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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076890/suppression-of-osteogenic-activity-by-regulation-of-wnt-and-bmp-signaling-during-titanium-particle-induced-osteolysis
#1
Ju-Suk Nam, Ashish Ranjan Sharma, Supriya Jagga, Dong-Hyun Lee, Garima Sharma, Lich Thi Nguyen, Yeon Hee Lee, Jun-Dong Chang, Chiranjib Chakraborty, Sang-Soo Lee
Periprosthetic osteolysis remains the leading obstacle for total joint replacements. Primarily, it was thought that aseptic loosening is mainly caused by macrophage mediated inflammatory process arising from production of wear debris. The role of osteoclasts and its sequential bone resorption ability has been extensively studied, but little is known about impaired osteogenesis during osteolysis. In the current study, we have tried to delineate the regulatory mechanism of osteogenic signals by Ti particles in osteoprogenitor cells as well its participatory role in wear debris induced osteolysis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073444/modelling-the-hydrodynamic-conditions-associated-with-dinophysis-blooms-in-galicia-nw-spain
#2
Manuel Ruiz-Villarreal, Luz M García-García, Marcos Cobas, Patricio A Díaz, Beatriz Reguera
The northwestern Iberian coast (Galician Rías and shelf) is frequently affected by toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs) (mainly Dinophysis spp.), leading to lengthy harvesting closures in a region where aquaculture has a strong socioeconomic impact. The project ASIMUTH (http://www.asimuth.eu) aimed to develop forecasting capabilities to warn of impending HABs along the European Atlantic coast. Simulations with the ROMS model (hydrodynamical and ecological simulations complemented with Lagrangian particle tracking simulations) of the Galician coastal circulation have been performed in the framework of the ASIMUTH project to characterize and forecast oceanographic conditions before and during HAB periods...
March 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059715/control-of-meiotic-pairing-and-recombination-by-chromosomally-tethered-26s-proteasome
#3
Jasvinder S Ahuja, Rima Sandhu, Rana Mainpal, Crystal Lawson, Hanna Henley, Patricia A Hunt, Judith L Yanowitz, G Valentin Börner
During meiosis, paired homologous chromosomes (homologs) become linked via the synaptonemal complex (SC) and crossovers. Crossovers mediate homolog segregation and arise from self-inflicted double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we identified a role for the proteasome, the multi-subunit protease that degrades proteins in the nucleus and cytoplasm, in homolog juxtaposition and crossing over. Without proteasome function, homologs failed to pair and instead remained associated with non-homologous chromosomes. While dispensable for non-crossover formation, a functional proteasome was required for a coordinated transition that entails SC assembly between longitudinally organized chromosome axes and stable strand exchange of crossover-designated DSBs...
January 5, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053097/subcellular-localization-of-hiv-1-gag-pol-mrnas-regulates-sites-of-virion-assembly
#4
Jordan T Becker, Nathan M Sherer
: HIV-1 full-length, unspliced RNAs serve dual roles in the cytoplasm as mRNAs encoding the Gag and Gag-Pol capsid proteins as well as genomic RNAs (gRNAs) packaged by Gag into virions undergoing assembly at the plasma membrane (PM). Because Gag is sufficient to drive assembly of virus-like particles even in the absence of gRNA binding, whether viral RNA trafficking plays an active role in the native assembly pathway is unknown. In this study we tested the effects of modulating the cytoplasmic abundance or distribution of full-length viral RNAs on Gag trafficking and assembly in the context of single cells...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018338/the-pd1-pd-l1-2-pathway-from-discovery-to-clinical-implementation
#5
REVIEW
Kankana Bardhan, Theodora Anagnostou, Vassiliki A Boussiotis
The immune system maintains a critically organized network to defend against foreign particles, while evading self-reactivity simultaneously. T lymphocytes function as effectors and play an important regulatory role to orchestrate the immune signals. Although central tolerance mechanism results in the removal of the most of the autoreactive T cells during thymic selection, a fraction of self-reactive lymphocytes escapes to the periphery and pose a threat to cause autoimmunity. The immune system evolved various mechanisms to constrain such autoreactive T cells and maintain peripheral tolerance, including T cell anergy, deletion, and suppression by regulatory T cells (TRegs)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012705/methodology-for-analyzing-environmental-quality-indicators-in-a-dynamic-operating-room-environment
#6
Thomas Gormley, Troy A Markel, Howard W Jones, Jennifer Wagner, Damon Greely, James H Clarke, Mark Abkowitz, John Ostojic
BACKGROUND: Sufficient quantities of quality air and controlled, unidirectional flow are important elements in providing a safe building environment for operating rooms. METHODS: To make dynamic assessments of an operating room environment, a validated method of testing the multiple factors influencing the air quality in health care settings needed to be constructed. These include the following: temperature, humidity, particle load, number of microbial contaminants, pressurization, air velocity, and air distribution...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991972/air-pollution-management-and-control-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean-implications-for-climate-change
#7
Horacio Riojas-Rodríguez, Agnes Soares da Silva, José Luis Texcalac-Sangrador, Grea Litai Moreno-Banda
Objective: To assess the status of the legal framework for air quality control in all countries of Latin America and Caribbean (LAC); to determine the current distribution of air monitoring stations and mean levels of air pollutants in all capital and large cities (more than 100 000 inhabitants); and to discuss the implications for climate change and public policymaking. Methods: From January 2015-February 2016, searches were conducted of online databases for legislation, regulations, policies, and air pollution programs, as well as for the distribution of monitoring stations and the mean annual levels of air pollution in all LAC countries...
