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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210860/a-heat-vulnerability-index-to-improve-urban-public-health-management-in-san-juan-puerto-rico
#1
Pablo Méndez-Lázaro, Frank E Muller-Karger, Daniel Otis, Matthew J McCarthy, Ernesto Rodríguez
Increased frequency and length of high heat episodes are leading to more cardiovascular issues and asthmatic responses among the population of San Juan, the capital of the island of Puerto Rico, USA. An urban heat island effect, which leads to foci of higher temperatures in some urban areas, can raise heat-related mortality. The objective of this research is to map the risk of high temperature in particular locations by creating heat maps of the city of San Juan. The heat vulnerability index (HVI) maps were developed using images collected by satellite-based remote sensing combined with census data...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208837/projections-onto-convex-sets-super-resolution-reconstruction-based-on-point-spread-function-estimation-of-low-resolution-remote-sensing-images
#2
Chong Fan, Chaoyun Wu, Grand Li, Jun Ma
To solve the problem on inaccuracy when estimating the point spread function (PSF) of the ideal original image in traditional projection onto convex set (POCS) super-resolution (SR) reconstruction, this paper presents an improved POCS SR algorithm based on PSF estimation of low-resolution (LR) remote sensing images. The proposed algorithm can improve the spatial resolution of the image and benefit agricultural crop visual interpolation. The PSF of the highresolution (HR) image is unknown in reality. Therefore, analysis of the relationship between the PSF of the HR image and the PSF of the LR image is important to estimate the PSF of the HR image by using multiple LR images...
February 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208732/online-condition-monitoring-of-a-rail-fastening-system-on-high-speed-railways-based-on-wavelet-packet-analysis
#3
Jiahong Wei, Chong Liu, Tongqun Ren, Haixia Liu, Wenjing Zhou
The rail fastening system is an important part of a high-speed railway track. It is always critical to the operational safety and comfort of railway vehicles. Therefore, the condition detection of the rail fastening system, looseness or absence, is an important task in railway maintenance. However, the vision-based method cannot identify the severity of rail fastener looseness. In this paper, the condition of rail fastening system is monitored based on an automatic and remote-sensing measurement system. Meanwhile, wavelet packet analysis is used to analyze the acceleration signals, based on which two damage indices are developed to locate the damage position and evaluate the severity of rail fasteners looseness, respectively...
February 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208641/temporal-trends-in-satellite-derived-erythemal-uvb-and-implications-for-ambient-sun-exposure-assessment
#4
Marvin Langston, Leslie Dennis, Charles Lynch, Denise Roe, Heidi Brown
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has been associated with various health outcomes, including skin cancers, vitamin D insufficiency, and multiple sclerosis. Measurement of UVR has been difficult, traditionally relying on subject recall. We investigated trends in satellite-derived UVB from 1978 to 2014 within the continental United States (US) to inform UVR exposure assessment and determine the potential magnitude of misclassification bias created by ignoring these trends. Monthly UVB data remotely sensed from various NASA satellites were used to investigate changes over time in the United States using linear regression with a harmonic function...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208249/flexible-passive-near-field-communication-tag-for-multigas-sensing
#5
P Escobedo, M M Erenas, N López-Ruiz, M A Carvajal, S Gonzalez-Chocano, I de Orbe-Payá, L F Capitán-Valley, A J Palma, A Martínez-Olmos
In this work we present a full-passive flexible multigas sensing tag for the determination of oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and relative humidity readable by a smartphone. This tag is based on near field communication (NFC) technology for energy harvesting and data transmission to a smartphone. The gas sensors show an optic response that is read through high-resolution digital color detectors. A white LED is used as the common optical excitation source for all the sensors. Only a reduced electronics with very low power consumption is required for the reading of the optical responses and data transmission to a remote user...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208227/integrating-remotely-sensed-fires-for-predicting-deforestation-for-redd
#6
Dolors Armenteras, Cerian Gibbes, Jesús A Anaya, Liliana M Dávalos
Fire is an important tool in tropical forest management, as it alters forest composition, structure, and the carbon budget. The United Nations program on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) aims to sustainably manage forests, as well as conserve and enhance their carbon stocks. Despite the crucial role of fire management, decision-making on REDD+ interventions fails to systematically include fires. Here, we address this critical knowledge gap in two ways. First, we review REDD+ projects and programs to assess the inclusion of fires in monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) systems...
