Read by QxMD icon Read

Regulatory particle

Anna V Savelyeva, Dmitriy N Baryakin, Elena D Chikova, Elena V Kuligina, Vladimir A Richter, Dmitriy V Semenov
Human blood contains a great variety of membrane-covered RNA carrying vesicles which are spherical or tubular particles enclosed by a phospholipid bilayer. Circulating vesicles are thought to mediate cell-to-cell communication and their RNA cargo can act as regulatory molecules. In this work, we separated blood plasma of healthy donors by centrifugation and determined that vesicles precipitated at 16,000 g were enriched with CD41a, marker of platelets. At 160,000 g, the pellets were enriched with CD3 marker of T cells...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Zeng Xiaowei, Liu Cuicui, Han Ning, Bian Hongwu, Zhu Muyuan
Autophagy is an evolutionarily highly conserved catabolic pathway among eukaryotic cells that protects the organisms against environmental stress. Normally, autophagy is mainly involved with autophagy-related proteins(ATGs) and autophagic regulators including a series of cytoplasmic proteins and small molecules. Besides, the selective autophagy, which targets damaged organalles or protein aggregates, is mediated by the additional receptors to help the ATGs recognize different substrates. In this review, we summarize recent advances in autophagic regulators like ROS(Reactive oxygen species), TOR(Target of rapamycin) and receptors like NBR1(Neighbor of BRCA1 gene protein), RPN10(Regulatory particle non-ATPase 10) as well as their functional mechanisms mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana...
July 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Igor Orlov, Alexander G Myasnikov, Leonid Andronov, S Kundhavai Natchiar, Heena Khatter, Brice Beinsteiner, Jean-François Ménétret, Isabelle Hazemann, Kareem Mohideen, Karima Tazibt, Rachel Tabaroni, Hanna Kratzat, Nadia Djabeur, Tatiana Bruxelles, Finaritra Raivoniaina, Lorenza di Pompeo, Morgan Torchy, Isabelle Billas, Alexandre Urzhumtsev, Bruno P Klaholz
After gradually moving away from preparation methods prone to artefacts such as plastic embedding and negative staining for cell sections and single particles, the field of cryo electron microscopy is now heading off at unprecedented speed towards high-resolution analysis of biological objects of various sizes. This "revolution in resolution" is happening largely thanks to new developments of new-generation cameras used for recording the images in the cryo electron microscope which have much increased sensitivity being based on CMOS devices...
October 12, 2016: Biology of the Cell
A D Samarajeewa, J R Velicogna, J I Princz, R M Subasinghe, R P Scroggins, L A Beaudette
Silver nano-particles (AgNPs) are widely used in a range of consumer products as a result of their antimicrobial properties. Given the broad spectrum of uses, AgNPs have the potential for being released to the environment. As a result, environmental risks associated with AgNPs need to be assessed to aid in the development of regulatory guidelines. Research was performed to assess the effects of AgNPs on soil microbial activity and diversity in a sandy loam soil with an emphasis on using a battery of microbial tests involving multiple endpoints...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Jeffrey H Mandel, Bruce H Alexander, Gurumurthy Ramachandran
BACKGROUND: Mining of gold, taconite, and talc may involve exposure to elongate mineral particles (EMP). The involved EMPs are typically non-asbestiform, include dimensions that regulatory definitions exclude, and have been less studied. METHODS: A review of the literature was undertaken for this exposure and occupational epidemiological studies that occur in gold, talc, and taconite mining. RESULTS: Quantitative EMP exposure information in these industries is incomplete...
October 4, 2016: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Shalaka Dhat, Swati Pund, Chandrakant Kokare, Pankaj Sharma, Birendra Shrivastava
Rapidly evolving technical and regulatory landscapes of the pharmaceutical product development necessitates risk management with application of multivariate analysis using Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD). Poorly soluble, high dose drug, Satranidazole was optimally nanoprecipitated (SAT-NP) employing principles of Formulation by Design (FbD). The potential risk factors influencing the critical quality attributes (CQA) of SAT-NP were identified using Ishikawa diagram. Plackett-Burman screening design was adopted to screen the eight critical formulation and process parameters influencing the mean particle size, zeta potential and dissolution efficiency at 30min in pH7...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Ravikiran S Yedidi, Amatullah K Fatehi, Cordula Enenkel
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a critical role in cellular protein homeostasis and is required for the turnover of short-lived and unwanted proteins, which are targeted by poly-ubiquitination for degradation. Proteasome is the key protease of UPS and consists of multiple subunits, which are organized into a catalytic core particle (CP) and a regulatory particle (RP). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, proteasome holo-enzymes are engaged in degrading poly-ubiquitinated substrates and are mostly localized in the nucleus during cell proliferation...
