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Bio Similar

Bishnu P Joshi, Joseph Hardie, Michelle E Farkas
The accumulation of therapeutic and imaging agents at sites of interest is critical to their efficacy. Similarly, off-target effects (especially toxicity) are a major liability for these agents. For this reason, the use of delivery vehicles to improve the distribution characteristics of bio-active agents has become ubiquitous in the field. However, the majority of traditionally employed, cargo-bearing entities rely on passive accumulation. Even in cases where 'targeting' functionalities are used, the agents must first reach the site in order for the ligand-receptor interaction to occur...
March 15, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Orlando Contreras-López, Tomás C Moyano, Daniela C Soto, Rodrigo A Gutiérrez
The rapid increase in the availability of transcriptomics data generated by RNA sequencing represents both a challenge and an opportunity for biologists without bioinformatics training. The challenge is handling, integrating, and interpreting these data sets. The opportunity is to use this information to generate testable hypothesis to understand molecular mechanisms controlling gene expression and biological processes (Fig. 1). A successful strategy to generate tractable hypotheses from transcriptomics data has been to build undirected network graphs based on patterns of gene co-expression...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mamoru Fujiwara, Masanori Kawasaki, Norimitsu Hariguchi, Yongge Liu, Makoto Matsumoto
Delamanid, a bicyclic nitroimidazooxazole, is effective against M. tuberculosis. Previous studies have shown that resistance to a bicyclic nitroimidazooxazine, PA-824, is caused by mutations in an F420 -dependent bio-activation pathway. We investigated whether the same mechanisms are responsible for resistance to delamanid. Spontaneous resistance frequencies were determined using M. bovis BCG Tokyo (BCG) and M. tuberculosis H37Rv. F420 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) elution patterns of homogenates of delamanid-resistant BCG colonies and two previously identified delamanid-resistant M...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
G Capillo, S Silvestro, M Sanfilippo, E Fiorino, G Giangrosso, V Ferrantelli, I Vazzana, C Faggio
Faro Lake is a coastal meromictic lagoon with singular characteristics in the Mediterranean (Messina, Sicily - Italy). It is part of the Natural Oriented Reserve of Capo Peloro (38°15'57" N; 15° 37'50" E). In this area, traditional mollusc farming activity persists, producing "autochthonous" mussels. This study reports of the Mytilus galloprovincialis haemolymph chemical profile and water variables determination of one year-lasted survey (April 2016-March 2017). The determinations of electrolytes (Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, P inorganic) and heavy metals in both Faro lake water and haemolymph have been carried out...
March 9, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Nicholas L Payne, Carl G Meyer, James A Smith, Jonathan D R Houghton, Adam Barnett, Bonnie J Holmes, Itsumi Nakamura, Yannis P Papastamatiou, Mark A Royer, Daniel M Coffey, James M Anderson, Melanie R Hutchinson, Katsufumi Sato, Lewis G Halsey
The redistribution of species has emerged as one of the most pervasive impacts of anthropogenic climate warming, and presents many societal challenges. Understanding how temperature regulates species distributions is particularly important for mobile marine fauna such as sharks given their seemingly rapid responses to warming, and the socio-political implications of human encounters with some dangerous species. The predictability of species distributions can potentially be improved by accounting for temperature's influence on performance, an elusive relationship for most large animals...
March 8, 2018: Global Change Biology
Paulo Ranaivomanana, Mihaja Raberahona, Sedera Rabarioelina, Ysé Borella, Alice Machado, Mamy J De Dieu Randria, Rivo A Rakotoarivelo, Voahangy Rasolofo, Niaina Rakotosamimanana
Background: The primary site of infection for Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) is the alveolar macrophages. However, Mtb can disseminate into other organs and causes extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). The diagnosis of EPTB is challenging due to relatively inaccessible infectious sites that may be paucibacillary and with clinical symptoms varying by site that are similar to those seen in other diseases. Hence, we sought to identify the expression patterns of a variety of cytokines that may be specific to EPTB from in vitro infections and in the plasma of TB patients...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kaushik Das, Binay B Panda, Birendra P Shaw, Satya R Das, Sushanta K Dash, Ekamber Kariali, Pravat K Mohapatra
Physiological factors controlling assimilate partitioning was compared in relation to panicle architecture of lax- (Upahar) and compact-panicle (Mahalaxmi) rice cultivars. Grain number and ethylene production at anthesis are low, but filling rate is high in the former compared to high grain number and ethylene production and poor filling trait of the latter. Similar to Mahalaxmi, its progenitors Pankaj and Mahshuri, had attributes of high grain number and grain density, but grain filling was higher and ethylene evolution was lower...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shuai Zhang, Elizabeth R Gilbert, Kevin J T Noonan, Behnam Saremi, Eric A Wong
Common dietary supplemental methionine (Met) sources include DL-methionine (DL-Met) and the Met precursor DL-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (DL-HMTBA). For bio-utilization, D-Met and DL-HMTBA are converted into L-Met through oxidation and transamination. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different dietary supplemental Met sources on gene expression and enzyme activity of Met oxidases in male broiler chickens. Liver, muscle, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected at days 10 (d 10), 21 (d 21), and 26 (d 26) post-hatch from male broiler chickens that were fed a basal diet deficient in sulfur amino acids (SAA) (control), or the control diet supplemented with DL-Met, L-Met, or DL-HMTBA to meet SAA requirements...
