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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334154/ethical-issues-of-crispr-technology-and-gene-editing-through-the-lens-of-solidarity
#1
John J Mulvihill, Benjamin Capps, Yann Joly, Tamra Lysaght, Hub A E Zwart, Ruth Chadwick
Background: The avalanche of commentaries on CRISPR-Cas9 technology, a bacterial immune system modified to recognize any short DNA sequence, cut it out, and insert a new one, has rekindled hopes for gene therapy and other applications and raised criticisms of engineering genes in future generations. Sources of data: This discussion draws on articles that emphasize ethics, identified partly through PubMed and Google, 2014-2016. Areas of agreement: CRISPR-Cas9 has taken the pace and prospects for genetic discovery and applications to a high level, stoking anticipation for somatic gene engineering to help patients...
February 23, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301747/single-cell-transcriptional-analysis
#2
Angela R Wu, Jianbin Wang, Aaron M Streets, Yanyi Huang
Despite being a relatively recent technological development, single-cell transcriptional analysis through high-throughput sequencing has already been used in hundreds of fruitful studies to make exciting new biological discoveries that would otherwise be challenging or even impossible. Consequently, this has fueled a virtuous cycle of even greater interest in the field and compelled development of further improved technical methodologies and approaches. Thanks to the combined efforts of the research community, including the fields of biochemistry and molecular biology, technology and instrumentation, data science, computational biology, and bioinformatics, the single-cell RNA-sequencing field is advancing at a pace that is both astounding and unprecedented...
March 16, 2017: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293165/-pyr-1-apelin-13-1-12-is-a-biologically-active-ace2-metabolite-of-the-endogenous-cardiovascular-peptide-pyr-1-apelin-13
#3
Peiran Yang, Rhoda E Kuc, Aimée L Brame, Alex Dyson, Mervyn Singer, Robert C Glen, Joseph Cheriyan, Ian B Wilkinson, Anthony P Davenport, Janet J Maguire
Aims: Apelin is a predicted substrate for ACE2, a novel therapeutic target. Our aim was to demonstrate the endogenous presence of the putative ACE2 product [Pyr(1)]apelin-13(1-12) in human cardiovascular tissues and to confirm it retains significant biological activity for the apelin receptor in vitro and in vivo. The minimum active apelin fragment was also investigated. Methods and Results: [Pyr(1)]apelin-13 incubated with recombinant human ACE2 resulted in de novo generation of [Pyr(1)]apelin-13(1-12) identified by mass spectrometry...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277904/genome-wide-functional-analysis-in-candida-albicans
#4
Thabiso E Motaung, Ruan Ells, Carolina H Pohl, Jacobus Albertyn, Toi J Tsilo
Candida albicans is an important etiological agent of superficial and life-threatening infections in individuals with compromised immune systems. To date, we know of several overlapping genetic networks that govern virulence attributes in this fungal pathogen. Classical use of deletion mutants has led to the discovery of numerous virulence factors over the years, and genome-wide functional analysis has propelled gene discovery at an even faster pace. Indeed, a number of recent studies using large-scale genetic screens followed by genome-wide functional analysis has allowed for the unbiased discovery of many new genes involved in C...
February 8, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277544/long-noncoding-rna-blacat1-indicates-a-poor-prognosis-of-colorectal-cancer-and-affects-cell-proliferation-by-epigenetically-silencing-of-p15
#5
Jun Su, Erbao Zhang, Liang Han, Dandan Yin, Zhili Liu, Xuezhi He, Yuhong Zhang, Feng Lin, Qingfeng Lin, Peiyao Mao, Weidong Mao, Dong Shen
Recently, a novel class of transcripts, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), is being identified at a rapid pace. These RNAs have critical roles in diverse biological processes, including tumorigenesis. One of them, BLACAT1, a cancer-associated long noncoding RNA, exerts regulatory functions in various biological processes in cancer cells, however, the role of BLACAT1 in colon cancer remains unclear. Our experiments showed that increased BLACAT1 was an independent unfavorable prognostic indicator for colorectal cancer, and revealed that BLACAT1 knockdown significantly repressed proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo...
