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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453838/from-cba-to-precautionary-appraisal-practical-responses-to-intractable-problems
#1
Andrew Stirling, Josie Coburn
The purpose of this essay is to critically review the design of methods for ethically robust forms of technology appraisal in the regulation of research and innovation in synthetic biology. It will focus, in particular, on the extent to which cost-benefit analysis offers a basis for informing decisions about which technological pathways to pursue and which to discourage. A further goal is to consider what (if anything) the precautionary principle might offer in enabling better decisions. And this, in turn, raises questions about why mention of precaution can excite accusations of unscientific bias or irrational, "anti-innovation" extremism...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416820/predictive-factors-for-6-vs-12-cycles-of-folfiri-bevacizumab-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#2
Vincenzo Formica, Maria Teresa Ionta, Bruno Massidda, Giacomo Vessia, Luigi Maiorino, Rossana Casaretti, Donato Natale, Giuseppe Barberis, Gianfranco Filippelli, Ettore Greco, Livio Blasi, Sergio Mancarella, Anna Russo, Enrico Barbato, Liberato Di Lullo, Mario Roselli
Early switching to de-intensified maintenance regimen is still a matter of debate in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The MARTHA trial, a S.I.C.O.G. phase III randomized trial, compared FOLOFIRI+bevacizumab (B) for 12 cycles (6 months) followed by B for up to 12 months (FOLFIRI +B*12 arm) vs FOLFIRI+B for 6 cycles (3 months) followed by capecitabine+B for 4 cycles followed by B for up to 12 months (FOLFIRI+B*6 arm). Chemotherapy-naïve mCRC patients were randomized, primary endpoint was progression free survival (PFS), with overall survival (OS) as a secondary endpoint...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402805/tick-tock-chimes-the-kidney-clock-from-biology-of-renal-ageing-to-clinical-applications
#3
Joshua Rowland, Artur Akbarov, Akhlaq Maan, James Eales, John Dormer, Maciej Tomaszewski
Ageing of the kidney is a multi-dimensional process that occurs simultaneously at the molecular, cellular, histological, anatomical and physiological level. Nephron number and renal cortical volume decline, renal tubules become atrophic and glomeruli become sclerotic with age. These structural changes are accompanied by a decline in glomerular filtration rate, decreased sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion, reduced urinary concentrating capacity and alterations in the endocrine activity of the kidney...
January 24, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384153/advances-challenges-and-opportunities-for-point-of-need-screening-of-mycotoxins-in-foods-and-feeds
#4
REVIEW
Ruben R G Soares, Alessandra Ricelli, Corrado Fanelli, Domenico Caputo, Giampiero de Cesare, Virginia Chu, M Raquel Aires-Barros, João P Conde
The assurance of food and feed safety, including the identification and effective monitoring of multiple biological and chemical hazards, is a major societal challenge, given the increasing pace at which food commodities are demanded, produced and traded across the globe. Within this context, mycotoxins are globally widespread secondary fungal metabolites, which can contaminate crops either in the field or during storage and have serious human and animal health impacts such as carcinogenic, teratogenic and hepatotoxic effects...
January 31, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382057/impact-of-thermal-degradation-of-cyanidin-3-o-glucoside-of-haskap-berry-on-cytotoxicity-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hepg2-and-breast-cancer-mda-mb-231-cells
#5
Eric Pace, Yuanyuan Jiang, Amy Clemens, Tennille Crossman, H P Vasantha Rupasinghe
Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), the predominant anthocyanin in haskap berries (Lonicera caerulea L.), possesses antioxidant and many other biological activities. This study investigated the impact of temperature and pH on the degradation of the C3G-rich haskap fraction. The effect of the thermal degradation products on the viability of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells was also studied in vitro. Using column chromatography, the C3G-rich fraction was isolated from acetone extracts of haskap berries...
January 27, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361794/arsenic-methylation-capacity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-the-2013-2014-u-s-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes
#6
Clare Pace, Julie Smith-Gagen, Jeff Angermann
Arsenic methylation capacity is associated with metabolic syndrome and its components among highly exposed populations. However, this association has not been investigated in low to moderately exposed populations. Therefore, we investigated arsenic methylation capacity in relation to the clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in a low arsenic exposure population. Additionally, we compared arsenic methylation patterns present in our sample to those of more highly exposed populations. Using logistic regression models adjusted for relevant biological and lifestyle covariates, we report no association between increased arsenic methylation and metabolic syndrome in a population in which arsenic is regulated at 10 ppb in drinking water...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356634/radiotheranostics-in-cancer-diagnosis-and-management
#7
Hossein Jadvar, Xiaoyuan Chen, Weibo Cai, Umar Mahmood
The fundamental foundation for precision medicine is accurate and specific targeting of cancer cells. Advances in the understanding of cancer biology, developments in diagnostic technologies, and expansion of therapeutic options have all contributed to the concept of personalized cancer care. Theranostics is the systematic integration of targeted diagnostics and therapeutics. The theranostic platform includes an imaging component that "sees" the lesions followed by administration of the companion therapy agent that "treats" the same lesions...