September 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986288/a-practical-approach-for-predicting-retention-time-shifts-due-to-pressure-and-temperature-gradients-in-ultra-high-pressure-liquid-chromatography
#8
Dennis Åsberg, Marcin Chutkowski, Marek Leśko, Jörgen Samuelsson, Krzysztof Kaczmarski, Torgny Fornstedt
Large pressure gradients are generated in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) using sub-2μm particles causing significant temperature gradients over the column due to viscous heating. These pressure and temperature gradients affect retention and ultimately result in important selectivity shifts. In this study, we developed an approach for predicting the retention time shifts due to these gradients. The approach is presented as a step-by-step procedure and it is based on empirical linear relationships describing how retention varies as a function of temperature and pressure and how the average column temperature increases with the flow rate...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933303/purification-of-baculovirus-vectors-using-heparin-affinity-chromatography
#9
Md Nasimuzzaman, Danielle Lynn, Johannes Cm van der Loo, Punam Malik
Baculoviruses are commonly used for recombinant protein and vaccine production. Baculoviruses are nonpathogenic to vertebrates, have a large packaging capacity, display broad host and cell type tropism, infect both dividing and nondividing cells, and do not elicit strong immune or allergic responses in vivo. Hence, their use as gene delivery vehicles has become increasingly popular in recent years. Moreover, baculovirus vectors carrying mammalian regulatory elements can efficiently transduce and express transgenes in mammalian cells...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932072/a-case-for-sec61-channel-involvement-in-erad
#10
REVIEW
Karin Römisch
Proteins that misfold in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) need to be transported back to the cytosol for degradation by proteasomes, a process known as ER-associated degradation (ERAD). The first candidate discussed as a retrograde protein transport conduit was the Sec61 channel which is responsible for secretory protein transport into the ER during biogenesis. The Sec61 channel binds the proteasome 19S regulatory particle which can extract an ERAD substrate from the ER. Nevertheless its role as a general export channel has been dismissed, and Hrd1 and Der1 have been proposed as alternatives...
December 5, 2016: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930368/metal-contamination-in-environmental-media-in-residential-areas-around-romanian-mining-sites
#11
Iulia A Neamtiu, Souhail R Al-Abed, John L McKernan, Calin L Baciu, Eugen S Gurzau, Anca O Pogacean, Scott M Bessler
Hard-rock mining for metals, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron and others, is recognized to have a significant impact on the environmental media, soil and water, in particular. Toxic contaminants released from mine waste to surface water and groundwater is the primary concern, but human exposure to soil contaminants either directly, via inhalation of airborne dust particles, or indirectly, via food chain (ingestion of animal products and/or vegetables grown in contaminated areas), is also, significant...
December 8, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899666/structures-of-human-srp72-complexes-provide-insights-into-srp-rna-remodeling-and-ribosome-interaction
#12
Matthias M M Becker, Karine Lapouge, Bernd Segnitz, Klemens Wild, Irmgard Sinning
Co-translational protein targeting and membrane protein insertion is a fundamental process and depends on the signal recognition particle (SRP). In mammals, SRP is composed of the SRP RNA crucial for SRP assembly and function and six proteins. The two largest proteins SRP68 and SRP72 form a heterodimer and bind to a regulatory site of the SRP RNA. Despite their essential roles in the SRP pathway, structural information has been available only for the SRP68 RNA-binding domain (RBD). Here we present the crystal structures of the SRP68 protein-binding domain (PBD) in complex with SRP72-PBD and of the SRP72-RBD bound to the SRP S domain (SRP RNA, SRP19 and SRP68) detailing all interactions of SRP72 within SRP...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886001/strategy-for-the-hemocompatibility-testing-of-microparticles
#13
S Braune, S Basu, K Kratz, J Bäckemo Johansson, M Reinthaler, A Lendlein, F Jung
Polymer-based microparticles are applied as non-thrombogenic or thrombogenic materials in a wide variety of intra- or extra-corporeal medical devices. As demanded by the regulatory agencies, the hemocompatibility of these blood contacting biomaterials has to be evaluated in vitro to ensure that the particle systems appropriately fulfill the envisioned function without causing undesired events such as thrombosis or inflammation. Currently described in vitro assays for hemocompatibility testing of particles comprise tests with different single cell types (e...
