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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106819/modeling-aboveground-biomass-in-hulunber-grassland-ecosystem-by-using-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-discrete-lidar
#1
Dongliang Wang, Xiaoping Xin, Quanqin Shao, Matthew Brolly, Zhiliang Zhu, Jin Chen
Accurate canopy structure datasets, including canopy height and fractional cover, are required to monitor aboveground biomass as well as to provide validation data for satellite remote sensing products. In this study, the ability of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) discrete light detection and ranging (lidar) was investigated for modeling both the canopy height and fractional cover in Hulunber grassland ecosystem. The extracted mean canopy height, maximum canopy height, and fractional cover were used to estimate the aboveground biomass...
January 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105701/climate-change-and-alpine-stream-biology-progress-challenges-and-opportunities-for-the-future
#2
Scott Hotaling, Debra S Finn, J Joseph Giersch, David W Weisrock, Dean Jacobsen
In alpine regions worldwide, climate change is dramatically altering ecosystems and affecting biodiversity in many ways. For streams, receding alpine glaciers and snowfields, paired with altered precipitation regimes, are driving shifts in hydrology, species distributions, basal resources, and threatening the very existence of some habitats and biota. Alpine streams harbour substantial species and genetic diversity due to significant habitat insularity and environmental heterogeneity. Climate change is expected to affect alpine stream biodiversity across many levels of biological resolution from micro- to macroscopic organisms and genes to communities...
January 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104798/central-metabolic-sensing-remotely-controls-nutrient-sensitive-endocrine-response-in-drosophila-via-sir2-sirt1-upd2-iis-axis
#3
Kushal K Banerjee, Rujuta S Deshpande, Pranavi Koppula, Champakali Ayyub, Ullas Kolthur-Seetharam
Endocrine signaling is central in coupling organismal nutrient status with maintenance of systemic metabolic homeostasis. While local nutrient sensing within the insulinogenic tissue is well-studied, distant mechanisms that relay organismal nutrient status in controlling metabolic-endocrine signaling are less understood. Here, we report a novel mechanism underlying the distant regulation of metabolic endocrine response in Drosophila melanogaster. We show that the communication between fat-body and insulin producing cells (IPCs), important for the secretion of dILPs, is regulated by the master metabolic sensor Sir2/Sirt1...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099030/ultrafast-broadband-photodetectors-based-on-three-dimensional-dirac-semimetal-cd3as2
#4
Qinsheng Wang, Cai-Zhen Li, Shaofeng Ge, Jin-Guang Li, Wei Lu, Jiawei Lai, Xuefeng Liu, Junchao Ma, Dapeng Yu, Zhi-Min Liao, Dong Sun
Photodetection with extreme performances in terms of ultrafast response time, broad detection wavelength range, and high sensitivity has wide range of optoelectronic and photonic applications, such as optical communications, interconnects, imaging and remote sensing. Graphene, a typical two-dimensional Dirac semimetal, has shown excellent potential toward high performance photodetector with high operation speed, broadband response and efficient carrier multiplications benefiting from its linear dispersion band structure with high carrier mobility and zero bandgap...
January 18, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095496/opportunities-for-integrated-ecological-analysis-across-inland-australia-with-standardised-data-from-ausplots-rangelands
#5
Greg R Guerin, Ben Sparrow, Andrew Tokmakoff, Anita Smyth, Emrys Leitch, Zdravko Baruch, Andrew J Lowe
Australian rangelands ecosystems cover 81% of the continent but are understudied and continental-scale research has been limited in part by a lack of precise data that are standardised between jurisdictions. We present a new dataset from AusPlots Rangelands that enables integrative rangelands analysis due to its geographic scope and standardised methodology. The method provides data on vegetation and soils, enabling comparison of a suite of metrics including fractional vegetation cover, basal area, and species richness, diversity, and composition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093314/remote-sensing-of-multiple-vital-signs-using-a-cmos-camera-equipped-infrared-thermography-system-and-its-clinical-application-in-rapidly-screening-patients-with-suspected-infectious-diseases
#6
Guanghao Sun, Yosuke Nakayama, Sumiyakhand Dagdanpurev, Shigeto Abe, Hidekazu Nishimura, Tetsuo Kirimoto, Takemi Matsui
BACKGROUND: Infrared thermography (IRT) is used to screen febrile passengers at international airports, but it suffers from low sensitivity. This study explored the application of a combined visible and thermal image processing approach that used a CMOS camera equipped with IRT to remotely sense multiple vital signs and screen patients with suspected infectious diseases. METHODS: An IRT system that produced visible and thermal images was used for image acquisition...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093203/a-compound-scheme-on-parameters-identification-and-adaptive-compensation-of-nonlinear-friction-disturbance-for-the-aerial-inertially-stabilized-platform
#7
Xiangyang Zhou, Beilei Zhao, Wei Liu, Haixiao Yue, Ruixia Yu, Yulong Zhao
A compound scheme is proposed to compensate the effect of nonlinear friction disturbance on the control precision of a three-axis inertially stabilized platform (ISP) for aerial remote sensing applications. The scheme consists of friction parameters identification and adaptive compensation. A LuGre model-based ISP friction model is first developed. Then, a comprehensive experimental scheme is proposed to obtain the static friction parameters. Further, the dynamic parameters are identified by experiments and dynamic optimization...
