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Biology pacing

Kusum Mehla, Jayashree Ramana
Campylobacter jejuni remains a major cause of human gastroenteritis with estimated annual incidence rate of 450 million infections worldwide. C. jejuni is a major burden to public health in both socioeconomically developing and industrialized nations. Virulence determinants involved in C. jejuni pathogenesis are multifactorial in nature and not yet fully understood. Despite the completion of the first C. jejuni genome project in 2000, there are currently no vaccines in the market against this pathogen. Traditional vaccinology approach is an arduous and time extensive task...
October 24, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Anjali Nagpal, Chris Juttner, Monica Anne Hamilton-Bruce, Paul Rolan, Simon A Koblar
The encouraging pace of discovery and development in the field of regenerative medicine holds tremendous potential for bringing therapies to the clinic that may offer meaningful benefit to patients, particularly in diseases with no or suboptimal therapeutic options. Academic researchers will continue to play a critical role in developing concepts and therapies, thus determining whether regenerative medicine will be able to live up to this potential that clearly excites clinicians, researchers and patients alike...
October 17, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
G N Nguyen, L A George, J I Siner, R J Davidson, C B Zander, X L Zheng, V R Arruda, R M Camire, D E Sabatino
BACKGROUND: The major challenge for developing gene-based therapies for hemophilia A is that human factor VIII (hFVIII) has intrinsic properties that result in inefficient biosynthesis. During intracellular processing, hFVIII is predominantly cleaved at a Paired basic Amino acid Cleaving Enzyme (PACE) or furin cleavage site to yield a heterodimer that is the major form of secreted protein. Previous studies with B-domain deleted (BDD) canine FVIII and hFVIII-R1645H, both differing from hFVIII by a single amino acid at this site, suggested that these proteins are secreted mainly in a single polypeptide chain (SC) form and exhibit enhanced function...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Xiang Cheng, Shu-Guang Zhao, Xuan Xiao, Kuo-Chen Chou
MOTIVATION: Given a compound, can we predict which ATC (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical) class/classes it belongs to? It is a challenging problem since the information thus obtained can be used to deduce its possible active ingredients, as well as its therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties. And hence the pace of drug development could be substantially expedited. But this problem is by no means an easy one. Particularly, some drugs or compounds may belong to two or more ATC classes...
October 14, 2016: Bioinformatics
Ayaka Kato, Kenji Morita
It has been suggested that dopamine (DA) represents reward-prediction-error (RPE) defined in reinforcement learning and therefore DA responds to unpredicted but not predicted reward. However, recent studies have found DA response sustained towards predictable reward in tasks involving self-paced behavior, and suggested that this response represents a motivational signal. We have previously shown that RPE can sustain if there is decay/forgetting of learned-values, which can be implemented as decay of synaptic strengths storing learned-values...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Stephanie L Olson, Christopher T Reinhard, Timothy W Lyons
The redox landscape of Earth's ocean-atmosphere system has changed dramatically throughout Earth history. Although Earth's protracted oxygenation is undoubtedly the consequence of cyanobacterial oxygenic photosynthesis, the relationship between biological O2 production and Earth's redox evolution remains poorly understood. Existing models for Earth's oxygenation cannot adequately explain the nearly 2.5 billion years delay between the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis and the oxygenation of the deep ocean, in large part owing to major deficiencies in our understanding of the coevolution of O2 and Earth's key biogeochemical cycles (e...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bernd Mayer, Andreas Heinzel, Arno Lukas, Paul Perco
BACKGROUND: Productivity in drug R&D continues seeing significant attrition in clinical stage testing. Approval of new molecular entities proceeds with slow pace specifically when it comes to chronic, age-related diseases, calling for new conceptual approaches, methodological implementation and organizational adoption in drug development. METHODS: Detailed phenotyping of disease presentation together with comprehensive representation of drug mechanism of action is considered as a path forward, and a big data spectrum has become available covering behavioral, clinical and molecular characteristics, the latter combining reductionist and explorative strategies...
