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Biology pacing

Erika J Wolf, Mark W Logue, Filomene G Morrison, Elizabeth S Wilcox, Annjanette Stone, Steven A Schichman, Regina E McGlinchey, William P Milberg, Mark W Miller
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and stress/trauma exposure are cross-sectionally associated with advanced DNA methylation age relative to chronological age. However, longitudinal inquiry and examination of associations between advanced DNA methylation age and a broader range of psychiatric disorders is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if PTSD, depression, generalized anxiety, and alcohol-use disorders predicted acceleration of DNA methylation age over time (i...
June 13, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Carmen Pheiffer, Stephanie Dias, Tarryn Willmer, Ryan Pace, Kjersti Aagaard, Johan Louw
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in metabolic regulation. Recently, we identified novel miRNAs in the whole blood of South African women of mixed ethnic ancestry. The aim of this study was to investigate whether five of these novel miRNAs are expressed in serum and whether their expression is altered during metabolic dysregulation. METHODS: Expression levels of the five novel miRNAs (MYN08, MYNO22, MYN059, MYNO66 and MYNO95) were measured in the serum of women with Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) and Normoglycemia (NGT) (n=24), and in the whole blood of vervet monkeys fed a high-fat or standard diet (n=16) using quantitative real-time PCR...
June 11, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Yuhang Jiang, Alice Gaudin, Junwei Zhang, Tushar Agarwal, Eric Song, Amy C Kauffman, Gregory T Tietjen, Yongheng Wang, Zhaozhong Jiang, Christopher J Cheng, W Mark Saltzman
Gene delivery is known to be a complicated multi-step biological process. It has been observed that subtle differences in the structure and properties of polymeric materials used for gene delivery can lead to dramatic differences in transfection efficiency. Therefore, screening of properties is pivotal to optimizing the polymer. So far, most polymeric materials are built in a "bottom-up" manner, i.e. synthesized from monomers that allow modification of polymer composition or structural factors. With this method, we previously synthesized and screened a library of biodegradable poly(amine-co-ester) (PACE) terpolymers for optimized DNA delivery...
May 25, 2018: Biomaterials
Xenia Hengesch, Martha M C Elwenspoek, Violetta K Schaan, Mauro F Larra, Johannes B Finke, Xinwei Zhang, Petra Bachmann, Jonathan D Turner, Claus Vögele, Claude P Muller, Hartmut Schächinger
The negative health effects of early life adversity (ELA) continue long into adulthood. Changes in the physiological response to psychosocial stressors have been proposed to mediate this effect. However, many previous studies have come to contradicting conclusions as to whether ELA induces a long-term increase or decrease in stress reactivity. Therefore, we tested the association of ELA exposure and adult stress reactivity in a sample of early life adoptees and controls. Two previously validated stressful elements (bilateral feet CPT and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT)) were combined in an extended Cold Pressor Test (CPT)...
May 30, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Tsubasa Azumagakito, Reiji Suzuki, Takaya Arita
In this paper, we propose an agent-based model for investigating possible scenarios of genetic and cultural language evolution based on an integrated gene-culture coevolutionary framework. We focused on the following problems: (1) how communicative ability can evolve directionally under positive frequency-dependent selection and (2) how much of the directional effect there is between language and biological evolution. In our evolutionary experiments and analysis, we discovered a coevolutionary scenario involving the biological evolution of phenotypic plasticity and a cyclic coevolutionary dynamic between genetic and cultural evolution that is mediated by phenotypic plasticity...
May 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Karin D Rodland, Paul Piehowski, Richard D Smith
Breaking down the silos between disciplines to accelerate the pace of cancer research is a key paradigm for the Cancer Moonshot. Molecular analyses of cancer biology have tended to segregate between a focus on nucleic acids-DNA, RNA, and their modifications-and a focus on proteins and protein function. Proteogenomics represents a fusion of those two approaches, leveraging the strengths of each to provide a more integrated vision of the flow of information from DNA to RNA to protein and eventually function at the molecular level...