March 5, 2018: Poultry Science
Franco Tassi, Stefano Fazi, Simona Rossetti, Paolo Pratesi, Marco Ceccotti, Jacopo Cabassi, Francesco Capecchiacci, Stefania Venturi, Orlando Vaselli
Volcanic lakes are characterized by physicochemical favorable conditions for the development of reservoirs of C-bearing greenhouse gases that can be dispersed to air during occasional rollover events. By combining a microbiological and geochemical approach, we showed that the chemistry of the CO2- and CH4-rich gas reservoir hosted within the meromictic Lake Averno (Campi Flegrei, southern Italy) are related to the microbial niche differentiation along the vertical water column. The simultaneous occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes operating under different conditions suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial consortia that impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases...
2018: PloS One
Quantan Wu, Hong Wang, Qing Luo, Writam Banerjee, Jingchen Cao, Xumeng Zhang, Facai Wu, Qi Liu, Ling Li, Ming Liu
Neuromorphic engineering is a promising technology for developing new computing systems owing to the low-power operation and the massive parallelism similarity to the human brain. Optimal function of neuronal networks requires interplay between rapid forms of Hebbian plasticity and homeostatic mechanisms that adjust the threshold for plasticity, termed metaplasticity. Metaplasticity has important implications in synapses and is barely addressed in neuromorphic devices. An understanding of metaplasticity might yield new insights into how the modification of synapses is regulated and how information is stored by synapses in the brain...
March 6, 2018: Nanoscale
Arianna Binello, Marta Giorgis, Clara Cena, Giancarlo Cravotto, Laura Rotolo, Paolo Oliveri, Cristina Malegori, Maria Chiara Cavallero, Stefania Buso, Monica Casale
BACKGROUD: For the processing industry, it is crucial to know what effect the roasting process and conditions have on hazelnut quality. The present study investigates, for the first time, on the effects of hot-air and infrared (IR) roasting at different time-temperature combinations on Tonda Gentile Trilobata hazelnut: whole kernels and derived processing products (paste and oil). RESULTS: Nutritional and physical characteristics of hazelnuts and processing products were determined to study the influence of the different roasting conditions as a function of the intended use...
March 5, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Damien Hall, Junichi Takagi, Haruki Nakamura
This issue of Biophysical Reviews, titled 'Multiscale structural biology: biophysical principles and mechanisms underlying the action of bio-nanomachines', is a collection of articles dedicated in honour of Professor Fumio Arisaka's 70th birthday. Initially, working in the fields of haemocyanin and actin filament assembly, Fumio went on to publish important work on the elucidation of structural and functional aspects of T4 phage biology. As his career has transitioned levels of complexity from proteins (hemocyanin) to large protein complexes (actin) to even more massive bio-nanomachinery (phage), it is fitting that the subject of this special issue is similarly reflective of his multiscale approach to structural biology...