October 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Sarah J Ivory, Margaret W Blome, John W King, Michael M McGlue, Julia E Cole, Andrew S Cohen
Long paleoecological records are critical for understanding evolutionary responses to environmental forcing and unparalleled tools for elucidating the mechanisms that lead to the development of regions of high biodiversity. We use a 1.2-My record from Lake Malawi, a textbook example of biological diversification, to document how climate and tectonics have driven ecosystem and evolutionary dynamics. Before ∼800 ka, Lake Malawi was much shallower than today, with higher frequency but much lower amplitude water-level and oxygenation changes...
October 3, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Grigoriy Gogoshin, Eric Boerwinkle, Andrei S Rodin
Bayesian network (BN) reconstruction is a prototypical systems biology data analysis approach that has been successfully used to reverse engineer and model networks reflecting different layers of biological organization (ranging from genetic to epigenetic to cellular pathway to metabolomic). It is especially relevant in the context of modern (ongoing and prospective) studies that generate heterogeneous high-throughput omics datasets. However, there are both theoretical and practical obstacles to the seamless application of BN modeling to such big data, including computational inefficiency of optimal BN structure search algorithms, ambiguity in data discretization, mixing data types, imputation and validation, and, in general, limited scalability in both reconstruction and visualization of BNs...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
Markus R Meyer
This review article covers English-written and PubMed-listed review articles and original studies published between January 2015 and April 2016 dealing with the toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics of new psychoactive substances. Compounds covered include stimulants and entactogens, synthetic cannabinoids, tryptamines, NBOMes, phencyclidine-like drugs, benzodiazepines, and opioids. First, an overview and discussion is provided on timely review articles followed by an overview and discussion on recent original studies...
October 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Michele Brignole, Regis Guieu, Marco Tomaino, Matteo Iori, Andrea Ungar, Cristina Bertolone, Matthias Unterhuber, Nicola Bottoni, Francesca Tesi, Jean Claude Deharo
BACKGROUND: "Unexplained syncope, no prodromes, and normal heart" has been described as a distinct clinical and biological entity. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the mechanism of syncope. METHODS: In this prospective multicenter study, 58 patients presenting with unexplained syncope, no prodromes, and a normal heart received an implantable loop recorder (ILR) and were followed up until a diagnosis was established. Their outcomes were compared with those of 389 patients affected by reflex syncope with prodromes who received an ILR...
September 14, 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Kirsten K Davison, Selma Gicevic, Alyssa Aftosmes-Tobio, Claudia Ganter, Christine L Simon, Sami Newlan, Jennifer A Manganello
BACKGROUND: The involvement of fathers in caregiving has increased substantially over the past 30 years. Yet in child and adolescent psychopathology, few studies include fathers as research participants and few present results for fathers separate from those for mothers. We test for the first time whether a similar pattern exists in research on parenting and childhood obesity. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review and quantitative content analysis of observational studies on parenting and childhood obesity to (1) document the inclusion of fathers, relative to mothers, as research participants and (2) examine characteristics of studies that did and did not include fathers...
November 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Pedro Jordano
Basic research on biodiversity has concentrated on individual species-naming new species, studying distribution patterns, and analyzing their evolutionary relationships. Yet biodiversity is more than a collection of individual species; it is the combination of biological entities and processes that support life on Earth. To understand biodiversity we must catalog it, but we must also assess the ways species interact with other species to provide functional support for the Tree of Life. Ecological interactions may be lost well before the species involved in those interactions go extinct; their ecological functions disappear even though they remain...
September 2016: PLoS Biology
James J Lewis, Karin R L van der Burg, Anyi Mazo-Vargas, Robert D Reed
Uncovering phylogenetic patterns of cis-regulatory evolution remains a fundamental goal for evolutionary and developmental biology. Here, we characterize the evolution of regulatory loci in butterflies and moths using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) annotation of regulatory elements across three stages of head development. In the process we provide a high-quality, functionally annotated genome assembly for the butterfly, Heliconius erato. Comparing cis-regulatory element conservation across six lepidopteran genomes, we find that regulatory sequences evolve at a pace similar to that of protein-coding regions...