February 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352153/biology-culture-co-evolution-in-finite-populations
#8
Bart de Boer, Bill Thompson
Language is the result of two concurrent evolutionary processes: biological and cultural inheritance. An influential evolutionary hypothesis known as the moving target problem implies inherent limitations on the interactions between our two inheritance streams that result from a difference in pace: the speed of cultural evolution is thought to rule out cognitive adaptation to culturally evolving aspects of language. We examine this hypothesis formally by casting it as as a problem of adaptation in time-varying environments...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323781/soil-phosphorus-does-not-keep-pace-with-soil-carbon-and-nitrogen-accumulation-following-woody-encroachment
#9
Yong Zhou, Thomas W Boutton, X Ben Wu
Soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles are strongly interlinked and controlled through biological processes, and the phosphorus cycle is further controlled through geochemical processes. In dryland ecosystems, woody encroachment often modifies soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus stores, although it remains unknown if these three elements change proportionally in response to this vegetation change. We evaluated proportional changes and spatial patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations following woody encroachment by taking spatially-explicit soil cores to a depth of 1...
January 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305704/the-power-of-optogenetics-potential-in-cardiac-experimental-and-clinical-electrophysiology
#10
REVIEW
Franziska Schneider-Warme
Optogenetics is an emerging, interdisciplinary research area which combines genetic and optical technologies to steer and monitor specific biological processes. To this end, light-activated proteins, so-called optogenetic actuators, or fluorescent sensor proteins are genetically targeted to the cells of interest. Light activation can then be used to modulate or record cellular behaviour with high spatiotemporal precision. In cardiac research, optogenetic approaches have been used to unravel heterocellular electrotonic interactions, both in vitro and in situ...
January 5, 2018: Herzschrittmachertherapie & Elektrophysiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286639/live-imaging-of-label-free-graphene-oxide-reveals-critical-factors-causing-oxidative-stress-mediated-cellular-responses
#11
Sandra Vranic, Artur Filipe Rodrigues, Maurizio Buggio, Leon Newman, Michael R H White, David G Spiller, Cyrill Bussy, Kostas Kostarelos
The interest in graphene and its translation into commercial products have been expanding at high pace. In regard to previously described pulmonary safety concerns for carbon nanomaterials, there is a great need to define parameters guiding interactions between graphene-based materials and pulmonary system. The aim of present study was to determine the importance of two critical parameters: lateral dimensions of the material and coating with proteins in relation to each other and their pulmonary impact. Endotoxin-free materials with distinct lateral dimensions - s-GO (50 - 200 nm) and l-GO (5 - 15 µm) were produced and thoroughly characterized...
December 29, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286395/benefits-of-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-in-an-asynchronous-heart-failure-model-induced-by-left-bundle-branch-ablation-and-rapid-pacing
#12
Jingfeng Wang, Zhenning Nie, Haiyan Chen, Xianhong Shu, Zhaohua Yang, Ruiming Yao, Yangang Su, Junbo Ge
It is now well recognized that heart failure (HF) patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) derive substantial clinical benefits from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), and LBBB has become one of the important predictors for CRT response. The conventional tachypacing-induced HF model has several major limitations, including absence of stable LBBB and rapid reversal of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after cessation of pacing. Hence, it is essential to establish an optimal model of chronic HF with isolated LBBB for studying CRT benefits...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284515/adaptation-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-to-the-yangtze-river-basin
#13
Yu-Pan Zou, Xing-Hui Hou, Qiong Wu, Jia-Fu Chen, Zi-Wen Li, Ting-Shen Han, Xiao-Min Niu, Li Yang, Yong-Chao Xu, Jie Zhang, Fu-Min Zhang, Dunyan Tan, Zhixi Tian, Hongya Gu, Ya-Long Guo
BACKGROUND: Organisms need to adapt to keep pace with a changing environment. Examining recent range expansion aids our understanding of how organisms evolve to overcome environmental constraints. However, how organisms adapt to climate changes is a crucial biological question that is still largely unanswered. The plant Arabidopsis thaliana is an excellent system to study this fundamental question. Its origin is in the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa, but it has spread to the Far East, including the most south-eastern edge of its native habitats, the Yangtze River basin, where the climate is very different...
