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Regulatory particle

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027734/high-resolution-visualization-and-exo-proteomics-reveal-the-physiological-role-of-xlnr-and-arar-in-plant-biomass-colonization-and-degradation-by-aspergillus-niger
#1
Joanna E Kowalczyk, Claire Khosravi, Samuel Purvine, Alice Dohnalkova, William B Chrisler, Galya Orr, Errol Robinson, Erika Zink, Ad Wiebenga, Mao Peng, Evy Battaglia, Scott Baker, Ronald P de Vries
In A. niger, two transcription factors, AraR and XlnR, regulate the production of enzymes involved in degradation of arabinoxylan and catabolism of the released L-arabinose and D-xylose. Deletion of both araR and xlnR in leads to reduced production of (hemi)cellulolytic enzymes and reduced growth on arabinan, arabinogalactan and xylan. In this study we investigated the colonization and degradation of wheat bran by the A. niger reference strain CBS 137562 and araR/xlnR regulatory mutants using high-resolution microscopy and exo-proteomics...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024795/are-valved-holding-chambers-vhcs-interchangeable-an-in-vitro-evaluation-of-vhc-equivalence
#2
Sanjeeva Dissanayake, Mark Nagel, Emanuela Falaschetti, Jason Suggett
INTRODUCTION: The European Medicines Agency (EMA) requires that a specific valved holding chamber (VHC) is designated for use with a given pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI). No other regulatory authorities impose similar requirements, implying that VHCs are interchangeable. This in vitro study, employing EMA assessment criteria, assessed the equivalence of four anti-static VHCs (aVHCs) versus the non-conducting VHC most widely referenced in pMDI monographs, the AeroChamber Plus™ (AC+) VHC...
October 9, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022869/dynamic-regulatory-interaction-between-cytomegalovirus-major-tegument-protein-pp65-and-protein-kinase-pul97-in-intracellular-compartments-dense-bodies-and-virions
#3
Patrick König, Nicole Büscher, Mirjam Steingruber, Eileen Socher, Heinrich Sticht, Stefan Tenzer, Bodo Plachter, Manfred Marschall
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous pathogen of considerable clinical importance. Understanding the processes that are important for viral replication is essential for the development of therapeutic strategies against HCMV infection. The HCMV-encoded protein kinase pUL97 is an important multifunctional regulator of viral replication. Several viral and cellular proteins are phosphorylated by pUL97. The phosphoprotein pp65 is one important substrate of pUL97. It is the most abundant tegument protein of HCMV virions, mediating the upload of other virion constituents and contributing to particle integrity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017168/enhanced-at-puberty-1-eap1-expression-critically-regulates-the-onset-of-puberty-independent-of-hypothalamic-kiss1-expression
#4
Chenxi Li, Pin Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Enhance at puberty-1 (Eap1) is an intronless gene that regulates the onset of puberty through a network of hypothalamic genes. However, precise mechanistic events essential for Eap1-regulation of puberty have not been fully elucidated. Eap1 is thought to promote the initiation of puberty through regulation of the hypothalamic metastasis-suppressor KiSS1. We aim to investigate this hypothesis by genetically perturbing Eap1 through RNA interference in vivo. METHODS: We first engineered and optimized four sets of shRNAs that target rat Eap1 mRNA as well as one negative control shRNA...
