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D S Jemima Beulin, Deepthi Radhakrishnan, C S Sharanya, Chittalakottu Sadasivan, Masaya Yamaguchi, Shigetada Kawabata, Karthe Ponnuraj
Streptococcus pneumoniae, one of the major human respiratory pathogens, uses its repertoire of surface proteins to adhere to the epithelium of the nasopharynx and lungs leading to colonization. PfbA is a conserved surface protein of S. pneumoniae and helps the bacterium to colonize the host by recognizing the extracellular matrix (ECM) molecule fibronectin, as well as blood proteins like plasminogen and human serum albumin. The crystal structure of rPfbA150-607 revealed it to possess a beta helical region similar to those of carbohydrate-active enzymes as well as a C-terminal segment that resembles the fibronectin-binding regions of fibronectin-binding proteins...
August 16, 2017: FEBS Journal
N F N Stoikes, J R Scott, A Badhwar, C R Deeken, G R Voeller
PURPOSE: The objective was to evaluate the host response, resorption, and strength properties, and to assess the performance in the presence of bacteria for Phasix™ Mesh (Phasix™) and Gore(®) Bio-A(®) Tissue Reinforcement (Bio-A(®)) in preclinical models. METHODS: In a rat model, one mesh (2 × 2 cm) was implanted subcutaneously in n = 60 rats. Animals were euthanized after 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, or 24 weeks (n = 5/mesh/time point), and implant sites were assessed for host inflammatory response and overall fibrotic repair thickness...
August 16, 2017: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
Shuang Jiang, Mahshid Chekini, Zhi-Bei Qu, Yichun Wang, Aydan Yeltik, Yuangang Liu, Alex Kotlyar, Tianyong Zhang, Bin Li, Hilmi Volkan Demir, Nicholas A Kotov
The chirality of nanoparticles (NPs) and their assemblies has been investigated predominantly for noble metals and II-VI semiconductors. However, ceramic NPs represent the majority of nanoscale materials in Nature. The robustness and other innate properties of ceramics offer technological opportunities in catalysis, biomedical sciences, and optics. Here we report the preparation of chiral ceramic NPs, as represented by tungsten oxide hydrate, WO3-x·H2O, dispersed in ethanol. The chirality of the metal oxide core, with an average size of ca 1...
August 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Shasanka Sekhar Borkotoky, Prodyut Dhar, Vimal Katiyar
This article addresses the elegant and green approach for fabrication of bio-based poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/cellulose nanocrystal (CNCs) bionanocomposite foam (PLA/CNC) with cellular morphology and hydrophobic surface behavior. Highly porous (porosity >80%) structure is obtained with interconnected pores and the effect of CNCs in the cell density (Nf) and cell size of foams are thoroughly investigated by morphological analysis. The thermo-mechanical investigations are performed for the foam samples and almost ∼1...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Rocío Barreiro, Patricia Regal, Olga López-Racamonde, Alberto Cepeda, Cristina A Fente
The importance of dietary lipids during childhood is evident, as they are necessary for correct growth and development of the newborn. When breastfeeding is not possible, infant formulas are designed to mimic human milk as much as possible to fulfill infant's requirements. However, the composition of these dairy products is relatively constant, while human milk is not a uniform bio-fluid and changes according to the requirements of the baby. In this study, breast milk samples were donated by 24 Spanish mothers in different lactation stages and different infant formulas were purchased in supermarkets and pharmacies...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Hang Yao, Junpei Kang, Weichang Li, Jian Liu, Renjian Xie, Yingjun Wang, Sa Liu, Dong An Wang, Li Ren
Cartilage repairing graft had been widely studied and the osteochondral replacement hydrogels were proved to be an excellent method in research and clinical. However, it was difficult to solve three main issues in osteochondral replacement preparation at one time: surface lubrication, overall mechanical support and good simulations of cell regeneration. A novel integrated bilayered hydrogel osteochondral replacement was constructed by blending polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in this study...
August 9, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Cuong H Pham, Surinder Saggar, Cuong C Vu, Kevin R Tate, Thao T T Tran, Thi T Luu, Hanh T Ha, Huong L T Nguyen, Sven G Sommer
In developing countries, the simple biogas digesters installed underground without heating or stirring are seen as a 'green' technology to convert animal waste into biogas, a source of bio-energy. However, quantitative estimates of biogas production of manures from steers fed local feed diets at actual incubation temperatures have yet to be carried out. The aim of this study was to determine the methane (CH4) production potential of manures from steers in Vietnam offered traditional feed rations or supplemental diets...
August 5, 2017: Waste Management
Xiao-Hua Yu, Jing Zhao, Shu-Cheng Zhang, Jian-Hui Li, Jun-Biao Zheng, Zheng Li, Guo-Qing Liang, Hui-Juan Shi, Wei-Jin Zhou, Qian-Xi Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of age, BMI and sex hormone on aging males' symptoms (AMS) and the 5-item version of the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) scores in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Jiashan County. A total of 969 men, aged between 40 and 80 years old, were admitted. Physical examination and the sex hormones were measured, and AMS and IIEF-5 scores were assessed...