December 28, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278204/looking-for-new-antifungal-drugs-from-flavonoids-impact-of-the-genetic-diversity-of-candida-albicans-on-the-in-vitro-response
#14
Maria Rosa Felice, Letterio Giuffre, Lamya El Aamri, Majida Hafidi, Giuseppe Criseo, Orazio Romeo, Fabio Scordino
In an era in which antimicrobial resistance is increasing at an alarming pace, it's very important to find new antimicrobial agents effective against pathogenic microrganisms resistant to traditional treatments. Among the notable breakthroughs in the past years of research in natural-drug discovery there is the identification and testing of flavonoids, a group of plant-derived substances capable of promoting many beneficial effects on humans. These compounds show different biological activities such as inhibition of neuroinflammation and tumor growth as well as antidepressant, antiarthritic, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antidiabetic, antiulcer and antiasthmatic activities...
December 25, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225885/life-history-strategy-resource-dispersion-and-phylogenetic-associations-shape-dispersal-of-a-fig-wasp-community
#15
Vignesh Venkateswaran, Amitabh Shrivastava, Anusha L K Kumble, Renee M Borges
Background: The combined influence of life-history strategy and resource dispersion on dispersal evolution of a biological community, and by extension, on community assemblage, has received sparse attention. Highly specialized fig wasp communities are ideal for addressing this question since the life-history strategies that affect their pace of life and the dispersion of their oviposition resources vary. We compared dispersal capacities of the wasp community of a widespread tropical fig, Ficus racemosa, by measuring flight durations, somatic lipid content and resting metabolic rates...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214583/prospects-of-pluripotent-and-adult-stem-cells-for-rare-diseases
#16
Javier García-Castro, Ilyas Singeç
Rare diseases are highly diverse and complex regarding molecular underpinning and clinical manifestation and afflict millions of patients worldwide. The lack of appropriate model systems with face and construct validity and the limited availability of live tissues and cells from patients has largely hampered the understanding of underlying disease mechanisms. As a consequence, there are no adequate treatment options available for the vast majority of rare diseases. Over the last decade, remarkable progress in pluripotent and adult stem cell biology and the advent of powerful genomic technologies opened up exciting new avenues for the investigation, diagnosis, and personalized therapy of intractable human diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202032/biomass-recycling-and-earth-s-early-phosphorus-cycle
#17
Michael A Kipp, Eva E Stüeken
Phosphorus sets the pace of marine biological productivity on geological time scales. Recent estimates of Precambrian phosphorus levels suggest a severe deficit of this macronutrient, with the depletion attributed to scavenging by iron minerals. We propose that the size of the marine phosphorus reservoir was instead constrained by muted liberation of phosphorus during the remineralization of biomass. In the modern ocean, most biomass-bound phosphorus gets aerobically recycled; but a dearth of oxidizing power in Earth's early oceans would have limited the stoichiometric capacity for remineralization, particularly during the Archean...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198284/facilitating-autism-research
#18
Deborah Fein, Molly Helt
Early autism research focused on behavior and cognition. In recent decades, the pace of research has accelerated, and advances in imaging and genetics have allowed the accumulation of biological data. Nevertheless, a coherent picture of the syndrome at either phenotypic or biological level has not emerged. We see two fundamental obstacles to progress in basic understanding of autism. First, the two defining features (impairment in social interactions and communication, and restricted, repetitive behaviors and interests) are historically seen as integrally related...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193445/late-adoptions-in-adolescence-can-attachment-and-emotion-regulation-influence-behaviour-problems-a-controlled-study-using-a-moderation-approach
#19
Cecilia Serena Pace, Simona Di Folco, Viviana Guerriero
A growing body of research suggests that, compared to normative adolescence, adoptive adolescence could be considered a specific risk condition characterized by more psychiatric problems, attachment insecurity, and emotional regulation difficulties as consequences of negative experiences in preadoption relationships. The current study explores (a) a moderation model of adoption status on the association between attachment representations (secure, dismissing, preoccupied, and disorganized) and behavioural problems and (b) a moderation model of adoption status on the association between emotion regulation processes (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) and behavioural problems...
November 28, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187165/imagej2-imagej-for-the-next-generation-of-scientific-image-data
#20
Curtis T Rueden, Johannes Schindelin, Mark C Hiner, Barry E DeZonia, Alison E Walter, Ellen T Arena, Kevin W Eliceiri
BACKGROUND: ImageJ is an image analysis program extensively used in the biological sciences and beyond. Due to its ease of use, recordable macro language, and extensible plug-in architecture, ImageJ enjoys contributions from non-programmers, amateur programmers, and professional developers alike. Enabling such a diversity of contributors has resulted in a large community that spans the biological and physical sciences. However, a rapidly growing user base, diverging plugin suites, and technical limitations have revealed a clear need for a concerted software engineering effort to support emerging imaging paradigms, to ensure the software's ability to handle the requirements of modern science...
November 29, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
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