October 11, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988953/meddling-with-fate-the-proteasomal-deubiquitinating-enzymes
#5
REVIEW
Stefanie A H de Poot, Geng Tian, Daniel Finley
Three deubiquitinating enzymes-Rpn11, Usp14, and Uch37-are associated with the proteasome regulatory particle. These enzymes allow proteasomes to remove ubiquitin from substrates before they are translocated into the core particle to be degraded. Although the translocation channel is too narrow for folded proteins, the force of translocation unfolds them mechanically. As translocation proceeds, ubiquitin chains bound to substrate are drawn to the channel's entry port, where they can impede further translocation...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986221/the-ul10-protein-a-component-of-the-ribosomal-p-stalk-is-released-from-the-ribosome-in-nucleolar-stress
#6
Kamil Deryło, Barbara Michalec-Wawiórka, Dawid Krokowski, Leszek Wawiórka, Maria Hatzoglou, Marek Tchórzewski
The ribosomal uL10 protein, formerly known as P0, is an essential element of the ribosomal GTPase-associated center responsible for the interplay with translational factors during various stages of protein synthesis. In eukaryotic cells, uL10 binds two P1/P2 protein heterodimers to form a pentameric P-stalk, described as uL10-(P1-P2)2, which represents the functional form of these proteins on translating ribosomes. Unlike most ribosomal proteins, which are incorporated into pre-ribosomal particles during early steps of ribosome biogenesis in the nucleus, P-stalk proteins are attached to the 60S subunit in the cytoplasm...
October 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985947/induction-of-the-chromosomal-translocation-t-14-18-by-targeting-the-bcl-2-locus-with-specific-binding-i-125-labeled-triplex-forming-oligonucleotides
#7
Volker Dahmen, Sabine Schmitz, Ralf Kriehuber
Triplex-Forming oligonucleotides (TFO) bind sequence-specific to the DNA double helix in-vitro and in-vivo and are a promising tool to manipulate genes or gene regulatory elements. TFO as a carrier molecule for short-range particle emitter such as Auger-Electron-Emitters (AEE) bear the potential to introduce radiation-induced site-specific complex DNA lesions, which are known to induce chromosomal translocations. We studied gene expression, translocation frequency and protein expression in SCL-II cells after transfection with the AEE Iodine-125 (I-125) labeled TFO-BCL2 targeting the human BCL2 gene...
November 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978666/aqp4e-based-orthogonal-arrays-regulate-rapid-cell-volume-changes-in-astrocytes
#8
Marjeta Lisjak, Maja Potokar, Boštjan Rituper, Jernej Jorgačevski, Robert Zorec
Water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) plays a key role in the regulation of water homeostasis in the brain. It is predominantly expressed in astrocytes at blood-brain and blood-liquor interfaces. Although several AQP4 isoforms have been identified in the mammalian brain, two, AQP4a (M1) and AQP4c (M23), have been confirmed to cluster into plasma membrane supramolecular structures, termed orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs) and to enhance water transport through the plasma membrane. However, the role of the newly described water-conductive mammalian isoform AQP4e is unknown...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978481/dms-seq-for-in%C3%A2-vivo-genome-wide-mapping-of-protein-dna-interactions-and-nucleosome-centers
#9
Taichi Umeyama, Takashi Ito
Protein-DNA interactions provide the basis for chromatin structure and gene regulation. Comprehensive identification of protein-occupied sites is thus vital to an in-depth understanding of genome function. Dimethyl sulfate (DMS) is a chemical probe that has long been used to detect footprints of DNA-bound proteins in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a genomic footprinting method, dimethyl sulfate sequencing (DMS-seq), which exploits the cell-permeable nature of DMS to obviate the need for nuclear isolation...
October 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974477/an-injectable-particle-hydrogel-hybrid-system-for-glucose-regulatory-insulin-delivery
#10
Fuli Zhao, Di Wu, Dan Yao, Ruiwei Guo, Weiwei Wang, Anjie Dong, Deling Kong, Jianhua Zhang
Long-term and daily subcutaneous injections of insulin for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetic patients often lead to poor patient compliance and undesired complications. Phenylboronic acid (PBA)-based polymeric hydrogels have been widely considered as one of the most promising insulin delivery system to replace the frequent insulin injections. However, their applications are limited by clinically irrelevant glucose-responsive range, slow response rate, low tissue-adhesiveness and poor biodegradability, undesirable leakage at normoglycemic state...
