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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331097/loss-of-the-human-cytomegalovirus-us16-protein-abrogates-virus-entry-into-endothelial-and-epithelial-cells-by-reducing-the-virion-content-of-the-pentamer
#1
Anna Luganini, Noemi Cavaletto, Stefania Raimondo, Stefano Geuna, Giorgio Gribaudo
The Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US12 gene family encodes a group of predicted seven-transmembrane proteins whose functions have yet to be established. While inactivation of individual US12 members in laboratory strains of HCMV does not affect viral replication in fibroblasts, disruption of the US16 gene in the low-passage TR strain prevents viral growth in endothelial and epithelial cells. In these cells, the US16-null viruses fail to express IE, E, and L viral proteins due to a defect which occurs prior to IE gene expression...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322792/molecular-chaperones-of-the-hsp70-family-assist-in-the-assembly-of-20s-proteasomes
#2
Lindsay J Hammack, Kyle Firestone, William Chang, Andrew R Kusmierczyk
The eukaryotic 26S proteasome is a large protease comprised of two major sub assemblies, the 20S proteasome, or core particle (CP), and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). Assembly of the CP and RP is assisted by an expanding list of dedicated assembly factors. For the CP, this includes Ump1 and the heterodimeric Pba1-Pba2 and Pba3-Pba4 proteins. It is not known how many additional proteins that assist in proteasome biogenesis remain to be discovered. Here, we demonstrate that two members of the Hsp70 family in yeast, Ssa1 and Ssa2, play a direct role in CP assembly...
March 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294971/exploring-the-functions-of-9-lipoxygenase-dklox3-in-ultrastructural-changes-and-hormonal-stress-response-during-persimmon-fruit-storage
#3
Kun Meng, Yali Hou, Ye Han, Qiuyan Ban, Yiheng He, Jiangtao Suo, Jingping Rao
Lipoxygenase (LOX) initiates the hydroperoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and is involved in multiple physiological processes. In this study, investigation of various microscopic techniques showed that the fruit peel cellular microstructure of the two persimmon cultivars differed after 12 days of storage, resulting in fruit weight loss and an increased number and depth of microcracks. Analysis of subcellular localization revealed that greater amounts of DkLOX3-immunolabelled gold particles accumulated in "Fupingjianshi" than in "Ganmaokui" during storage...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274239/occupational-exposure-to-particles-and-mitochondrial-dna-relevance-for-blood-pressure
#4
Yiyi Xu, Huiqi Li, Maria Hedmer, Mohammad Bakhtiar Hossain, Håkan Tinnerberg, Karin Broberg, Maria Albin
BACKGROUND: Particle exposure is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a primary target for oxidative stress generated by particle exposure. We aimed to elucidate the effects of occupational exposure to particle-containing welding fumes on different biomarkers of mtDNA function, and in turn, explore if they modify the association between particle exposure and cardiovascular response, measured as blood pressure. METHODS: We investigated 101 welders and 127 controls (all non-smoking males) from southern Sweden...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255608/solubility-of-tin-in-aqueous-media-implications-for-regulatory-ecotoxicity-testing
#5
Iain Wilson, Adam Peters, Graham Merrington, Jeremy Pearce, Jonathan Rickwood, Paul Cusack, Kay Nimmo
Effects caused in ecotoxicity tests by physical factors due to precipitated particles cannot be used for classification in Europe under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). For tin (Sn), results from ecotoxicity tests have been observed to be difficult to interpret in regard to exposures of dissolved Sn. Experiments were undertaken with Sn(IV) chloride at 2-2000 µg L(-1) in aquatic test media of differing pHs and hardness. A predictive Sn precipitation model was derived using these data and speciation modelling...
March 2, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254518/effect-of-modeled-microgravity-on-radiation-induced-adaptive-response-of-root-growth-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#6
Chenguang Deng, Ting Wang, Jingjing Wu, Wei Xu, Huasheng Li, Min Liu, Lijun Wu, Jinying Lu, Po Bian
Space particles have an inevitable impact on organisms during space missions; radio-adaptive response (RAR) is a critical radiation effect due to both low-dose background and sudden high-dose radiation exposure during solar storms. Although it is relevant to consider RAR within the context of microgravity, another major space environmental factor, there is no existing evidence as to its effects on RAR. In the present study, we established an experimental method for detecting the effects of gamma-irradiation on the primary root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana, in which RAR of root growth was significantly induced by several dose combinations...
February 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253224/malignant-mesothelioma-mortality-united-states-1999-2015
#7
Jacek M Mazurek, Girija Syamlal, John M Wood, Scott A Hendricks, Ainsley Weston
Malignant mesothelioma is a neoplasm associated with occupational and environmental inhalation exposure to asbestos* fibers and other elongate mineral particles (EMPs) (1-3). Patients have a median survival of approximately 1 year from the time of diagnosis (1). The latency period from first causative exposure to malignant mesothelioma development typically ranges from 20 to 40 years but can be as long as 71 years (2,3). Hazardous occupational exposures to asbestos fibers and other EMPs have occurred in a variety of industrial operations, including mining and milling, manufacturing, shipbuilding and repair, and construction (3)...
