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Biology pacing

Ipshita Zutshi, Mark P Brandon, Maylin L Fu, Macayla L Donegan, Jill K Leutgeb, Stefan Leutgeb
Biological oscillations can be controlled by a small population of rhythmic pacemaker cells, or in the brain, they also can emerge from complex cellular and circuit-level interactions. Whether and how these mechanisms are combined to give rise to oscillatory patterns that govern cognitive function are not well understood. For example, the activity of hippocampal networks is temporally coordinated by a 7- to 9-Hz local field potential (LFP) theta rhythm, yet many individual cells decouple from the LFP frequency to oscillate at frequencies ∼1 Hz higher...
April 3, 2018: Current Biology: CB
F Biscarini, P Cozzi, P Orozco-Ter Wengel
The 'omics revolution has made a large amount of sequence data available to researchers and the industry. This has had a profound impact in the field of bioinformatics, stimulating unprecedented advancements in this discipline. Mostly, this is usually looked at from the perspective of human 'omics, in particular human genomics. Plant and animal genomics, however, have also been deeply influenced by next-generation sequencing technologies, with several genomics applications now popular among researchers and the breeding industry...
April 6, 2018: Animal Genetics
Lance J Miller, Jamie A Ivy, Greg A Vicino, Ivana G Schork
To improve the welfare of nonhuman animals under professional care, zoological institutions are continuously utilizing new methods to identify factors that lead to optimal welfare. Comparative methods have historically been used in the field of evolutionary biology but are increasingly being applied in the field of animal welfare. In the current study, data were obtained from direct behavioral observation and institutional records representing 80 individual animals from 34 different species of the order Carnivora...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Robert J Smith, Peter R Nelson, Sarah Jovan, Paul J Hanson, Bruce McCune
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Changing climates are expected to affect the abundance and distribution of global vegetation, especially plants and lichens with an epiphytic lifestyle and direct exposure to atmospheric variation. The study of epiphytes could improve understanding of biological responses to climatic changes, but only if the conditions that elicit physiological performance changes are clearly defined. METHODS: We evaluated individual growth performance of the epiphytic lichen Evernia mesomorpha, an iconic boreal forest indicator species, in the first year of a decade-long experiment featuring whole-ecosystem warming and drying...
February 2018: American Journal of Botany
Steven Footitt, Ziyue Huang, Hülya Ölcer-Footitt, Heather Clay, William E Finch-Savage
The impact of global warming on seed dormancy loss and germination was investigated in Alliaria petiolata (Garlic Mustard), a common woodland/hedge row plant in Eurasia considered invasive in N. America. Increased temperature may have serious implications since seeds of this species germinate and emerge at low temperatures early in spring to establish and grow before canopy development of competing species. Dormancy was evaluated in seeds buried in field soils. Seedling emergence was also investigated in the field, and in a thermogradient tunnel under global warming scenarios representing predicted UK air temperatures through to 2080...