September 13, 2016: Cell Reports
Marta Rui, Daniela Rossi, Annamaria Marra, Mayra Paolillo, Sergio Schinelli, Daniela Curti, Anna Tesei, Michela Cortesi, Alice Zamagni, Erik Laurini, Sabrina Pricl, Dirk Schepmann, Bernhard Wűnsch, Ernst Urban, Vittorio Pace, Simona Collina
In the early 2000s, the Sigma Receptor (SR) family was identified as potential "druggable" target in cancer treatment. Indeed, high density of SRs was found in breast, lung, and prostate cancer cells, supporting the idea that SRs could play a role in tumor growth and progression. Moreover, a link between the degree of SR expression and tumor aggressiveness has been postulated, justified by the presence of SRs in high metastatic-potential cancer cells. As a consequence, considerable efforts have been devoted to the development of small molecules endowed with good affinity towards the two SR subtypes (S1R and S2R) with potential anticancer activity...
August 31, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Owen Greenwood, Hannah L Mossman, Andrew J Suggitt, Robin J Curtis, Ilya M D Maclean
Successful conservation will increasingly depend on our ability to help species cope with climate change. While there has been much attention on accommodating or assisting range shifts, less has been given to the alternative strategy of helping species survive climate change through in situ management.Here we provide a synthesis of published evidence examining whether habitat management can be used to offset the adverse impacts on biodiversity of changes in temperature, water availability and sea-level rise...
June 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
Emmanuel Desandes, Daniel P Stark
To design the services for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer, we need to understand the patterns of disease and the other clinical and managerial challenges of the patient group. Cancer occurring between the ages of 15 and 39 years is 4 times less rare than cancer occurring during the first 15 years of life and consists of 2% of all invasive cancer in Europe, about 66,000 patients in Europe each year. AYAs have a unique distribution of cancer types, including the peak in incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or germ cell tumors...
2016: Progress in Tumor Research
Anandika Dhaliwal, Matthew Brenner, Paul Wolujewicz, Zheng Zhang, Yong Mao, Mona Batish, Joachim Kohn, Prabhas V Moghe
: A predictive framework for the evolution of stem cell biology in 3-D is currently lacking. In this study we propose deep image informatics of the nuclear biology of stem cells to elucidate how 3-D biomaterials steer stem cell lineage phenotypes. The approach is based on high content imaging informatics to capture minute variations in the 3-D spatial organization of splicing factor SC-35 in the nucleoplasm as a marker to classify emergent cell phenotypes of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)...
November 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Xiaomei Sun, Mingxun Li, Yujia Sun, Hanfang Cai, Xianyong Lan, Yongzhen Huang, Yueyu Bai, Xinglei Qi, Hong Chen
Pervasive transcription of the mammalian genome generates numerous long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are of crucial importance in diverse biological processes. Recent advances in high throughput sequencing technology have helped to accelerate the pace of lncRNAs discovery. However, no study on the overall expression patterns of lncRNAs during muscle development has been conducted. We reported here the first analysis of lncRNAs landscape in bovine embryonic, neonatal and adult skeletal muscle using Ribo-Zero RNA-Seq, a technology which can capture both poly(A)(+) and poly(A)(-) transcripts...
August 30, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Henry M Heitzer, Tobin J Marks, Mark A Ratner
The dielectric response of a material is central to numerous processes spanning the fields of chemistry, materials science, biology, and physics. Despite this broad importance across these disciplines, describing the dielectric environment of a molecular system at the level of first-principles theory and computation remains a great challenge and is of importance to understand the behavior of existing systems as well as to guide the design and synthetic realization of new ones. Furthermore, with recent advances in molecular electronics, nanotechnology, and molecular biology, it has become necessary to predict the dielectric properties of molecular systems that are often difficult or impossible to measure experimentally...
September 20, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
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