March 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250712/reliable-nanomaterial-classification-of-powders-using-the-volume-specific-surface-area-method
#8
Wendel Wohlleben, Johannes Mielke, Alvise Bianchin, Antoine Ghanem, Harald Freiberger, Hubert Rauscher, Marion Gemeinert, Vasile-Dan Hodoroaba
The volume-specific surface area (VSSA) of a particulate material is one of two apparently very different metrics recommended by the European Commission for a definition of "nanomaterial" for regulatory purposes: specifically, the VSSA metric may classify nanomaterials and non-nanomaterials differently than the median size in number metrics, depending on the chemical composition, size, polydispersity, shape, porosity, and aggregation of the particles in the powder. Here we evaluate the extent of agreement between classification by electron microscopy (EM) and classification by VSSA on a large set of diverse particulate substances that represent all the anticipated challenges except mixtures of different substances...
2017: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243125/carfilzomib-boosted-combination-therapy-for-relapsed-multiple-myeloma
#9
REVIEW
Raphael E Steiner, Elisabet E Manasanch
Carfilzomib is a proteasome inhibitor that binds selectively and irreversibly to the 20S proteasome, the proteolytic core particle within the 26S proteasome, resulting in the accumulation of proteasome substrates and ultimately growth arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells. The development and ultimate approval of this medication by regulatory agencies has been an important step toward improving clinical outcomes in multiple myeloma. Although initially approved as a single agent for the treatment of multiply relapsed and/or refractory myeloma, in the USA, it is now widely used in the early relapse setting in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242456/the-proangiogenic-potential-of-a-novel-calcium-releasing-composite-biomaterial-orthotopic-in-vivo-evaluation
#10
Hugo Oliveira, Sylvain Catros, Oscar Castano, Sylvie Rey, Robin Siadous, Douglas Clift, Joan Marti-Munoz, Marc Batista, Reine Bareille, Josep Planell, Elisabeth Engel, Joëlle Amédée
Insufficient angiogenesis remains a major hurdle in current bone tissue engineering strategies. An extensive body of work has focused on the use of angiogenic factors or endothelial progenitor cells. However, these approaches are inherently complex, in terms of regulatory and methodologic implementation, and present a high cost. We have recently demonstrate the potential of electrospun poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fiber-based membranes, containing calcium phosphate (CaP) ormoglass particles, to elicit angiogenesis in vivo, in a subcutaneous model in mice...
February 24, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242049/high-density-lipoproteins-are-modulators-of-protease-activity-implications-in-inflammation-complement-activation-and-atherothrombosis
#11
REVIEW
Scott M Gordon, Alan T Remaley
High density lipoproteins (HDL) represent a compositionally diverse population of particles in the circulation, containing a wide variety of lipids and proteins. Gene ontology functional analysis of the 96 commonly identified HDL binding proteins reveals that almost half of these proteins are either proteases or have known roles in protease regulation. Here, we discuss the activities of some of these proteins in regard to their roles in regulating proteases involved in inflammation, coagulation, and complement activation, particularly in the context of atherosclerosis...
November 16, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213379/slowed-decay-of-mrnas-enhances-platelet-specific-translation
#12
Eric W Mills, Rachel Green, Nicholas T Ingolia
Platelets are anucleate cytoplasmic fragments that lack genomic DNA, but continue to synthesize protein using a pool of mRNAs, ribosomes, and regulatory small RNAs inherited from the precursor megakaryocyte (MK). The regulatory processes that shape the platelet transcriptome and the full scope of platelet translation have remained elusive. Using RNA-Seq and ribosome profiling of primary human platelets, we show the platelet transcriptome encompasses a subset of transcripts detected by RNA-Seq analysis of in vitro derived MK cells and these platelet-enriched transcripts are broadly occupied by ribosomes...