March 23, 2018: Plant Biology
Jason W Shapiro, Catherine Putonti
Bacteriophages are the most abundant and diverse biological entities on the planet, and new phage genomes are being discovered at a rapid pace. As more phage genomes are published, new methods are needed for placing these genomes in an ecological and evolutionary context. Phages are difficult to study by phylogenetic methods, because they exchange genes regularly, and no single gene is conserved across all phages. Here, we demonstrate how gene-level networks can provide a high-resolution view of phage genetic diversity and offer a novel perspective on virus ecology...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Carmela R Guadagno, Brent E Ewers, Cynthia Weinig
A growing body of evidence demonstrates a significant relationship between cellular redox state and circadian rhythms. Each day these two vital components of plant biology influence one another, dictating the pace for metabolism and physiology. Diverse environmental stressors can disrupt this condition and, although plant scientists have made significant progress in re-constructing functional networks of plant stress responses, stress impacts on the clock-redox crosstalk is poorly understood. Inter-connected phenomena such as redox state and metabolism, internal and external environments, cellular homeostasis and rhythms can impede predictive understanding of coordinated regulation of plant stress response...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ivo Iavicoli, Veruscka Leso, Luca Fontana, Edward J Calabrese
The concept of hormesis, as an adaptive response of biological systems to moderate environmental challenges, has raised considerable nano-toxicological interests in view of the rapid pace of production and application of even more innovative nanomaterials and the expected increasing likelihood of environmental and human exposure to low-dose concentrations. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an update of the current knowledge concerning the biphasic dose-responses induced by nanoparticle exposure...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Giovanni Damiani, Chiara Franchi, Paolo Pigatto, Andrea Altomare, Alessia Pacifico, Stephen Petrou, Sebastiano Leone, Maria Caterina Pace, Marco Fiore
AIM: To evaluate the outcomes in biological treatment and quality of life of psoriatic patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treated with new Direct-Acting Antiviral agents (DAAs) compared to pegylated interferon-2α plus ribavirin (P/R) therapy. METHODS: This is a retrospective study involving psoriatic patients in biological therapy who underwent anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment at the Department of Dermatology Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute Milan, Italy from January 2010 to November 2017...
February 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Gunnar von Heijne
My scientific career has taken me from chemistry, via theoretical physics and bioinformatics, to molecular biology and even structural biology. Along the way, serendipity led me to work on problems such as the identification of signal peptides that direct protein trafficking, membrane protein biogenesis, and cotranslational protein folding. I've had some great collaborations that came about because of a stray conversation or from following up on an interesting paper. And I've had the good fortune to be asked to sit on the Nobel Committee for Chemistry, where I am constantly reminded of the amazing pace and often intricate history of scientific discovery...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Birgitte Nilsson, Benni Winding Hansen
Like 41 other calanoid copepods, Acartia tonsa, are capable of inducing embryonic quiescence when experiencing unfavorable environmental conditions. The ecdysone-signaling cascade is known to have a key function in developmental processes like embryogenesis and molting of arthropods, including copepods. We examined the role of ecdysteroid-phosphate phosphatase (EPPase), ecdysone receptor (EcR), ß fushi tarazu transcription factor 1 (ßFTZ-F1), and the ecdysteroid-regulated early gene E74 (E74), which represent different levels of the ecdysone-signaling cascade in our calanoid model organism...
2018: PloS One
Morgan E Levine, Eileen M Crimmins
Increasing life expectancy has been interpreted as improving health of a population. However, mortality is not always a reliable proxy for the pace of aging and could instead reflect achievement in keeping ailing people alive. Using data from NHANES III (1988-1994) and NHANES IV (2007-2010), we examined how biological age, relative to chronological age, changed in the United States between 1988 and 2010, while estimating the contribution of changes in modifiable health behaviors. Results suggest that biological age is lower for more recent periods; however, the degree of improvement varied across age and sex groups...
March 6, 2018: Demography
Vanita Uppada, Mahesh Gokara, Girish Kumar Rasineni
Molecular diagnostics is of critical importance to public health worldwide. It facilitates not only detection and characterization of diseases, but also monitors drug responses, assists in the identification of genetic modifiers and disease susceptibility. Based upon DNA variation, a wide range of molecular-based tests are available to assess/diagnose diseases. The CRISPR-Cas9 system has recently emerged as a versatile tool for biological and medical research. In this system, a single guide RNA (sgRNA) directs the endonuclease Cas9 to a targeted DNA sequence for site-specific manipulation...
