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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214583/prospects-of-pluripotent-and-adult-stem-cells-for-rare-diseases
#1
Javier García-Castro, Ilyas Singeç
Rare diseases are highly diverse and complex regarding molecular underpinning and clinical manifestation and afflict millions of patients worldwide. The lack of appropriate model systems with face and construct validity and the limited availability of live tissues and cells from patients has largely hampered the understanding of underlying disease mechanisms. As a consequence, there are no adequate treatment options available for the vast majority of rare diseases. Over the last decade, remarkable progress in pluripotent and adult stem cell biology and the advent of powerful genomic technologies opened up exciting new avenues for the investigation, diagnosis, and personalized therapy of intractable human diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202032/biomass-recycling-and-earth-s-early-phosphorus-cycle
#2
Michael A Kipp, Eva E Stüeken
Phosphorus sets the pace of marine biological productivity on geological time scales. Recent estimates of Precambrian phosphorus levels suggest a severe deficit of this macronutrient, with the depletion attributed to scavenging by iron minerals. We propose that the size of the marine phosphorus reservoir was instead constrained by muted liberation of phosphorus during the remineralization of biomass. In the modern ocean, most biomass-bound phosphorus gets aerobically recycled; but a dearth of oxidizing power in Earth's early oceans would have limited the stoichiometric capacity for remineralization, particularly during the Archean...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198284/facilitating-autism-research
#3
Deborah Fein, Molly Helt
Early autism research focused on behavior and cognition. In recent decades, the pace of research has accelerated, and advances in imaging and genetics have allowed the accumulation of biological data. Nevertheless, a coherent picture of the syndrome at either phenotypic or biological level has not emerged. We see two fundamental obstacles to progress in basic understanding of autism. First, the two defining features (impairment in social interactions and communication, and restricted, repetitive behaviors and interests) are historically seen as integrally related...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193445/late-adoptions-in-adolescence-can-attachment-and-emotion-regulation-influence-behaviour-problems-a-controlled-study-using-a-moderation-approach
#4
Cecilia Serena Pace, Simona Di Folco, Viviana Guerriero
A growing body of research suggests that, compared to normative adolescence, adoptive adolescence could be considered a specific risk condition characterized by more psychiatric problems, attachment insecurity, and emotional regulation difficulties as consequences of negative experiences in preadoption relationships. The current study explores (a) a moderation model of adoption status on the association between attachment representations (secure, dismissing, preoccupied, and disorganized) and behavioural problems and (b) a moderation model of adoption status on the association between emotion regulation processes (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) and behavioural problems...
November 28, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187165/imagej2-imagej-for-the-next-generation-of-scientific-image-data
#5
Curtis T Rueden, Johannes Schindelin, Mark C Hiner, Barry E DeZonia, Alison E Walter, Ellen T Arena, Kevin W Eliceiri
BACKGROUND: ImageJ is an image analysis program extensively used in the biological sciences and beyond. Due to its ease of use, recordable macro language, and extensible plug-in architecture, ImageJ enjoys contributions from non-programmers, amateur programmers, and professional developers alike. Enabling such a diversity of contributors has resulted in a large community that spans the biological and physical sciences. However, a rapidly growing user base, diverging plugin suites, and technical limitations have revealed a clear need for a concerted software engineering effort to support emerging imaging paradigms, to ensure the software's ability to handle the requirements of modern science...
November 29, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186119/genetically-programmed-chiral-organoborane-synthesis
#6
S B Jennifer Kan, Xiongyi Huang, Yosephine Gumulya, Kai Chen, Frances H Arnold
Recent advances in enzyme engineering and design have expanded nature's catalytic repertoire to functions that are new to biology. However, only a subset of these engineered enzymes can function in living systems. Finding enzymatic pathways that form chemical bonds that are not found in biology is particularly difficult in the cellular environment, as this depends on the discovery not only of new enzyme activities, but also of reagents that are both sufficiently reactive for the desired transformation and stable in vivo...
November 29, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171160/joining-the-dots-between-omics-and-environmental-management
#7
Kenneth M Y Leung
With the rapid advancement of DNA sequencing technologies and substantial reduction of their running costs, environmental genomics and transcriptomics become more affordable and popular in environmental toxicology. In parallel, there are also speedy improvements of mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, enabling high-throughput analyses of proteins and metabolites in biological samples and promoting research studies in proteomics and metabolomics. By applying these high throughput omics technologies, researchers can quickly generate an unprecedentedly vast amount of biological data that may be useful to environmental management...