September 28, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Kin Chan, Clifford Shone, J Richard Hesp
PURPOSE: The focus of this study was to characterise the effect of clinically relevant stress inducing conditions on the production and composition of proinflammatory outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced from ST131 ExPEC clinical isolates. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A label-free method (SINQ) was used to identify changes in the respective OMV proteomes following exposure of the ExPEC strains to antibiotics and low iron. Nanoparticle tracking analysis was used to quantify changes in abundance and size of OMVs produced by the gentamicin resistant (GenR) and sensitive (GenS) ExPEC strains...
September 26, 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Marjorie Poggi, Matthias Canault, Marie Favier, Ernest Turro, Paul Saultier, Dorsaf Ghalloussi, Veronique Baccini, Lea Vidal, Anna Mezzapesa, Nadjim Chelghoum, Badreddine Mohand-Oumoussa, Cé Line Falaise, Rémi Favier, Willem H Ouwehand, Mathieu Fiore, Franck Peiretti, Pierre Emmanuel Morange, Noémie Saut, Denis Bernot, Andreas Greinacher, Alan T Nurden, Paquita Nurden, Kathleen Freson, David-Alexandre Trégouët, Hana Raslova, Marie-Christine Alessi
Variants in ETV6, which encodes a transcription repressor of the E26 transformation-specific family, have recently been reported to be responsible for inherited thrombocytopenia and hematologic malignancy. We sequenced the DNA from cases with unexplained dominant thrombocytopenia and identified six likely pathogenic variants in ETV6, of which five are novel. We observed low repressive activity of all tested ETV6 variants and variants located in the E26 transformation-specific binding domain (encoding p.A377T, p...
September 23, 2016: Haematologica
Ruifeng Mao, Dongli Wu, Yefu Wang
Microbial cell surface display has attracted greater attention than ever and has numerous potential applications in biotechnology. With the safety and probiotic properties, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used widely in food and industrial applications. In order to circumvent using genetically modified microorganisms which face low public acceptance and severe regulatory scrutiny, surface-engineered LAB without genetical modification are more preferred. According to the way used to obtain the fusion protein containing the passenger molecule and anchoring domain, the genetic or chemical approaches can be used to construct these surface-engineered LAB...
September 20, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Eunju Im, Jong Bok Yoon, Han-Woong Lee, Kwang Chul Chung
Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is the catalytic subunit of telomerase, an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that elongates telomeric DNA. hTERT displays several extra-telomeric functions that are independent of its telomere-regulatory function, including tumor progression and neuronal cell death regulation. In this study, we evaluated these additional hTERT non-telomeric functions. We determined that hTERT interacts with several 19S and 20S proteasome subunits. The 19S regulatory particle and 20S core particle are part of 26S proteasome complex, which plays a central role in ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Jennie Sjöhamn, Petra Båth, Richard Neutze, Kristina Hedfalk
Protein:protein interactions play key functional roles in the molecular machinery of the cell. A major challenge for structural biology is to gain high-resolution structural insight into how membrane protein function is regulated by protein:protein interactions. To this end we present a method to express, detect and purify stable membrane protein complexes that are suitable for further structural characterization. Our approach utilizes bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), whereby each protein of an interaction pair is fused to non-fluorescent fragments of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) that combine and mature as the complex is formed...
September 19, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Lisa H Tostanoski, Yu-Chieh Chiu, Joshua M Gammon, Thomas Simon, James I Andorko, Jonathan S Bromberg, Christopher M Jewell
Many experimental therapies for autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), aim to bias T cells toward tolerogenic phenotypes without broad suppression. However, the link between local signal integration in lymph nodes (LNs) and the specificity of systemic tolerance is not well understood. We used intra-LN injection of polymer particles to study tolerance as a function of signals in the LN microenvironment. In a mouse MS model, intra-LN introduction of encapsulated myelin self-antigen and a regulatory signal (rapamycin) permanently reversed paralysis after one treatment during peak disease...
September 13, 2016: Cell Reports
C D Pandya, N Hoda, A Crider, D Peter, A Kutiyanawalla, S Kumar, A O Ahmed, G Turecki, C M Hernandez, A V Terry, A Pillai
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are two signaling molecules that have important regulatory roles in the development and plasticity of neural circuits that are known to be altered in depression. However, the mechanism by which 5-HT regulates BDNF signaling is unknown. In the present study, we found that 5-HT treatment increases BDNF receptor, TrkB (tropomyosin related kinase B), levels in mouse primary cortical neurons via a Rac1 (RAS-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1)-dependent mechanism...