May 20, 2018: Gene
Yensi Flores Bueso, Panos Lehouritis, Mark Tangney
The ability to modify existing microbiota at different sites presents enormous potential for local or indirect management of various diseases. Because bacteria can be maintained for lengthy periods in various regions of the body, they represent a platform with enormous potential for targeted production of biomolecules, which offer tremendous promise for therapeutic and diagnostic approaches for various diseases. While biological medicines are currently limited in the clinic to patient administration of exogenously produced biomolecules from engineered cells, in situ production of biomolecules presents enormous scope in medicine and beyond...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Andrew Stirling, Josie Coburn
The purpose of this essay is to critically review the design of methods for ethically robust forms of technology appraisal in the regulation of research and innovation in synthetic biology. It will focus, in particular, on the extent to which cost-benefit analysis offers a basis for informing decisions about which technological pathways to pursue and which to discourage. A further goal is to consider what (if anything) the precautionary principle might offer in enabling better decisions. And this, in turn, raises questions about why mention of precaution can excite accusations of unscientific bias or irrational, "anti-innovation" extremism...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
Vincenzo Formica, Maria Teresa Ionta, Bruno Massidda, Giacomo Vessia, Luigi Maiorino, Rossana Casaretti, Donato Natale, Giuseppe Barberis, Gianfranco Filippelli, Ettore Greco, Livio Blasi, Sergio Mancarella, Anna Russo, Enrico Barbato, Liberato Di Lullo, Mario Roselli
Early switching to de-intensified maintenance regimen is still a matter of debate in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The MARTHA trial, a S.I.C.O.G. phase III randomized trial, compared FOLOFIRI+bevacizumab (B) for 12 cycles (6 months) followed by B for up to 12 months (FOLFIRI +B*12 arm) vs FOLFIRI+B for 6 cycles (3 months) followed by capecitabine+B for 4 cycles followed by B for up to 12 months (FOLFIRI+B*6 arm). Chemotherapy-naïve mCRC patients were randomized, primary endpoint was progression free survival (PFS), with overall survival (OS) as a secondary endpoint...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Joshua Rowland, Artur Akbarov, Akhlaq Maan, James Eales, John Dormer, Maciej Tomaszewski
Ageing of the kidney is a multi-dimensional process that occurs simultaneously at the molecular, cellular, histological, anatomical and physiological level. Nephron number and renal cortical volume decline, renal tubules become atrophic and glomeruli become sclerotic with age. These structural changes are accompanied by a decline in glomerular filtration rate, decreased sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion, reduced urinary concentrating capacity and alterations in the endocrine activity of the kidney...
January 24, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Ruben R G Soares, Alessandra Ricelli, Corrado Fanelli, Domenico Caputo, Giampiero de Cesare, Virginia Chu, M Raquel Aires-Barros, João P Conde
The assurance of food and feed safety, including the identification and effective monitoring of multiple biological and chemical hazards, is a major societal challenge, given the increasing pace at which food commodities are demanded, produced and traded across the globe. Within this context, mycotoxins are globally widespread secondary fungal metabolites, which can contaminate crops either in the field or during storage and have serious human and animal health impacts such as carcinogenic, teratogenic and hepatotoxic effects...
January 31, 2018: Analyst
Eric Pace, Yuanyuan Jiang, Amy Clemens, Tennille Crossman, H P Vasantha Rupasinghe
Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), the predominant anthocyanin in haskap berries (Lonicera caerulea L.), possesses antioxidant and many other biological activities. This study investigated the impact of temperature and pH on the degradation of the C3G-rich haskap fraction. The effect of the thermal degradation products on the viability of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells was also studied in vitro. Using column chromatography, the C3G-rich fraction was isolated from acetone extracts of haskap berries...
January 27, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Clare Pace, Julie Smith-Gagen, Jeff Angermann
Arsenic methylation capacity is associated with metabolic syndrome and its components among highly exposed populations. However, this association has not been investigated in low to moderately exposed populations. Therefore, we investigated arsenic methylation capacity in relation to the clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in a low arsenic exposure population. Additionally, we compared arsenic methylation patterns present in our sample to those of more highly exposed populations. Using logistic regression models adjusted for relevant biological and lifestyle covariates, we report no association between increased arsenic methylation and metabolic syndrome in a population in which arsenic is regulated at 10 ppb in drinking water...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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