May 2018: Cancer Journal
Ruth E Baker, Jose-Maria Peña, Jayaratnam Jayamohan, Antoine Jérusalem
Ninety per cent of the world's data have been generated in the last 5 years ( Machine learning: the power and promise of computers that learn by example Report no. DES4702. Issued April 2017. Royal Society). A small fraction of these data is collected with the aim of validating specific hypotheses. These studies are led by the development of mechanistic models focused on the causality of input-output relationships. However, the vast majority is aimed at supporting statistical or correlation studies that bypass the need for causality and focus exclusively on prediction...
May 2018: Biology Letters
Jennifer N Phillips, Elizabeth P Derryberry
Animals modify acoustic communication signals in response to noise pollution, but consequences of these modifications are unknown. Vocalizations that transmit best in noise may not be those that best signal male quality, leading to potential conflict between selection pressures. For example, slow paced, narrow bandwidth songs transmit better in noise but are less effective in mate choice and competition than fast paced, wide bandwidth songs. We test the hypothesis that noise affects response to song pace and bandwidth in the context of competition using white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys)...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
James S Crampton, Stephen R Meyers, Roger A Cooper, Peter M Sadler, Michael Foote, David Harte
Periodic fluctuations in past biodiversity, speciation, and extinction have been proposed, with extremely long periods ranging from 26 to 62 million years, although forcing mechanisms remain speculative. In contrast, well-understood periodic Milankovitch climate forcing represents a viable driver for macroevolutionary fluctuations, although little evidence for such fluctuation exists except during the Late Cenozoic. The reality, magnitude, and drivers of periodic fluctuations in macroevolutionary rates are of interest given long-standing debate surrounding the relative roles of intrinsic biotic interactions vs...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
James G Napoli, Thomas E Williamson, Sarah L Shelley, Stephen L Brusatte
Eutherian mammals-placentals and their closest extinct relatives-underwent a major radiation following the end-Cretaceous extinction, during which they evolved disparate anatomy and established new terrestrial ecosystems. Much about the timing, pace, and causes of this radiation remain unclear, in large part because we still know very little about the anatomy, phylogenetic relationships, and biology of the so-called 'archaic' eutherians that prospered during the ~10 million years after the extinction. We describe the first digital endocranial cast of a taeniodont, a bizarre group of eutherians that flourished in the early Paleogene, reconstructed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a late Puercan (65...
2018: Journal of Mammalian Evolution
Derrick M Chu, Maxim Seferovic, Ryan M Pace, Kjersti M Aagaard
The microbiome is thought to play a role in the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy and thus may either contribute to or protect from preterm birth. Study of the human microbiome has been aided by metagenomic sequencing approaches, providing greater insight into the commensal bacteria that coexist in and on our bodies. The vaginal microbiome has been the most widely studied, though there have been recent efforts to explore the gut, cervical-vaginal, placental and oral microbiomes in the further search of etiologies of preterm birth...
April 9, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Julia L Michalak, Joshua J Lawler, David R Roberts, Carlos Carroll
As evidenced by past climatic refugia, locations projected to harbor remnants of present day climates may serve as critical refugia for current biodiversity in the face of modern climate change. Here, we map potential future climatic refugia across North America, defined as locations with increasingly rare climatic conditions. We identified these locations by tracking projected changes in the size and distribution of climate analogs over time. We used biologically-derived thresholds to define analogs and tested the impacts of dispersal limitation using four distances to limit analog searches...
May 10, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
A Ronca, F Maiullari, M Milan, V Pace, A Gloria, R Rizzi, R De Santis, L Ambrosio
The limited number of resins, available for stereolithography applications, is one of the key drivers in research applied to rapid prototyping. In this work an acrylic photocrosslinkable resin based on methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDA) was developed with different composition and characterized in terms of mechanical, thermal and biological behaviour. Two different systems have been developed using different amount of reagent. The influence of every components have been evaluated on the final characteristic of the resin in order to optimize the final composition for applications in bone tissue engineering...