September 30, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970592/a-therapeutic-peptide-vaccine-against-pcsk9
#11
Yajie Pan, Yanzhao Zhou, Hailang Wu, Xiao Chen, Xiajun Hu, Hongrong Zhang, Zihua Zhou, Zhihua Qiu, Yuhua Liao
Vaccination provides a promising approach for treatment of hypercholesterolemia and improvement in compliance. In this study, the appropriate virus-like particle (VLP)-peptide vaccines targeting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) were screened. The screening criteria of target peptides were as follows: (1) located in catalytic domain of PCSK9, or regulating the binding of PCSK9 and LDL receptors (LDLR); (2) having low/no-similarity when matched with the host proteome; (3) possessing ideal antigenicity and hydrophilicity; (4) including the functional mutation site of PCSK9...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968984/a-novel-deubiquitinase-inhibitor-b-ap15-triggers-apoptosis-in-both-androgen-receptor-dependent-and-independent-prostate-cancers
#12
Jianyu Cai, Xiaohong Xia, Yuning Liao, Ningning Liu, Zhiqiang Guo, Jinghong Chen, Li Yang, Huidan Long, Qianqian Yang, Xiaolan Zhang, Lu Xiao, Xuejun Wang, Hongbiao Huang, Jinbao Liu
Prostate cancer (PCa) remains a leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Especially, a subset of patients will eventually progress to the metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) which is currently incurable. Deubiquitinases (DUBs) associated with the 19S proteasome regulatory particle are increasingly emerging as significant therapeutic targets in numerous cancers. Recently, a novel small molecule b-AP15 is identified as an inhibitor of the USP14/UCHL5 (DUBs) of the 19S proteasome, resulting in cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in several human cancer cell lines...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965817/p-body-purification-reveals-the-condensation-of-repressed-mrna-regulons
#13
Arnaud Hubstenberger, Maïté Courel, Marianne Bénard, Sylvie Souquere, Michèle Ernoult-Lange, Racha Chouaib, Zhou Yi, Jean-Baptiste Morlot, Annie Munier, Magali Fradet, Maëlle Daunesse, Edouard Bertrand, Gérard Pierron, Julien Mozziconacci, Michel Kress, Dominique Weil
Within cells, soluble RNPs can switch states to coassemble and condense into liquid or solid bodies. Although these phase transitions have been reconstituted in vitro, for endogenous bodies the diversity of the components, the specificity of the interaction networks, and the function of the coassemblies remain to be characterized. Here, by developing a fluorescence-activated particle sorting (FAPS) method to purify cytosolic processing bodies (P-bodies) from human epithelial cells, we identified hundreds of proteins and thousands of mRNAs that structure a dense network of interactions, separating P-body from non-P-body RNPs...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957655/analysis-of-ribosome-stalling-and-translation-elongation-dynamics-by-deep-learning
#14
Sai Zhang, Hailin Hu, Jingtian Zhou, Xuan He, Tao Jiang, Jianyang Zeng
Ribosome stalling is manifested by the local accumulation of ribosomes at specific codon positions of mRNAs. Here, we present ROSE, a deep learning framework to analyze high-throughput ribosome profiling data and estimate the probability of a ribosome stalling event occurring at each genomic location. Extensive validation tests on independent data demonstrated that ROSE possessed higher prediction accuracy than conventional prediction models, with an increase in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve by up to 18...
September 27, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942123/a-single-intraperitoneal-injection-of-bovine-fetuin-a-attenuates-bone-resorption-in-a-murine-calvarial-model-of-particle-induced-osteolysis
#15
Heidrun Jablonski, Christina Polan, Christian Wedemeyer, Gero Hilken, Rüdiger Schlepper, Hagen Sjard Bachmann, Florian Grabellus, Marcel Dudda, Marcus Jäger, Max Daniel Kauther
Particle-induced osteolysis, which by definition is an aseptic inflammatory reaction to implant-derived wear debris eventually leading to local bone destruction, remains the major reason for long-term failure of orthopedic endoprostheses. Fetuin-A, a 66kDa glycoprotein with diverse functions, is found to be enriched in bone. Besides being an important inhibitor of ectopic calcification, it has been described to influence the production of mediators of inflammation. Furthermore, a regulatory role in bone metabolism has been assigned...
