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Tanushri Chatterji, Suruchi Singh, Manodeep Sen, Ajai Kumar Singh, Gaurav Raj Agarwal, Deepak Kumar Singh, Janmejai Kumar Srivastava, Alka Singh, Rajendra Nath Srivastava, Raja Roy
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an essential bio-fluid of the central nervous system (CNS), playing a vital role in the protection of CNS and performing neuronal function regulation. The chemical composition of CSF varies during onset of meningitis, neurodegenerative disorders (positive controls) and in traumatic cases (negative controls). METHODS: The study design was broadly categorized into meningitis cases, negative controls and positive controls. Further differentiation among the three groups was carried out using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) followed by supervised Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA)...
March 14, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Prabhjot K Saini, Giulia Fiorani, Robert T Mathers, Charlotte K Williams
Developing selective polymerizations from complex monomer mixtures is an important challenge. Here, dinuclear catalysts allow selective polymerization from mixtures of sterically hindered tricyclic anhydrides, carbon dioxide and epoxides to yield well-controlled copoly(ester-carbonates). Surprisingly, two very similar homogeneous catalysts differing only in the central metal, zinc versus magnesium, show very high but diametrically opposite monomer selectivity. The selectivity is attributed to different polymerization kinetics and to steric factors associated with the anhydrides...
March 15, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Giulia Morgese, Behzad Shirmardi Shaghasemi, Valerio Causin, Marcy Zenobi-Wong, Shivaprakash N Ramakrishna, Erik Reimhult, Edmondo M Benetti
Cyclic poly-2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (PEOXA) ligands for superparamagnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles (NPs) generate ultra-dense and highly compact shells, providing enhanced colloidal stability and bio-inertness in physiological media. When linear brush shells fail in providing colloidal stabilization to NPs, the cyclic ones assure long lasting dispersions. While the thermally induced dehydration of linear PEOXA shells cause irreversible aggregation of the NPs, the collapse and subsequent rehydration of similarly grafted cyclic brushes allow the full recovery of individually dispersed NPs...
March 13, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Gaolong Zhu, Yun Yang, Juan Liu, Feng Liu, Anhuai Lu, Weidong He
Coupling the light-harvesting capabilities of semiconductors with the catalytic power of bacteria is a promising way to increase the efficiency of bioelectrochemical systems. Here, we reported the enhanced photocurrents produced by the synergy of hematite nanowire-arrayed photoanode and the bio-engineered Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in a solar-assisted microbial photoelectrochemical system (solar MPS) under the visible light. To increase the supply of bioelectrons, the D-lactate transporter, SO1522, was overexpressed in the recombinant S...
March 8, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Jonas Stenbæk, David Löf, Peter Falkman, Bo Jensen, Marité Cárdenas
The potential of a lactylate (the sodium caproyl lactylate or C10 lactylate), a typical food grade emulsifier, as an anionic environmental friendly anti-fungal additive was tested in growth medium and formulated in a protective coating for exterior wood. Different laboratory growth tests on the blue stain fungus Aureobasidium pullulans were performed and its interactions on a model fungal cell membrane were studied. Promising short term anti-fungal effects in growth tests were observed, although significant but less dramatic effects took place in coating test on wood panels...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Sampriti Kataki, Samarendra Hazarika, D C Baruah
Success and acceptability of the bio energy conversion technology to a large extent depend upon management of the inevitable by-products generated during the conversion process. By-products can be considered favourable as organic fertilizer as they retain nutrients with varying composition depending upon input biomass. However, characteristics of these heterogeneous resources with respect to feedstock and processing conditions have to be assessed to state on their agricultural and environmental benefits. Therefore, 3 types of anaerobic digestion by-products (digestate) from surplus biomass viz...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Barbara Di Martino, Federica Di Profio, Livia Bodnar, Irene Melegari, Vittorio Sarchese, Ivano Massirio, Giulia Dowgier, Gianvito Lanave, Fulvio Marsilio, Krisztián Bányai, Canio Buonavoglia, Vito Martella
In 2003, a novel calicivirus, the vesivirus (VeV) strain 2117, was identified incidentally as a contaminant in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell cultures by a German pharmaceutical company. Similar contaminations have been documented in three additional episodes, in bio-reactors used for production of recombinant drugs. More, recently 2117-like VeVs have also been identified at high prevalence in the stools from asymptomatic kennel dogs and only sporadically in diarrhoeic and healthy household dogs. In this study, antibodies for 2117-like viruses were detected in 21...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
Tessema F Mekonnen, Ulrich Panne, Matthias Koch
An automated method is presented for fast simulation of (bio)transformation products (TPs) of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) based on electrochemistry coupled online to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (EC-LC-MS). Oxidative TPs were produced by a boron doped diamond (BDD) electrode, separated by reversed phase HPLC and online detected by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Furthermore, EC oxidative TPs were investigated by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and FT-ICR high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and compared to in vitro assay metabolites (rat and human liver microsomes)...
