel at Port of Miami, Florida, USA, was dredged between late 2013 and early 2015 to widen and deepen the channel. Due to the limited spatial extent of impact-assessment monitoring associated with the project, the extent of the dredging impacts on surrounding coral reefs has not been well quantified. Previously published remote sensing analyses, as well as agency and anecdotal reports suggest the most severe and largest area of sedimentation occurred on a coral reef feature referred to as the Inner Reef, particularly in the sector north of the channel...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892535/climate-driven-increase-of-natural-wetland-methane-emissions-offset-by-human-induced-wetland-reduction-in-china-over-the-past-three-decades
#20
Qiuan Zhu, Changhui Peng, Jinxun Liu, Hong Jiang, Xiuqin Fang, Huai Chen, Zhenguo Niu, Peng Gong, Guanghui Lin, Meng Wang, Han Wang, Yanzheng Yang, Jie Chang, Ying Ge, Wenhua Xiang, Xiangwen Deng, Jin-Sheng He
Both anthropogenic activities and climate change can affect the biogeochemical processes of natural wetland methanogenesis. Quantifying possible impacts of changing climate and wetland area on wetland methane (CH4) emissions in China is important for improving our knowledge on CH4 budgets locally and globally. However, their respective and combined effects are uncertain. We incorporated changes in wetland area derived from remote sensing into a dynamic CH4 model to quantify the human and climate change induced contributions to natural wetland CH4 emissions in China over the past three decades...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
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