September 21, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941357/microrna-in-alzheimer-s-disease-revisited-implications-for-major-neuropathological-mechanisms
#16
Reihaneh Dehghani, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
Pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) goes far beyond neurotoxicity resulting from extracellular deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques. Aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and accumulation of Aβ in the form of the plaque or neurofibrillary tangles are the known primary culprits of AD pathogenesis and target for various regulatory mechanisms. Hyper-phosphorylation of tau, a major component of neurofibrillary tangles, precipitates its aggregation and prevents its clearance. Lipid particles, apolipoproteins and lipoprotein receptors can act in favor or against Aβ and tau accumulation by altering neural membrane characteristics or dynamics of transport across the blood-brain barrier...
September 23, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930676/localized-phosphorylation-of-a-kinesin-1-adaptor-by-a-capsid-associated-kinase-regulates-hiv-1-motility-and-uncoating
#17
Viacheslav Malikov, Mojgan H Naghavi
Although microtubule motors mediate intracellular virus transport, the underlying interactions and control mechanisms remain poorly defined. This is particularly true for HIV-1 cores, which undergo complex, interconnected processes of cytosolic transport, reverse transcription, and uncoating of the capsid shell. Although kinesins have been implicated in regulating these events, curiously, there are no direct kinesin-core interactions. We recently showed that the capsid-associated kinesin-1 adaptor protein, fasciculation and elongation protein zeta-1 (FEZ1), regulates HIV-1 trafficking...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928411/reca-ssb-interaction-modulates-reca-nucleoprotein-filament-formation-on-ssb-wrapped-dna
#18
Hung-Yi Wu, Chih-Hao Lu, Hung-Wen Li
E. coli RecA recombinase catalyzes the homology pairing and strand exchange reactions in homologous recombinational repair. RecA must compete with single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSB) for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) substrates to form RecA nucleoprotein filaments, as the first step of this repair process. It has been suggested that RecA filaments assemble mainly by binding and extending onto the free ssDNA region not covered by SSB, or are assisted by mediators. Using the tethered particle motion (TPM) technique, we monitored individual RecA filament assembly on SSB-wrapped ssDNA in real-time...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912506/role-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-and-its-receptors-in-diesel-exhaust-particle-induced-pulmonary-inflammation
#19
Smitha Kumar, Guy Joos, Louis Boon, Kurt Tournoy, Sharen Provoost, Tania Maes
Inhalation of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induces an inflammatory reaction in the lung. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that operates by binding to tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2). The role of TNF-α signaling and the importance of either TNFR1 or TNFR2 in the DEP-induced inflammatory response has not yet been elucidated. TNF-α knockout (KO), TNFR1 KO, TNFR2 KO, TNFR1/TNFR2 double KO (TNFR-DKO) and wild type (WT) mice were intratracheally exposed to saline or DEP...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899815/blockage-of-regulatory-t-cells-augments-induction-of-protective-immune-responses-by-influenza-virus-like-particles-in-aged-mice
#20
Zhiyuan Wen, Xi Wang, Ke Dong, Huizhong Zhang, Zhigao Bu, Ling Ye, Chinglai Yang
Elderly humans over 65 years old are at great risk to pathogenesis by influenza virus infection. However, although influenza vaccines provide effective protection in healthy young adults, protection of elderly adults is substantially lower even with a good match between the vaccine and the circulating influenza virus. To gain insight of the underlying mechanism for the reduced immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in the aged population, we investigated immunogenicity of influenza virus-like particle vaccines in aged mice, which represent a useful model for studying aging associated impairment in immune responses...
September 9, 2017: Microbes and Infection
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