November 24, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170953/computational-approaches-on-stoichiometric-and-kinetic-modeling-for-efficient-strain-design
#8
Mohammad Mazharul Islam, Rajib Saha
Engineering biological systems that are capable of overproducing products of interest is the ultimate goal of any biotechnology application. To this end, stoichiometric (or steady state) and kinetic models are increasingly becoming available for a variety of organisms including prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and microbial communities. This ever-accelerating pace of such model reconstructions has also spurred the development of optimization-based strain design techniques. This chapter highlights a number of such frameworks developed in recent years in order to generate testable hypotheses (in terms of genetic interventions), thus addressing the challenges in metabolic engineering...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165084/advances-on-automatic-speech-analysis-for-early-detection-of-alzheimer-disease-a-non-linear-multi-task-approach
#9
K Lopez-de-Ipina, U Martinez-de-Lizarduy, P M Calvo, Jiri Mekyska, B Beitia, N Barroso, A Estanga, M Tainta, M Ecay-Torres
Nowadays proper detection of cognitive impairment has become a challenge for the scientific community. Alzheimer's Disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia, has a high prevalence that is increasing at a fast pace towards epidemic level. In the not-so-distant future this fact could have a dramatic social and economic impact. In this scenario, an early and accurate diagnosis of AD could help to decrease its effects on patients, relatives and society. Over the last decades there have been useful advances not only in classic assessment techniques, but also in novel non-invasive screening methodologies...
November 20, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163665/chlorinative-stress-in-age-related-diseases-a-literature-review
#10
REVIEW
Marco Casciaro, Eleonora Di Salvo, Elisabetta Pace, Elvira Ventura-Spagnolo, Michele Navarra, Sebastiano Gangemi
Aging is an agglomerate of biological long-lasting processes that result being inevitable. Main actors in this scenario are both long-term inflammation and oxidative stress. It has been proved that oxidative stress induce alteration in proteins and this fact itself is critically important in the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to diseases typical of aging. Among reactive species, chlorine ones such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl) are cytotoxic oxidants produced by activated neutrophils during chronic inflammation processes...
2017: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153163/a-100-year-review-methods-and-impact-of-genetic-selection-in-dairy-cattle-from-daughter-dam-comparisons-to-deep-learning-algorithms
#11
K A Weigel, P M VanRaden, H D Norman, H Grosu
In the early 1900s, breed society herdbooks had been established and milk-recording programs were in their infancy. Farmers wanted to improve the productivity of their cattle, but the foundations of population genetics, quantitative genetics, and animal breeding had not been laid. Early animal breeders struggled to identify genetically superior families using performance records that were influenced by local environmental conditions and herd-specific management practices. Daughter-dam comparisons were used for more than 30 yr and, although genetic progress was minimal, the attention given to performance recording, genetic theory, and statistical methods paid off in future years...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152173/state-space-mark-recapture-estimates-reveal-a-recent-decline-in-abundance-of-north-atlantic-right-whales
#12
Richard M Pace, Peter J Corkeron, Scott D Kraus
North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis Müller 1776) present an interesting problem for abundance and trend estimation in marine wildlife conservation. They are long lived, individually identifiable, highly mobile, and one of the rarest of cetaceans. Individuals are annually resighted at different rates, primarily due to varying stay durations among several principal habitats within a large geographic range. To date, characterizations of abundance have been produced that use simple accounting procedures with differing assumptions about mortality...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143810/next-generation-pacemakers-from-small-devices-to-biological-pacemakers
#13
REVIEW
Eugenio Cingolani, Joshua I Goldhaber, Eduardo Marbán
Electrogenesis in the heart begins in the sinoatrial node and proceeds down the conduction system to originate the heartbeat. Conduction system disorders lead to slow heart rates that are insufficient to support the circulation, necessitating implantation of electronic pacemakers. The typical electronic pacemaker consists of a subcutaneous generator and battery module attached to one or more endocardial leads. New leadless pacemakers can be implanted directly into the right ventricular apex, providing single-chamber pacing without a subcutaneous generator...
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138086/eugenol-derivatives-prospectively-inhibit-l-asparaginase-a-heady-target-protein-of%C3%A2-salmonella-typhimurium
#14
Archana Vimal, Anubhuti Jha, Awanish Kumar
Salmonella typhimurium is the causative agent of severe human infections and mortality throughout the world. Pacing advent of new resistance mechanisms in this microorganism exists, rendering treatment of infectious disease difficult. Ciprofloxacin is no longer considered the first choice of antimicrobial agent due to the emergence of resistance. Therefore, the need for scenario is to find out novel drug target and its potential inhibitor to fight against this pathogen. The present study was undertaken to find out a novel drug target and its inhibitor for improving the current therapeutic methods for treating Salmonella infections...