February 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207752/soilgrids250m-global-gridded-soil-information-based-on-machine-learning
#7
Tomislav Hengl, Jorge Mendes de Jesus, Gerard B M Heuvelink, Maria Ruiperez Gonzalez, Milan Kilibarda, Aleksandar Blagotić, Wei Shangguan, Marvin N Wright, Xiaoyuan Geng, Bernhard Bauer-Marschallinger, Mario Antonio Guevara, Rodrigo Vargas, Robert A MacMillan, Niels H Batjes, Johan G B Leenaars, Eloi Ribeiro, Ichsani Wheeler, Stephan Mantel, Bas Kempen
This paper describes the technical development and accuracy assessment of the most recent and improved version of the SoilGrids system at 250m resolution (June 2016 update). SoilGrids provides global predictions for standard numeric soil properties (organic carbon, bulk density, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), pH, soil texture fractions and coarse fragments) at seven standard depths (0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm), in addition to predictions of depth to bedrock and distribution of soil classes based on the World Reference Base (WRB) and USDA classification systems (ca...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203035/observation-based-estimates-of-global-glacier-mass-change-and-its-contribution-to-sea-level-change
#8
REVIEW
B Marzeion, N Champollion, W Haeberli, K Langley, P Leclercq, F Paul
Glaciers have strongly contributed to sea-level rise during the past century and will continue to be an important part of the sea-level budget during the twenty-first century. Here, we review the progress in estimating global glacier mass change from in situ measurements of mass and length changes, remote sensing methods, and mass balance modeling driven by climate observations. For the period before the onset of satellite observations, different strategies to overcome the uncertainty associated with monitoring only a small sample of the world's glaciers have been developed...
2017: Surveys in Geophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202426/integrated-platform-for-home-services-using-new-products-and-services-for-senior-citizens-call-cnav-carsat-2015
#9
Michel Noguès, Daniel Laune, Delphine Paccard, Anne-Laure Coupet, Justine Millot-Keurinck, Narjis Bototo, Marine Bertrand, Jean Bousquet
This project is part of: i) the risks of ageing prevention policy of the French retirement and occupational health insurance agency of Languedoc Roussillon (Carsat-LR) and ii) the European innovation partnership on active and healthy ageing (EIP on AHA). It aims to support senior citizens who live independently and have been identified at risk of frailty on a social or health level. The purpose is to increase legibility as well as technical and financial access to innovations for vulnerable seniors who are remote from the digital era, through a multiservice user-friendly platform...
February 15, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196685/geochemical-analysis-of-sediments-from-a-semi-enclosed-bay-dongshan-bay-southeast-china-to-determine-the-anthropogenic-impact-and-source
#10
Yonghang Xu, Qinqin Sun, Xiang Ye, Xijie Yin, Dongyi Li, Liang Wang, Aijun Wang, Yunhai Li
The geochemical compositions of sediments in the Dongshan Bay, a semi-enclosed bay on the southeast coast of China, were obtained to identify pollutant sources and evaluate the anthropogenic impacts over the last 100 years. The results indicated that the metal flux had been increasing since the 1980s. Enrichment factor values (Pb, Zn and Cu) suggested only slight enrichment. The proportion of anthropogenic Pb changed from 9% to 15% during 2000-2014. Coal combustion might be an important contamination source in the Dongshan Bay...
January 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195575/a-land-data-assimilation-system-for-sub-saharan-africa-food-and-water-security-applications
#11
Amy McNally, Kristi Arsenault, Sujay Kumar, Shraddhanand Shukla, Pete Peterson, Shugong Wang, Chris Funk, Christa D Peters-Lidard, James P Verdin
Seasonal agricultural drought monitoring systems, which rely on satellite remote sensing and land surface models (LSMs), are important for disaster risk reduction and famine early warning. These systems require the best available weather inputs, as well as a long-term historical record to contextualize current observations. This article introduces the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), a custom instance of the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework. The FLDAS is routinely used to produce multi-model and multi-forcing estimates of hydro-climate states and fluxes over semi-arid, food insecure regions of Africa...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192628/evaluation-of-climate-related-carbon-turnover-processes-in-global-vegetation-models-for-boreal-and-temperate-forests
#12
Martin Thurner, Christian Beer, Philippe Ciais, Andrew D Friend, Akihiko Ito, Axel Kleidon, Mark R Lomas, Shaun Quegan, Tim T Rademacher, Sibyll Schaphoff, Markus Tum, Andy Wiltshire, Nuno Carvalhais
Turnover concepts in state-of-the-art global vegetation models (GVMs) account for various processes, but are often highly simplified and may not include an adequate representation of the dominant processes that shape vegetation carbon turnover rates in real forest ecosystems at a large spatial scale. Here we evaluate vegetation carbon turnover processes in GVMs participating in the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP; including HYBRID4, JeDi, JULES, LPJml, ORCHIDEE, SDGVM, and VISIT) using estimates of vegetation carbon turnover rate (k) derived from a combination of remote sensing based products of biomass and net primary production (NPP)...