January 13, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092361/designed-cell-consortia-as-fragrance-programmable-analog-to-digital-converters
#8
Marius Müller, Simon Ausländer, Andrea Spinnler, David Ausländer, Julian Sikorski, Marc Folcher, Martin Fussenegger
Synthetic biology advances the rational engineering of mammalian cells to achieve cell-based therapy goals. Synthetic gene networks have nearly reached the complexity of digital electronic circuits and enable single cells to perform programmable arithmetic calculations or to provide dynamic remote control of transgenes through electromagnetic waves. We designed a synthetic multilayered gaseous-fragrance-programmable analog-to-digital converter (ADC) allowing for remote control of digital gene expression with 2-bit AND-, OR- and NOR-gate logic in synchronized cell consortia...
January 16, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091610/evaluation-of-hyperspectral-lidar-for-monitoring-rice-leaf-nitrogen-by-comparison-with-multispectral-lidar-and-passive-spectrometer
#9
Jia Sun, Shuo Shi, Wei Gong, Jian Yang, Lin Du, Shalei Song, Biwu Chen, Zhenbing Zhang
Fast and nondestructive assessment of leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC) is critical for crop growth diagnosis and nitrogen management guidance. In the last decade, multispectral LiDAR (MSL) systems have promoted developments in the earth and ecological sciences with the additional spectral information. With more wavelengths than MSL, the hyperspectral LiDAR (HSL) system provides greater possibilities for remote sensing crop physiological conditions. This study compared the performance of ASD FieldSpec Pro FR, MSL, and HSL for estimating rice (Oryza sativa) LNC...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077869/age-extent-and-carbon-storage-of-the-central-congo-basin-peatland-complex
#10
Greta C Dargie, Simon L Lewis, Ian T Lawson, Edward T A Mitchard, Susan E Page, Yannick E Bocko, Suspense A Ifo
Peatlands are carbon-rich ecosystems that cover just three per cent of Earth's land surface, but store one-third of soil carbon. Peat soils are formed by the build-up of partially decomposed organic matter under waterlogged anoxic conditions. Most peat is found in cool climatic regions where unimpeded decomposition is slower, but deposits are also found under some tropical swamp forests. Here we present field measurements from one of the world's most extensive regions of swamp forest, the Cuvette Centrale depression in the central Congo Basin...
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076861/potential-applications-of-smart-multifunctional-wearable-materials-to-gerontology
#11
David G Armstrong, Bijan Najafi, Mohsen Shahinpoor
Smart multifunctional materials can play a constructive role in addressing some very important aging-related issues. Aging affects the ability of older adults to continue to live safely and economically in their own residences for as long as possible. Thus, there will be a greater need for preventive, acute, rehabilitative, and long-term health care services for older adults as well as a need for tools to enable them to function independently during daily activities. The objective of this paper is, thus, to present a comprehensive review of some potential smart materials and their areas of applications to gerontology...
January 12, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073474/challenges-for-mapping-cyanotoxin-patterns-from-remote-sensing-of-cyanobacteria
#12
REVIEW
Richard P Stumpf, Timothy W Davis, Timothy T Wynne, Jennifer L Graham, Keith A Loftin, Thomas H Johengen, Duane Gossiaux, Danna Palladino, Ashley Burtner
Using satellite imagery to quantify the spatial patterns of cyanobacterial toxins has several challenges. These challenges include the need for surrogate pigments - since cyanotoxins cannot be directly detected by remote sensing, the variability in the relationship between the pigments and cyanotoxins - especially microcystins (MC), and the lack of standardization of the various measurement methods. A dual-model strategy can provide an approach to address these challenges. One model uses either chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) or phycocyanin (PC) collected in situ as a surrogate to estimate the MC concentration...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073456/long-term-trend-of-ulva-prolifera-blooms-in-the-western-yellow-sea
#13
Lin Qi, Chuanmin Hu, Qianguo Xing, Shaoling Shang
Blooms of the green macroalga Ulva prolifera in the western Yellow Sea occurred every year since 2008, and they have been reported and studied extensively using a variety of means including remote sensing. However, to date, long-term bloom patterns have not been reported except for a few case studies showing examples in different years. Here, using MODIS observations and an objective method to perform statistical analysis, mean Ulva coverage in the western Yellow Sea has been derived and analyzed between 2007 and 2015 at both monthly and annual scales...