September 2017: Bioactive Materials
Alyce M Swinbourne, Clive J C Phillips, Tina Janssen, Allan Lisle, Tamara Keeley, Stephen D Johnston
The poor captive breeding success of southern hairy-nosed wombats (SHNWs; Lasiorhinus latifrons) has been attributed to the difficulty in accurately characterising oestrous behaviour and their relationship to circulating reproductive hormones. Over two wombat breeding seasons, the use of infrared cameras for 24-h remote behavioural monitoring and the analysis of urine samples collected from seven captive females, were investigated to determine the relationship between behaviour and changes in urinary progesterone metabolites (P4M)...
May 10, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Yonata Levy
In memory of Annette Karmiloff-Smith . This paper reviews recent neurobiological research reporting structural co-variance and temporal dependencies in age-dependent gene expression, parameters of cortical maturation, long range connectivity and interaction of the biological network with the environment. This research suggests that age by size trajectories of brain structures relate to functional properties more than absolute sizes. In line with these findings, recent behavioral studies of typically developing children whose language development was delayed reported long term consequences of such delays...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Michal Sorek, Yisrael Schnytzer, Hiba Waldman Ben-Asher, Vered Chalifa Caspi, Chii-Shiarng Chen, David J Miller, Oren Levy
BACKGROUND: All organisms employ biological clocks to anticipate physical changes in the environment; however, the integration of biological clocks in symbiotic systems has received limited attention. In corals, the interpretation of rhythmic behaviours is complicated by the daily oscillations in tissue oxygen tension resulting from the photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the associated algal endosymbiont Symbiodinium. In order to better understand the integration of biological clocks in cnidarian hosts of Symbiodinium, daily rhythms of behaviour and gene expression were studied in symbiotic and aposymbiotic morphs of the sea-anemone Aiptasia diaphana...
May 9, 2018: Microbiome
Jeremy W Prokop, Thomas May, Kim Strong, Stephanie M Bilinovich, Caleb Bupp, Surender Rajasekaran, Elizabeth A Worthey, Jozef Lazar
Genomic sequencing has undergone massive expansion in the past ten years, opening the door from being a rarely used research tool into an approach that has broad applications in a clinical setting. From rare disease to cancer, genomics is transforming our knowledge of biology. The transition from targeted gene sequencing, to whole exome sequencing, to whole genome sequencing has only been made possible due to rapid advancements in technologies and informatics that have plummeted the cost per base of DNA sequencing and analysis...
May 4, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Marilyn J Hockenberry, Ida M Ki Moore, Michael E Scheurer, Mary C Hooke, Olga A Taylor, Kari M Koerner, Patricia M Gundy, Wei Pan
The focus on a cure for childhood leukemia over the last three decades has resulted in survival rates of more than 80%. However, efforts to manage leukemia-treatment symptoms have not kept pace with new therapies. Symptom toxicity during treatment can result in complications, treatment delays, and therapy dose reductions. Compromise in therapy can negatively influence the quality of life and, even more notably, jeopardize chances for long-term survival. This study examined biologic mechanisms that influence fatigue caused by increased reactive oxidative species (ROS) or actual failure of the antioxidant defense system due to genetic variation by investigating reactive nitrosative species, a "downstream" consequence of ROS...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Khushbu Shah, Xin Lin, Sherry F Queener, Vivian Cody, Jim Pace, Aleem Gangjee
To combine the potency of trimetrexate (TMQ) or piritrexim (PTX) with the species selectivity of trimethoprim (TMP), target based design was carried out with the X-ray crystal structure of human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR) and the homology model of Pneumocystis jirovecii DHFR (pjDHFR). Using variation of amino acids such as Met33/Phe31 (in pjDHFR/hDHFR) that affect the binding of inhibitors due to their distinct positive or negative steric effect at the active binding site of the inhibitor, we designed a series of substituted-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines...
April 17, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Matthew G Stanton
Messenger RNA is emerging as a highly versatile biological construct for creation of impactful medicines. mRNA vaccines directed toward infectious disease and cancer are in clinical development with encouraging early reads on tolerability and efficacy. The use of mRNA to direct intense but transient expression of paracrine factors is finding utility in reprogramming progenitor cells for wound healing and cardiac regeneration and for stimulation of antitumor immune responses, at least preclinically as we await clinical results...
April 24, 2018: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
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