March 10, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Narendar Gogurla, Subhas C Kundu, Samit K Ray
Silk protein has been used as a biopolymer substrate for flexible photonic devices. Here, we demonstrate ZnO nanorod array hybrid photodetectors on Au nanoparticle-embedded silk protein for flexible optoelectronics. Hybrid samples exhibit optical absorption at the band edge of ZnO as well as plasmonic energy due to Au nanoparticles, making them attractive for selective UV and visible wavelength detection. The device prepared on Au-silk protein shows a much lower dark current and a higher photo to dark-current ratio of ∼10(5) as compared to the control sample without Au nanoparticles...
April 7, 2017: Nanotechnology
Yuval Aharonovich, Mickey Scheinowitz, Sharon Zlochiver
Heart exposure to 16Hz magnetic fields (MFs) was shown to be cardio-protective for diseased hearts; still, the mechanism of this effect is unknown. We hypothesize that a possible one mechanism is an increased trans-membrane KATP channel open probability due to modulation of the degree of dissociation between K+ ions, having a resonance frequency of 16Hz, and the channel selectivity filter. The Fan-Makielski Markovian KATP channel model was adopted, and the MF bio-effect was manifested by modulating the open probability of the channel using the predictive MF bio-effect parameter based on Binhi's quantum mechanics model...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Mario Tanomaru-Filho, Fernanda Ferrari Esteves Torres, Roberta Bosso-Martelo, Gisselle Moraima Chávez-Andrade, Idomeo Bonetti-Filho, Juliane Maria Guerreiro-Tanomaru
INTRODUCTION: Flow and filling ability are important properties of endodontic materials. The aim of this study was to propose a new technique for evaluating flow using micro-computed tomographic (μCT) imaging. METHODS: A glass plate was manufactured with a central cavity and 4 grooves extending out horizontally and vertically. The flow of MTA-Angelus (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil), zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE), and Biodentine (BIO) (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fossés, France) was evaluated using International Standards Organization (ISO) 6876/2002 and a new technique as follows: 0...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
Philipp Stock, Jacob I Monroe, Thomas Utzig, David J Smith, M Scott Shell, Markus Valtiner
Interactions between hydrophobic moieties steer ubiquitous processes in aqueous media, including the self-organization of biologic matter. Recent decades have seen tremendous progress in understanding these for macroscopic hydrophobic interfaces. Yet, it is still a challenge to experimentally measure hydrophobic interactions (HIs) at the single-molecule scale and thus to compare with theory. Here, we present a combined experimental-simulation approach to directly measure and quantify the sequence dependence and additivity of HIs in peptide systems at the single-molecule scale...
March 13, 2017: ACS Nano
Baldeep Chani, Veena Puri, Ranbir C Sobti, Vivekanand Jha, Sanjeev Puri
The multi-cellular nature of renal tissue makes it the most challenging organ for regeneration. Therefore, till date whole organ transplantations remain the definitive treatment for the end stage renal disease (ESRD). The shortage of available organs for the transplantation has, thus, remained a major concern as well as an unsolved problem. In this regard generation of whole organ scaffold through decellularization followed by regeneration of the whole organ by recellularization is being viewed as a potential alternative for generating functional tissues...