February 17, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208333/stochastic-liouville-equation-for-particles-driven-by-dichotomous-environmental-noise
#13
Paul C Bressloff
We analyze the stochastic dynamics of a large population of noninteracting particles driven by a global environmental input in the form of a dichotomous Markov noise process (DMNP). The population density of particle states evolves according to a stochastic Liouville equation with respect to different realizations of the DMNP. We then exploit the connection with previous work on diffusion in randomly switching environments, in order to derive moment equations for the distribution of solutions to the stochastic Liouville equation...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177948/silicosis-and-autoimmunity
#14
Suni Lee, Hiroaki Hayashi, Hidenori Mastuzaki, Naoko Kumagai-Takei, Takemi Otsuki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Of the various environmental, occupational, and medical substances that cause dysregulation of autoimmunity, the effects and causative mechanisms of silica particles and asbestos fibers are discussed in this review. RECENT FINDINGS: With respect to silica, many epidemiological studies have shown a significant association between silica exposure and the occurrence of autoimmune diseases. Although the importance of the NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NALP3) inflammasome as the initial immune reaction against silica particles has been identified, the mechanisms involved that lead to various autoimmune diseases in patients exposed to silica remain largely unknown...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163227/comparison-of-the-physical-characteristics-of-monodisperse-non-ionic-surfactant-vesicles-nisv-prepared-using-different-manufacturing-methods
#15
Mohammad A Obeid, Ayman M Gebril, Rothwelle J Tate, Alexander B Mullen, Valerie A Ferro
Non-ionic surfactant vesicles (NISV) are synthetic membrane vesicles formed by self-assembly of a non-ionic surfactant, often in a mixture with cholesterol and a charged chemical species. Different methods can be used to manufacture NISV, with the majority of these requiring bulk mixing of two phases. This mixing process is time-consuming and leads to the preparation of large and highly dispersed vesicles, which affects the consistency of the final product and could hinder subsequent regulatory approval. In this study, we have compared the physical characteristics of NISV prepared using two conventional methods (thin-film hydration method and heating method) with a recently introduced microfluidic method...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161413/relaxed-and-active-thin-filament-structures-a-new-structural-basis-for-the-regulatory-mechanism
#16
Danielle M Paul, John M Squire, Edward P Morris
The structures of muscle thin filaments reconstituted using skeletal actin and cardiac troponin and tropomyosin have been determined with and without bound Ca(2+) using electron microscopy and reference-free single particle analysis. The resulting density maps have been fitted with atomic models of actin, tropomyosin and troponin showing that: (i) the polarity of the troponin complex is consistent with our 2009 findings, with large shape changes in troponin between the two states; (ii) without Ca(2+) the tropomyosin pseudo-repeats all lie at almost equivalent positions in the 'blocked' position on actin (over subdomains 1 and 2); (iii) in the active state the tropomyosin pseudo-repeats are all displaced towards subdomains 3 and 4 of actin, but the extent of displacement varies within the regulatory unit depending upon the axial location of the pseudo-repeats with respect to troponin...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159641/microflow-imaging-analyses-reflect-mechanisms-of-aggregate-formation-comparing-protein-particle-data-sets-using-the-kullback-leibler-divergence
#17
Nathaniel R Maddux, Austin L Daniels, Theodore W Randolph
Subvisible particles in therapeutic protein formulations are an increasing manufacturing and regulatory concern because of their potential to cause adverse immune responses. Flow imaging microscopy is used extensively to detect subvisible particles and investigate product deviations, typically by comparing imaging data using histograms of particle descriptors. Such an approach discards much information and requires effort to interpret differences, which is problematic when comparing many data sets. We propose to compare imaging data using the Kullback-Leibler divergence, an information theoretic measure of the difference of distributions (Kullback S, Leibler RA...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157115/radiation-shielding-analysis-of-a-special-linear-accelerator-for-electron-beam-and%C3%A2-x-ray
#18
W G Kang, S H Pyo, T S Alkhuraiji, B S Han, C M Kang
The King AbdulAziz City for Science & Technology in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia plans to build a 10 MeV, 15 kW linear accelerator (LINAC) for electron beam and X-ray. The accelerator will be supplied by EB Tech, Republic of Korea, and the design and construction of the accelerator building will be conducted in the cooperation with EB Tech. This report presents the shielding analysis of the accelerator building using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP). In order to improve the accuracy in estimating deep radiation penetration and to reduce computation time, various variance reduction techniques, including the weight window (WW) method, the deterministic transport (DXTRAN) spheres were considered...
January 31, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143946/cellular-proteomes-drive-tissue-specific-regulation-of-the-heat-shock-response
#19
Jian Ma, Christopher E Grant, Rosemary N Plagens, Lindsey N Barrett, Karen S Kim Guisbert, Eric Guisbert
The heat shock response (HSR) is a cellular stress response that senses protein misfolding and restores protein folding homeostasis, or proteostasis. We previously identified an HSR regulatory network in Caenorhabditis elegans consisting of highly conserved genes that have important cellular roles in maintaining proteostasis. Unexpectedly, the effects of these genes on the HSR are distinctly tissue-specific. Here, we explore this apparent discrepancy and find that muscle-specific regulation of the HSR by the TRiC/CCT chaperonin is not driven by an enrichment of TRiC/CCT in muscle, but rather by the levels of one of its most abundant substrates, actin...
March 10, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116870/multicomponent-injectable-hydrogels-for-antigen-specific-tolerogenic-immune-modulation
#20
Catia S Verbeke, Susana Gordo, David A Schubert, Sarah A Lewin, Rajiv M Desai, Jessica Dobbins, Kai W Wucherpfennig, David J Mooney
Biomaterial scaffolds that enrich and modulate immune cells in situ can form the basis for potent immunotherapies to elicit immunity or reëstablish tolerance. Here, the authors explore the potential of an injectable, porous hydrogel to induce a regulatory T cell (Treg) response by delivering a peptide antigen to dendritic cells in a noninflammatory context. Two methods are described for delivering the BDC peptide from pore-forming alginate gels in the nonobese diabetic mouse model of type 1 diabetes: encapsulation in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) microparticles, or direct conjugation to the alginate polymer...
January 24, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
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