November 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120346/inverse-statistical-physics-of-protein-sequences-a-key-issues-review
#15
S Cocco, Christoph Feinauer, Matteo Figliuzzi, Remi Monasson, Martin Weigt
In the course of evolution, proteins undergo important changes in their amino-acid sequences, while their three-dimensional folded structure and their biological function remain remarkably conserved. Thanks to modern sequencing techniques, sequence data accumulate at unprecedented pace. This provides large sets of so-called homologous, i.e.~evolutionarily related protein sequences, to which methods of inverse statistical physics can be applied. Using sequence data as the basis for the inference of Boltzmann distributions from samples of microscopic configurations or observables, it is possible to extract information about evolutionary constraints and thus protein function and structure...
November 9, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093084/characterization-of-elements-regulating-the-nuclear-to-cytoplasmic-translocation-of-icp0-in-late-hsv-1-infection
#16
Subodh Kumar Samrat, Binh L Ha, Yi Zheng, Haidong Gu
Infected cell protein 0 (ICP0) of HSV-1 is an immediate early protein containing a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase. It targets several host factors for proteasomal degradation and subsequently activates viral expression. ICP0 has a nuclear localization sequence and functions in the nucleus at early infection. However, later in infection, ICP0 is found solely in the cytoplasm. The molecular mechanism and biological function of ICP0 nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation is not well understood. In this study, we sought to characterize elements important for this translocation...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059248/clock-dependent-and-system-driven-oscillators-interact-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nuclei-to-pace-mammalian-circadian-rhythms
#17
Karine Abitbol, Ségolène Debiesse, François Molino, Pietro Mesirca, Isabelle Bidaud, Yoichi Minami, Matteo E Mangoni, Kazuhiro Yagita, Patrice Mollard, Xavier Bonnefont
Circadian clocks drive biological rhythms with a period of approximately 24 hours and keep in time with the outside world through daily resetting by environmental cues. While this external entrainment has been extensively investigated in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the role of internal systemic rhythms, including daily fluctuations in core temperature or circulating hormones remains debated. Here, we show that lactating mice, which exhibit dampened systemic rhythms, possess normal molecular clockwork but impaired rhythms in both heat shock response gene expression and electrophysiological output in their SCN...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058948/pace-study-real-life-pasi-100-response-with-biological-agents-in-moderate-severe-psoriasis
#18
Carlo Giovanni Carrera, Paolo Dapavo, Piergiorgio Malagoli, Luigi Naldi, Luisa Arancio, Francesca Gaiani, Colin Gerard Egan, Marco Di Mercurio, Angelo Cattaneo
BACKGROUND: Few studies have compared the use of different biologics in a real-life setting in plaque psoriasis patients. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of biologics in psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis patients. METHODS: Patients treated with adalimumab, etanercept and ustekinumab for at least 16 weeks were included. Achievement of PASI90/100 response and time taken to achieve PASI90/100 response were measured. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of psoriasis localization on achievement of PASI100 response...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045685/micrornas-and-complex-diseases-from-experimental-results-to-computational-models
#19
Xing Chen, Di Xie, Qi Zhao, Zhu-Hong You
Plenty of microRNAs (miRNAs) were discovered at a rapid pace in plants, green algae, viruses and animals. As one of the most important components in the cell, miRNAs play a growing important role in various essential and important biological processes. For the recent few decades, amounts of experimental methods and computational models have been designed and implemented to identify novel miRNA-disease associations. In this review, the functions of miRNAs, miRNA-target interactions, miRNA-disease associations and some important publicly available miRNA-related databases were discussed in detail...
October 17, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034606/do-mid-crown-enamel-formation-front-angles-reflect-factors-linked-to-the-pace-of-primate-growth-and-development
#20
Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg, James D Pampush, Mackie C O'Hara, Song Xing, W Scott McGraw, Rebecca J Ferrell
Enamel formation front (EFF) angles represent the leading edge of enamel matrix secretion at particular points in time. These angles are influenced by rates of enamel extension (the rates at which tooth crowns grow in height), rates of enamel matrix secretion and the angles that prisms make with the enamel-dentine junction. Previous research suggests, but has not yet established, that these angles reflect aspects of primate biology related to their pace of growth and development, most notably brain and body size...
October 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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