2017: PloS One
Yang Li, Yanqi Yang, Fei Shen, Gang Yang, Yanzong Zhang, Shihuai Deng, Jing Zhang, Yongmei Zeng, Yaodong Hu
Biochar (BC) produced from oak sawdust by slow pyrolysis was investigated to check the potential inhibition to early growth of tomato for phytotoxicity assessment. An inverted-U-shaped dose-response relationship between BC dosage and seed germination/seedling growth can be observed. Half maximal effective concentration (EC50), based on the inhibition rate of root and stem length, was 65.7 and 74.0 g kg(-1), respectively. At the highest BC dosage of 80.0 g kg(-1), germination rate, root, and shoot length were notably inhibited by 34...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tsinuel Girma, Anne-Louise Hother Nielsen, Pernille Kæstel, Alemseged Abdissa, Kim F Michaelsen, Henrik Friis, Jonathan C K Wells
INTRODUCTION: Despite expanding use of bio-impedance (BI), little is known about its pathophysiologic significance and biological correlates OBJECTIVE: Determine correlations of BI parameters with anthropometry and biomarkers of electrolyte homeostasis, inflammation and liver function in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). METHODS: We studied Ethiopian children with SAM (mid-arm circumference <11·0 cm or weight-for-height <70% of the NCHS growth reference median and/or nutritional oedema) at hospitalization...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Simo N Maduna, Charné Rossouw, Charlene da Silva, Michelle Soekoe, Aletta E Bester-van der Merwe
The common smooth-hound (Mustelus mustelus) is the topmost bio-economically and recreationally important shark species in southern Africa, western Africa, and Mediterranean Sea. Here, we used the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to develop novel microsatellite markers for Mustelus mustelus. Two microsatellite multiplex panels were constructed from 11 polymorphic loci and characterized in two populations of Mustelus mustelus representative of its South African distribution. The markers were then tested for cross-species utility in Galeorhinus galeus, Mustelus palumbes, and Triakis megalopterus, three other demersal coastal sharks also subjected to recreational and/or commercial fishery pressures in South Africa...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Hyun Young Kim, Jiyoung Seo, Tae-Hun Kim, Bomi Shim, Seok Mun Cha, Seungho Yu
This study examined the use of microbial community structure as a bio-indicator of decomposition levels. High-throughput pyrosequencing technology was used to assess the shift in microbial community of leachate from animal carcass lysimeter. The leachate samples were collected monthly for one year and a total of 164,639 pyrosequencing reads were obtained and used in the taxonomic classification and operational taxonomy units (OTUs) distribution analysis based on sequence similarity. Our results show considerable changes in the phylum-level bacterial composition, suggesting that the microbial community is a sensitive parameter affected by the burial environment...
February 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Hengyuan Liu, Nan Chen, Chuanping Feng, Shuang Tong, Rui Li
This study aimed to investigate the effect of electro-stimulation on denitrifying bacterial growth in a bio-electrochemical reactor, and the growth were modeled using modified Gompertz model under different current densities at three C/Ns. It was found that the similar optimum current density of 250mA/m(2) was obtained at C/N=0.75, 1.00 and 1.25, correspondingly the maximum nitrate removal efficiencies were 98.0%, 99.2% and 99.9%. Moreover, ATP content and cell membrane permeability of denitrifying bacteria were significantly increased at optimum current density...
February 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Filipe Natalio, Stefanie Wiese, Wolfgang Brandt, Ludger Wessjohann
Boron's unusual properties inspired major advances in chemistry. In Nature, the existence and importance of boron has been fairly explored (e.g. bacterial signaling, plant development) but its role as biological catalyst was never reported. Here, we show that boric acid [B(OH)3] can restore chloroperoxidase activity of Curvularia inaequalis recombinant apo-haloperoxidase's (HPO) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and chloride ions. Molecular modeling and semi-empirical PM7 calculations support a thermodynamically highly favored (bio)catalytic mechanism similarly to vanadium haloperoxidases (V-HPO) in which [B(OH)3] is assumedly located in apo-HPO's active site and a monoperoxyborate [B(OH)3(OOH)-] intermediate is formed and stabilized by interaction with specific active site amino acids leading ultimately to the formation of HOCl...
March 1, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Nina Graupner, David Labonte, Heide Humburg, Tayfun Buzkan, Anna Dörgens, Wiebke Kelterer, Jörg Müssig
Here we investigate the mechanical properties and structural design of the pericarp of the green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). The pericarp showed excellent impact characteristics, and mechanical tests of its individual components revealed gradients in stiffness, strength and elongation at break from the outer to the inner layer of the pericarp. In order to understand more about the potential effect of such gradients on 'bulk' material properties, we designed simple, graded, cellulose fibre-reinforced polylactide (PLA) composites by stacking layers reinforced with fibres of different mechanical properties...
February 28, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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