February 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190693/long-term-monitoring-for-conservation-management-lessons-from-a-case-study-integrating-remote-sensing-and-field-approaches-in-floodplain-forests
#13
Patricia María Rodríguez-González, António Albuquerque, Miguel Martínez-Almarza, Ricardo Díaz-Delgado
Implementing long-term monitoring programs that effectively inform conservation plans is a top priority in environmental management. In floodplain forests, historical pressures interplay with the complex multiscale dynamics of fluvial systems and require integrative approaches to pinpoint drivers for their deterioration and ecosystem services loss. Combining a conceptual framework such as the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) with the development of valid biological indicators can contribute to the analysis of the driving forces and their effects on the ecosystem in order to formulate coordinated conservation measures...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190574/global-wetlands-potential-distribution-wetland-loss-and-status
#14
Shengjie Hu, Zhenguo Niu, Yanfen Chen, Lifeng Li, Haiying Zhang
Even though researchers have paid a great deal of attention to wetland loss and status, the actual extent of wetland loss on a global scale, especially the loss caused directly by human activities, and the actual extent of currently surviving wetlands remains uncertain. This paper simulated the potential distribution of global wetlands by employing a new Precipitation Topographic Wetness Index (PTWI) and global remote sensing training samples. The results show earth would have approximately 29.83millionkm(2) of wetlands, if humans did not interfere with wetland ecosystems...
February 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182978/modeling-background-radiation-in-southern-nevada
#15
Daniel A Haber, Pamela C Burnley, Christopher T Adcock, Russell L Malchow, Kara E Marsac, Elisabeth M Hausrath
Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials by creating a high resolution background model. The intention is for this method to be used in an emergency response scenario where the background radiation environment is unknown...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182557/automatic-attribute-profiles
#16
Gabriele Cavallaro, Nicola Falco, Mauro Dalla Mura, Jon Atli Benediktsson
Morphological attribute profiles are multilevel decompositions of images obtained with a sequence of transformations performed by connected operators. They have been extensively employed in performing multi-scale and region-based analysis in a large number of applications. One main, still unresolved, issue is the selection of filter parameters able to provide representative and non-redundant threshold decomposition of the image. This paper presents a framework for the automatic selection of filter thresholds based on Granulometric Characteristic Functions (GCFs)...
February 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166300/impacts-of-human-related-practices-on-ommatissus-lybicus-infestations-of-date-palm-in-oman
#17
Khalifa M Al-Kindi, Paul Kwan, Nigel R Andrew, Mitchell Welch
Date palm cultivation is economically important in the Sultanate of Oman, with significant financial investments coming from both the government and private individuals. However, a widespread Dubas bug (DB) (Ommatissus lybicus Bergevin) infestation has impacted regions including the Middle East, North Africa, Southeast Russia, and Spain, resulting in widespread damages to date palms. In this study, techniques in spatial statistics including ordinary least squares (OLS), geographically weighted regression (GRW), and exploratory regression (ER) were applied to (a) model the correlation between DB infestations and human-related practices that include irrigation methods, row spacing, palm tree density, and management of undercover and intercropped vegetation, and (b) predict the locations of future DB infestations in northern Oman...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165505/spectrally-monitoring-the-response-of-the-biocrust-moss-syntrichia-caninervis-to-altered-precipitation-regimes
#18
Kristina E Young, Sasha C Reed
Climate change is expected to impact drylands worldwide by increasing temperatures and changing precipitation patterns. These effects have known feedbacks to the functional roles of dryland biological soil crust communities (biocrusts), which are expected to undergo significant climate-induced changes in community structure and function. Nevertheless, our ability to monitor the status and physiology of biocrusts with remote sensing is limited due to the heterogeneous nature of dryland landscapes and the desiccation tolerance of biocrusts, which leaves them frequently photosynthetically inactive and difficult to assess...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163988/a-synthesis-of-the-basal-thermal-state-of-the-greenland-ice-sheet
#19
Joseph A MacGregor, Mark A Fahnestock, Ginny A Catania, Andy Aschwanden, Gary D Clow, William T Colgan, S Prasad Gogineni, Mathieu Morlighem, Sophie M J Nowicki, John D Paden, Stephen F Price, Hélène Seroussi
The basal thermal state of an ice sheet (frozen or thawed) is an important control upon its evolution, dynamics and response to external forcings. However, this state can only be observed directly within sparse boreholes or inferred conclusively from the presence of subglacial lakes. Here we synthesize spatially extensive inferences of the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet to better constrain this state. Existing inferences include outputs from the eight thermomechanical ice-flow models included in the SeaRISE effort...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Earth Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163360/ethiopian-wheat-yield-and-yield-gap-estimation-a-spatially-explicit-small-area-integrated-data-approach
#20
Michael L Mann, James M Warner
Despite the routine collection of annual agricultural surveys and significant advances in GIS and remote sensing products, little econometric research has integrated these data sources in estimating developing nations' agricultural yields. In this paper, we explore the determinants of wheat output per hectare in Ethiopia during the 2011-2013 principal Meher crop seasons at the kebele administrative area. Using a panel data approach, combining national agricultural field surveys with relevant GIS and remote sensing products, the model explains nearly 40% of the total variation in wheat output per hectare across the country...
February 1, 2017: Field Crops Research
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