March 2, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Anwar Hussain Phulpoto, Muneer Ahmed Qazi, Ihsan-Ul -Haq, Abdul Rahman Phul, Safia Ahmed, Nisar Ahmed Kanhar
The present study validates the oil-based paint bioremediation potential of Bacillus subtilis NAP1 for ecotoxicological assessment using a three-dimensional multi-species bio-testing model. The model included bioassays to determine phytotoxic effect, cytotoxic effect, and antimicrobial effect of oil-based paint. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of pre- and post-bioremediation samples was also detected to confirm its detoxification. Although, the pre-bioremediation samples of oil-based paint displayed significant toxicity against all the life forms...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mariam Itani, Nesreen Ghaddar, Djamel Ouahrani, Kamel Ghali, Beatrice Khater
Cooling vests incorporating phase change material (PCM) packets are used to improve comfort of workers in hot environments. This work aims to investigate by modeling and experimentation the effect of dividing the working duration into two bouts, where different PCM melting temperatures are used in each bout. An integrated bio-heat and fabric-PCM model predictions of physiological and subjective votes are validated via active human subject testing at hot conditions. A parametric study is performed to select, at two conditions (40°C and 45°C), the optimal PCM melting temperatures of the two bouts that would result with similar thermal comfort and sensation to the optimal single-bout case...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Chris Steffi, Zhilong Shi, Chee Hoe Kong, Wilson Wang
Biomaterial integration in bone depends on bone remodelling at the bone-implant interface. Optimal balance of bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone deposition by osteoblasts is crucial for successful implantation, especially in orthopaedic surgery. Most studies examined osteoblast differentiation on biomaterials, yet few research has been conducted to explore the effect of different orthopaedic implants on osteoclast development. This review covers, in detail, the biology of osteoclasts, in vitro models of osteoclasts, and modulation of osteoclast activity by different implant surfaces, bio-ceramics, and polymers...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
K A Papp, K B Gordon, R G Langley, M G Lebwohl, A B Gottlieb, S Rastogi, R Pillai, R J Israel
BACKGROUND: Biologics used increasingly used for treating moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Efficacy may differ in patients with previous biologics exposure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of previous biologic exposure on efficacy and safety of brodalumab and ustekinumab in moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. METHODS: Two placebo- and ustekinumab-controlled phase 3 clinical trials. Initial 12-week induction phase where patients were treated with brodalumab (210mg Q2W or 140mg Q2W), ustekinumab or placebo...
February 28, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Hossam E Emam, Osama M Darwesh, Reda M Abdelhameed
Bio-active synthetic fabrics based on polyester (PET) and Nylon were manufactured by in-situ formation of Cu-BTC metal organic framework (MOF). In-growth of Cu-BTC within fabrics was accomplished in one pot simple process. The scanning microscope, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectra were all confirmed the formation of Cu-BTC within fabrics structure and reflected the role of fabrics' building unit in the Cu-BTC preparation. The estimated contents of materials onto fabrics were ranged in 97.14-127.33 mg MOF/g fabric and 30...
February 13, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Michael J Landry, Frederic-Guillaume Rollet, Timothy E Kennedy, Christopher J Barrett
Growing primary cells and tissue in long-term cultures, such as primary neural cell culture, presents many challenges. A critical component of any environment that supports neural cell growth in vivo is an appropriate 2-D surface or 3-D scaffold, typically in the form of a thin polymer layer that coats an underlying plastic or glass substrate and aims to mimic critical aspects of extracellular matrix. A fundamental challenge to mimicking a hydrophilic, soft natural cell environment is that materials with these properties are typically fragile, and difficult to adhere and stabilize on an underlying plastic or glass cell culture substrate...
February 26, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Miquel Marin-Riera, Jacqueline Moustakas-Verho, Yoland Savriama, Jukka Jernvall, Isaac Salazar-Ciudad
From gastrulation to late organogenesis animal development involves many genetic and bio-mechanical interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. Ectodermal organs, such as hairs, feathers and teeth are well studied examples of organs whose development is based on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. These develop from a similar primordium through an epithelial folding and its interaction with the mesenchyme. Despite extensive knowledge on the molecular pathways involved, little is known about the role of bio-mechanical processes in the morphogenesis of these organs...
February 26, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Elena Piacenza, Alessandro Presentato, Raymond J Turner
In the last 15 years, the exploitation of biological systems (i.e. plants, bacteria, mycelial fungi, yeasts, and algae) to produce metal(loid) (Me)-based nanomaterials has been evaluated as eco-friendly and a cost-effective alternative to the chemical synthesis processes. Although the biological mechanisms of biogenic Me-nanomaterial (Bio-Me-nanomaterials) production are not yet completely elucidated, a key advantage of such bio-nanostructures over those chemically synthesized is related to their natural thermodynamic stability, with several studies ascribed to the presence of an organic layer surrounding these Bio-Me-nanostructures...
February 25, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
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