September 13, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Doris Hinger, Fabrice Navarro, Andres Käch, Jean-Sébastien Thomann, Frédérique Mittler, Anne-Claude Couffin, Caroline Maake
BACKGROUND: Photosensitizers are used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) to destruct tumor cells, however, their limited solubility and specificity hampers routine use, which may be overcome by encapsulation. Several promising novel nanoparticulate drug carriers including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, metallic nanoparticles and lipid nanocomposites have been developed. However, many of them contain components that would not meet safety standards of regulatory bodies and due to difficulties of the manufacturing processes, reproducibility and scale up procedures these drugs may eventually not reach the clinics...
2016: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Laura D Gallego, Medini Ghodgaonkar Steger, Anton A Polyansky, Tobias Schubert, Bojan Zagrovic, Ning Zheng, Tim Clausen, Franz Herzog, Alwin Köhler
Cotranscriptional ubiquitination of histone H2B is key to gene regulation. The yeast E3 ubiquitin ligase Bre1 (human RNF20/40) pairs with the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Rad6 to monoubiquitinate H2B at Lys123. How this single lysine residue on the nucleosome core particle (NCP) is targeted by the Rad6-Bre1 machinery is unknown. Using chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry, we identified the functional interfaces of Rad6, Bre1, and NCPs in a defined in vitro system. The Bre1 RING domain cross-links exclusively with distinct regions of histone H2B and H2A, indicating a spatial alignment of Bre1 with the NCP acidic patch...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sneha Gautam, Ankit Yadav, Chuen-Jinn Tsai, Prashant Kumar
Natural and human activities generate a significant amount of PM2.5 (particles ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) into the surrounding atmospheric environments. Because of their small size, they can remain suspended for a relatively longer time in the air than coarse particles and thus can travel long distances in the atmosphere. PM2.5 is one of the key indicators of pollution and known to cause numerous types of respiratory and lung-related diseases. Due to poor implementation of regulations and a time lag in introducing the vehicle technology, levels of PM2...
August 31, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Irena Zurnic, Sylvia Hütter, Ute Rzeha, Nicole Stanke, Juliane Reh, Erik Müllers, Martin V Hamann, Tobias Kern, Gesche K Gerresheim, Fabian Lindel, Erik Serrao, Paul Lesbats, Alan N Engelman, Peter Cherepanov, Dirk Lindemann
Unlike for other retroviruses, only a few host cell factors that aid the replication of foamy viruses (FVs) via interaction with viral structural components are known. Using a yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) screen with prototype FV (PFV) Gag protein as bait we identified human polo-like kinase 2 (hPLK2), a member of cell cycle regulatory kinases, as a new interactor of PFV capsids. Further Y2H studies confirmed interaction of PFV Gag with several PLKs of both human and rat origin. A consensus Ser-Thr/Ser-Pro (S-T/S-P) motif in Gag, which is conserved among primate FVs and phosphorylated in PFV virions, was essential for recognition by PLKs...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Linda Gräßel, Laura Aline Fast, Konstanze D Scheffer, Fatima Boukhallouk, Gilles A Spoden, Stefan Tenzer, Klaus Boller, Ruzica Bago, Sundaresan Rajesh, Michael Overduin, Fedor Berditchevski, Luise Florin
Human papillomaviruses enter host cells via a clathrin-independent endocytic pathway involving tetraspanin proteins. However, post-endocytic trafficking required for virus capsid disassembly remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that the early trafficking pathway of internalised HPV particles involves tetraspanin CD63, syntenin-1 and ESCRT-associated adaptor protein ALIX. Following internalisation, viral particles are found in CD63-positive endosomes recruiting syntenin-1, a CD63-interacting adaptor protein...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jason J Howard
Due to problems with wear particle generation and subsequent loosening using conventional metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacements, there has been a shift toward alternative bearing systems, including metal-on-metal (MoM), for younger, more active patients with degenerative joint disease. Based on positive results from early short-term clinical studies, MoM hip replacements were readily adopted by orthopedic surgeons with thousands being implanted worldwide over the past decade. Unacceptably high revision rates reported by two national joint registries called into question the rigorousness of the regulatory approval process for these implants, particularly with respect to premarket data requirements to prove safety, effectiveness, and the appropriateness of the regulatory pathway chosen...
2016: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"