November 23, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883891/analysis-of-cell-lineage-trees-by-exact-bayesian-inference-identifies-negative-autoregulation-of-nanog-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#14
Justin Feigelman, Stefan Ganscha, Simon Hastreiter, Michael Schwarzfischer, Adam Filipczyk, Timm Schroeder, Fabian J Theis, Carsten Marr, Manfred Claassen
Many cellular effectors of pluripotency are dynamically regulated. In principle, regulatory mechanisms can be inferred from single-cell observations of effector activity across time. However, rigorous inference techniques suitable for noisy, incomplete, and heterogeneous data are lacking. Here, we introduce stochastic inference on lineage trees (STILT), an algorithm capable of identifying stochastic models that accurately describe the quantitative behavior of cell fate markers observed using time-lapse microscopy data collected from proliferating cell populations...
November 23, 2016: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881804/upgrading-of-automobile-shredder-residue-via-innovative-granulation-process-regran
#15
Philip Holthaus, Moritz Kappes, Wolfgang Krumm
Stricter regulatory requirements concerning end-of-life vehicles and rising disposal costs necessitate new ways for automobile shredder residue utilisation. The shredder granulate and fibres, produced by the VW-SICON-Process, have a high energy content of more than 20 MJ kg(-1), which makes energy recovery an interesting possibility. Shredder fibres have a low bulk density of 60 kg m(-3), which prevents efficient storing and utilisation as a refuse-derived fuel. By mixing fibres with plastic-rich shredder granulate and heating the mixture, defined granules can be produced...
November 23, 2016: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871833/oral-hesperidin-amorphization-and-improved-dissolution-properties-by-controlled-loading-onto-porous-silica
#16
Qionghua Wei, Cornelia M Keck, Rainer H Müller
The oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs can be improved by amorphization generated by loading into the pores of mesoporous particles (pore size 2-50nm). The main mechanisms are increased kinetic saturation solubility and dissolution velocity due to the amorphous drug state and the nano-size of the drug (=increased dissolution pressure). In this study, the maximum achievable drug loading compared to the theoretical drug loading, and the effect of drug loading degree on the dissolution properties (solubility, dissolution velocity) were investigated...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852850/dual-function-of-the-pul7-pul51-tegument-protein-complex-in-hsv-1-infection
#17
Anna Albecka, Danielle J Owen, Lyudmila Ivanova, Juliane Brun, Rukayya Liman, Laura Davies, M Firoz Ahmed, Susanna Colaco, Michael Hollinshead, Stephen C Graham, Colin M Crump
: The tegument of herpesviruses is a highly complex structural layer between the nucleocapsid and the envelope of virions. Tegument proteins play both structural and regulatory functions during replication and spread, but the interactions and functions of many of these proteins are poorly understood. Here we focus on two tegument proteins from herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), pUL7 and pUL51, which have homologues in all other herpesviruses. We have now identified that HSV-1 pUL7 and pUL51 form a stable and direct protein-protein interaction, their expression levels rely on the presence of each other and that they function as a complex in infected cells...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844439/simultaneous-manipulation-and-super-resolution-fluorescence-imaging-of-individual-kinetochores-coupled-to-microtubule-tips
#18
Yi Deng, Charles L Asbury
Kinetochores are large multiprotein complexes that drive mitotic chromosome movements by mechanically coupling them to the growing and shortening tips of spindle microtubules. Kinetochores are also regulatory hubs, somehow sensing when they are erroneously attached and, in response, releasing their incorrect attachments and generating diffusible wait signals to delay anaphase until proper attachments can form. The remarkable ability of a kinetochore to sense and respond to its attachment status might stem from attachment- or tension-dependent changes in the structural arrangement of its core subcomplexes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842971/application-of-ich-q9-quality-risk-management-tools-for-advanced-development-of-hot-melt-coated-multiparticulate-systems
#19
Elena Stocker, Karin Becker, Siddhi Hate, Roland Hohl, Wolfgang Schiemenz, Stephan Sacher, Andreas Zimmer, Sharareh Salar-Behzadi
This study aimed to apply quality risk management based on the The International Conference on Harmonisation guideline Q9 for the early development stage of hot melt coated multiparticulate systems for oral administration. N-acetylcysteine crystals were coated with a formulation composing tripalmitin and polysorbate 65. The critical quality attributes (CQAs) were initially prioritized using failure mode and effects analysis. The CQAs of the coated material were defined as particle size, taste-masking efficiency, and immediate release profile...
January 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827897/comparative-analysis-of-toxic-responses-of-organic-extracts-from-diesel-and-selected-alternative-fuels-engine-emissions-in-human-lung-beas-2b-cells
#20
Helena Libalova, Pavel Rossner, Kristyna Vrbova, Tana Brzicova, Jitka Sikorova, Michal Vojtisek-Lom, Vit Beranek, Jiri Klema, Miroslav Ciganek, Jiri Neca, Katerina Pencikova, Miroslav Machala, Jan Topinka
This study used toxicogenomics to identify the complex biological response of human lung BEAS-2B cells treated with organic components of particulate matter in the exhaust of a diesel engine. First, we characterized particles from standard diesel (B0), biodiesel (methylesters of rapeseed oil) in its neat form (B100) and 30% by volume blend with diesel fuel (B30), and neat hydrotreated vegetable oil (NEXBTL100). The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives in organic extracts was the lowest for NEXBTL100 and higher for biodiesel...
November 3, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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