March 9, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270811/animal-models-of-leptospirosis-of-mice-and-hamsters
#6
REVIEW
Maria Gomes-Solecki, Ignacio Santecchia, Catherine Werts
Pathogenic Leptospira sp. are spirochetal bacteria responsible for leptospirosis, an emerging worldwide zoonosis. These spirochetes are very successful pathogens that infect a wide range of hosts such as fish, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and mammals. Transmission occurs when chronically infected animals excrete live bacteria in their urine, contaminating the environment. Leptospira sp. enter their hosts through damaged skin and mucosa. Chronically infected rats and mice are asymptomatic and are considered as important reservoirs of the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263774/biologic-response-modifiers-indications-implications-and-insights
#7
Benjamin P Davis, Zuhair K Ballas
The field of biologic immune-modulators is currently mushrooming at a dizzying pace. While most of these biologics are tested and approved for one or a few indications, their un-anticipated side effects and their off-label use have contributed significantly to our understanding of basic immune mechanisms, of the involvement of cytokines in several apparently non-immunologic diseases, and of the importance of compartmentalized immune responses. In this review, we attempt to give a bird's-eye view of the major biologics and to highlight insights and implications derived from their secondary effects and adverse reactions...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261549/bioengineering-hearts-simple-yet-complex
#8
REVIEW
Doris A Taylor, Rohan B Parikh, Luiz C Sampaio
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we focus on the multiple advancements in the field of cardiovascular regenerative medicine and the state-of-the art of building a heart. An organ is comprised of cells, but cells alone do not comprise an organ. We summarize the components needed, the hurdles, and likely translational steps defining the opportunities for discovery. RECENT FINDINGS: The therapies being developed in regenerative medicine aim not only to repair, but also to regenerate or replace ailing tissues and organs...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256494/total-knee-replacement-in-a-resource-constrained-environment-a-preliminary-report
#9
U E Anyaehie, G O Eyichukwu, C U Nwadinigwe
INTRODUCTION: Total knee replacement surgery is relatively new in Nigeria and available in few centres only. It has been evolving at a slow pace because of the lack of facilities, structures and adequate surgical expertise alongside patient ignorance and poverty. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to review the cases done in a resource constrained institution in Nigeria and report the short term outcomes. METHODOLOGY: All the patients that were booked for Total knee replacement, using same prosthesis over a 40 month period, were recruited into the study...
March 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252620/-mortality-and-risk-factors-for-non-communicable-diseases-in-russia-specific-features-trends-and-prognosis
#10
S A Boytsov, A D Deev, S A Shalnova
In the Russian Federation, the increase in all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality began in the 1960s and lasted almost continuously until 2003. In our country, the characteristics of mortality are its substantially higher rates among men and a large regional variability, which is associated with economic, climatic, and geographic factors. Urbanization coupled with dietary changes and the higher prevalence of hypertension is the most likely initial impetus to the rise in mortality rates. The subsequent increase in mortality can be explained by the higher prevalence of behavioral and biological risk factors, alcoholism, and, since the 1990s, by heavy and protracted socioeconomic upheavals and lifestyle changes...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251618/a-randomised-crossover-simulation-study-comparing-the-impact-of-chemical-biological-radiological-or-nuclear-substance-personal-protection-equipment-on-the-performance-of-advanced-life-support-interventions
#11
J Schumacher, J Arlidge, F Garnham, I Ahmad
Recent incidents involving chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear substances have stressed the importance of sufficient personal protection equipment for medical first-responders. Modern lightweight, battery-independent, suit ensembles may prove superior to the current protective suit used in the UK. This study compared the powered respiratory protective suit (PRPS ensemble) with a lightweight suit consisting of a SARATOGA(®) Multipurpose CBRN Protective Coverall Polyprotect 12 in conjunction with the Avon C50 Respirator/Avon CBRNF12CE filter canister and butyl rubber protective gloves (Polyprotect 12 ensemble)...
March 2, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250803/medical-subject-heading-mesh-annotations-illuminate-maize-genetics-and-evolution
#12
Timothy M Beissinger, Gota Morota
BACKGROUND: High-density marker panels and/or whole-genome sequencing, coupled with advanced phenotyping pipelines and sophisticated statistical methods, have dramatically increased our ability to generate lists of candidate genes or regions that are putatively associated with phenotypes or processes of interest. However, the speed with which we can validate genes, or even make reasonable biological interpretations about the principles underlying them, has not kept pace. A promising approach that runs parallel to explicitly validating individual genes is analyzing a set of genes together and assessing the biological similarities among them...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248238/-omics-informed-drug-and-biomarker-discovery-opportunities-challenges-and-future-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
Holly Matthews, James Hanison, Niroshini Nirmalan
The pharmaceutical industry faces unsustainable program failure despite significant increases in investment. Dwindling discovery pipelines, rapidly expanding R&D budgets and increasing regulatory control, predict significant gaps in the future drug markets. The cumulative duration of discovery from concept to commercialisation is unacceptably lengthy, and adds to the deepening crisis. Existing animal models predicting clinical translations are simplistic, highly reductionist and, therefore, not fit for purpose...