September 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073445/distribution-and-dynamics-of-two-species-of-dinophyceae-producing-high-biomass-blooms-over-the-french-atlantic-shelf
#14
M Sourisseau, K Jegou, M Lunven, J Quere, F Gohin, P Bryere
The frequency and distribution of high biomass blooms produced by two dinoflagellate species were analysed along the French continental shelf from 1998 to 2012. Two species were specifically studied: Karenia mikimotoi and Lepidodinium chlorophorum. Based on remote-sensing reflectances at six channels (410, 430, 480, 530, 550 and 670nm), satellite indices were created to discriminate the species forming the blooms. A comparison with observations showed that the identification was good for both species in spite of a lower specificity for L...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073443/a-hab-warning-system-for-shellfish-harvesting-in-portugal
#15
A Silva, L Pinto, S M Rodrigues, H de Pablo, M Santos, T Moita, M Mateus
The development of sustainable shellfish aquaculture is highly dependent on the provision of reliable monitoring and predictive information on the occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). The Portuguese HAB early warning system and shellfish closures presented here is a prototype, developed in the ASIMUTH project. It relies on weekly monitoring data composed of observations of HAB species and toxin concentrations within shellfish, and ocean circulation forecasts generated by an operational oceanographic model...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073438/individual-based-modelling-of-the-development-and-transport-of-a-karenia-mikimotoi-bloom-on-the-north-west-european-continental-shelf
#16
P A Gillibrand, B Siemering, P I Miller, K Davidson
In 2006, a large and prolonged bloom of the dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi occurred in Scottish coastal waters, causing extensive mortalities of benthic organisms including annelids and molluscs and some species of fish (Davidson et al., 2009). A coupled hydrodynamic-algal transport model was developed to track the progression of the bloom around the Scottish coast during June-September 2006 and hence investigate the processes controlling the bloom dynamics. Within this individual-based model, cells were capable of growth, mortality and phototaxis and were transported by physical processes of advection and turbulent diffusion, using current velocities extracted from operational simulations of the MRCS ocean circulation model of the North-west European continental shelf...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073436/forecasting-the-risk-of-harmful-algal-blooms
#17
EDITORIAL
Keith Davidson, Donald M Anderson, Marcos Mateus, Beatriz Reguera, Joe Silke, Marc Sourisseau, Julie Maguire
The "Applied Simulations and Integrated Modelling for the Understanding of Harmful Algal Blooms" (Asimuth) project sought to develop a harmful algal bloom (HAB) alert system for Atlantic Europe. This was approached by combining, at a national or regional level, regulatory monitoring phytoplankton and biotoxin data with satellite remote sensing and other information on current marine conditions, coupled with regional scale models that included a representation of HAB transport. Synthesis of these products was achieved by expert interpretation within HAB risk alert bulletins that were prepared on a regular basis (typically weekly) for use by the aquaculture industry...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072857/quantification-of-local-warming-trend-a-remote-sensing-based-approach
#18
Khan Rubayet Rahaman, Quazi K Hassan
Understanding the warming trends at local level is critical; and, the development of relevant adaptation and mitigation policies at those levels are quite challenging. Here, our overall goal was to generate local warming trend map at 1 km spatial resolution by using: (i) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based 8-day composite surface temperature data; (ii) weather station-based yearly average air temperature data; and (iii) air temperature normal (i.e., 30 year average) data over the Canadian province of Alberta during the period 1961-2010...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072449/a-survival-guide-to-landsat-preprocessing
#19
Nicholas E Young, Ryan S Anderson, Stephen M Chignell, Anthony G Vorster, Rick Lawrence, Paul H Evangelista
Landsat data are increasingly used for ecological monitoring and research. These data often require preprocessing prior to analysis to account for sensor, solar, atmospheric, and topographic effects. However, ecologists using these data are faced with a literature containing inconsistent terminology, outdated methods, and a vast number of approaches with contradictory recommendations. These issues can, at best, make determining the correct preprocessing workflow a difficult and time-consuming task and, at worst, lead to erroneous results...
January 10, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068339/effect-of-climatic-factors-and-population-density-on-the-distribution-of-dengue-in-sri-lanka-a-gis-based-evaluation-for-prediction-of-outbreaks
#20
Pdnn Sirisena, Faseeha Noordeen, Harithra Kurukulasuriya, Thanuja Alar Romesh, LakKumar Fernando
Dengue is one of the major hurdles to the public health in Sri Lanka, causing high morbidity and mortality. The present study focuses on the use of geographical information systems (GIS) to map and evaluate the spatial and temporal distribution of dengue in Sri Lanka from 2009 to 2014 and to elucidate the association of climatic factors with dengue incidence. Epidemiological, population and meteorological data were collected from the Epidemiology Unit, Department of Census and Statistics and the Department of Meteorology of Sri Lanka...
2017: PloS One
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