September 12, 2016: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240894/evaluation-of-dual-5-lipoxygenase-microsomal-prostaglandin-e2-synthase-1-inhibitory-effect-of-natural-and-synthetic-acronychia-type-isoprenylated-acetophenones
#14
Alexandra Svouraki, Ulrike Garscha, Eirini Kouloura, Simona Pace, Carlo Pergola, Verena Krauth, Antonietta Rossi, Lidia Sautebin, Maria Halabalaki, Oliver Werz, Nicolas Gaboriaud-Kolar, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis
Among the pathways responsible for the development of inflammatory responses, the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways are among the most important ones. Two key enzymes, namely, 5-LO and mPGES-1, are involved in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and prostaglandins, respectively, which are considered attractive therapeutic targets, so their dual inhibition might be an effective strategy to control inflammatory deregulation. Several natural products have been identified as 5-LO inhibitors, with some also being dual 5-LO/mPGES-1 inhibitors...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240711/a-self-paced-team-sport-match-simulation-results-in-reductions-in-voluntary-activation-and-modifications-to-biological-perceptual-and-performance-measures-at-half-time-and-for-up-to-96-hours-post-match
#15
Paul Tofari, Justin Kemp, Stuart Cormack
Assessing responses to soccer match-play is limited by match variability or unrealistic simulations. To address this, the biological, perceptual, and performance response were assessed using a self-paced, simulated soccer match protocol using a non-motorized treadmill. Twelve male team-sport athletes performed the 90-min simulation. Match activity; quadriceps twitch interpolation [voluntary activation (%VA) and potentiated twitch (POT)]; biochemical markers; strength and power performance; rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and self-report wellness were collected pre-, half-time, post-, and 2, 24, 48, 72 and 96-h post-match...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202911/what-rheumatologists-need-to-know-about-crispr-cas9
#16
REVIEW
Gary J Gibson, Maozhou Yang
CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology has taken the research world by storm since its use in eukaryotes was first proposed in 2012. Publications describing advances in technology and new applications have continued at an unrelenting pace since that time. In this Review, we discuss the application of CRISPR/Cas9 for creating gene mutations - the application that initiated the current avalanche of interest - and new developments that have largely answered initial concerns about its specificity and ability to introduce new gene sequences...
February 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196465/metabolite-toxicity-determines-the-pace-of-molecular-evolution-within-microbial-populations
#17
Elin E Lilja, David R Johnson
BACKGROUND: The production of toxic metabolites has shaped the spatial and temporal arrangement of metabolic processes within microbial cells. While diverse solutions to mitigate metabolite toxicity have evolved, less is known about how evolution itself is affected by metabolite toxicity. We hypothesized that the pace of molecular evolution should increase as metabolite toxicity increases. At least two mechanisms could cause this. First, metabolite toxicity could increase the mutation rate...
February 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192413/evolution-of-a-split-rna-polymerase-as-a-versatile-biosensor-platform
#18
Jinyue Pu, Julia Zinkus-Boltz, Bryan C Dickinson
Biosensors that transduce target chemical and biochemical inputs into genetic outputs are essential for bioengineering and synthetic biology. Current biosensor design strategies are often limited by a low signal-to-noise ratio, the extensive optimization required for each new input, and poor performance in mammalian cells. Here we report the development of a proximity-dependent split RNA polymerase (RNAP) as a general platform for biosensor engineering. After discovering that interactions between fused proteins modulate the assembly of a split T7 RNAP, we optimized the split RNAP components for protein-protein interaction detection by phage-assisted continuous evolution (PACE)...
April 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185019/biological-ageing-and-clinical-consequences-of-modern-technology
#19
Marios Kyriazis
The pace of technology is steadily increasing, and this has a widespread effect on all areas of health and society. When we interact with this technological environment we are exposed to a wide variety of new stimuli and challenges, which may modulate the stress response and thus change the way we respond and adapt. In this Opinion paper I will examine certain aspects of the human-computer interaction with regards to health and ageing. There are practical, everyday effects which also include social and cultural elements...
February 9, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169001/emerging-approaches-to-tuberculosis-drug-development-at-home-in-the-metabolome
#20
REVIEW
Robert S Jansen, Kyu Y Rhee
Once considered a crowning achievement of modern drug development, tuberculosis (TB) chemotherapy has proven increasingly unable to keep pace with the spread of the pandemic and rise of drug resistance. Efforts to revive the TB drug development pipeline have, in the meantime, faltered. Closer analysis reveals key experimental deficiencies that have hindered our ability to 'reverse engineer' knowledge of antibiotic mechanisms into rational drug development. Here, we discuss the emerging potential of metabolomics; the systems level study of small molecule metabolites, to help overcome these gaps and serve as a unique biochemical bridge between the phenotypic properties of chemical compounds and biological targets...
February 3, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
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