August 5, 2017: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
Ishaq Ahmad, Chi-Wai Kan
Bio-inspired engineering has been envisioned in a wide array of applications. All living bodies on Earth, including animals and plants, have well organized functional systems developed by nature. These naturally designed functional systems inspire scientists and engineers worldwide to mimic the system for practical applications by human beings. Researchers in the academic world and industries have been trying, for hundreds of years, to demonstrate how these natural phenomena could be translated into the real world to save lives, money and time...
November 3, 2016: Materials
Wenkun Zhu, Tao Chen, Yi Li, Jia Lei, Xin Chen, Weitang Yao, Tao Duan
This study was inspired by the unique multi-scale and multi-level 'brick-and-mortar' (B&M) structure of nacre layers. We prepared the B&M, environmentally-friendly graphene oxide-carrageenan (GO-Car) nanocomposite films using the following steps. A natural polyhydroxy polymer, carrageenan, was absorbed on the surface of monolayer GO nanosheets through hydrogen-bond interactions. Following this, a GO-Car hybridized film was produced through a natural drying process. We conducted structural characterization in addition to analyzing mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the films...
May 16, 2017: Materials
Jinghao Li, John F Hunt, Shaoqin Gong, Zhiyong Cai
This paper presents experimental results of both quasi-static compression and low-velocity impact behavior for tri-axial bio-composite structural panels using a spherical load head. Panels were made having different core and face configurations. The results showed that panels made having either carbon fiber fabric composite faces or a foam-filled core had significantly improved impact and compressive performance over panels without either. Different localized impact responses were observed based on the location of the compression or impact relative to the tri-axial structural core; the core with a smaller structural element had better impact performance...
February 15, 2017: Materials
Yinan Wang, Christian K Adokoh, Ravin Narain
Hydrogels are of special importance, owing to their high-water content and various applications in biomedical and bio-engineering research. Self-healing properties is a common phenomenon in living organisms. Their endowed property of being able to self-repair after physical/chemical/mechanical damage to fully or partially its original properties demonstrates their prospective therapeutic applications. Due to complicated preparation and selection of suitable materials, the application of many host-guest supramolecular polymeric hydrogels are so limited...
August 3, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Zhiwu Han, Zhengzhi Mu, Bo Li, Xiaoming Feng, Ze Wang, Junqiu Zhang, Shichao Niu, Luquan Ren
Structured surfaces, demonstrating various wondrous physicochemical performances, are ubiquitous phenomena in nature. Butterfly wings with impressive structural colors are an interesting example for multiscale hierarchical structures (MHSs). However, most natural structural colors are relatively unstable and highly sensitive to incident angles, which limit their potential practical applications to a certain extent. Here, we reported a bioinspired color reflector with omnidirectional reflective self-stable (ORS) properties, which is inspired by the wing scales of Papilio palinurus butterfly...
August 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Małgorzata Drewnowska, Anetta Hanć, Danuta Barałkiewicz, Jerzy Falandysz
Mushrooms are considered as potential bio-remediation agents in soil polluted with heavy metals, while many species which efficiently accumulate them in flesh are edible. Question is if there is any possible culinary use of edible mushrooms with high heavy metal contents? This study aimed to investigate and discuss a fate of cadmium (Cd) in common household-treated fruitbodies of common chanterelle Cantharellus cibarius. The samples of Cantharellus cibarius Fr. were collected from five spatially distanced sites in Poland in 2011-2012...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Vasilis Evangelidis, Jeff Jones, Nikolaos Dourvas, Michail-Antisthenis Tsompanas, Georgios Ch Sirakoulis, Andrew Adamatzky
Physarum Polycephalum is a single cell visible by unaided eye. This is a plasmodial, vegetative stage of acellular slime mould. This single cell has myriad of nuclei which contribute to a network of bio-chemical oscillators responsible for the slime mould's distributed sensing, concurrent information processing and decision making, and parallel actuation. When presented with a spatial configuration of sources of nutrients, the slime mould spans the sources with networks of its protoplasmic tube. These networks belong to a family of planar proximity graphs...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ida Lauritsen, Andreas Porse, Morten O A Sommer, Morten H H Nørholm
BACKGROUND: Plasmids are widely used and essential tools in molecular biology. However, plasmids often impose a metabolic burden and are only temporarily useful for genetic engineering, bio-sensing and characterization purposes. While numerous techniques for genetic manipulation exist, a universal tool enabling rapid removal of plasmids from bacterial cells is lacking. RESULTS: Based on replicon abundance and sequence conservation analysis, we show that the vast majority of bacterial cloning and expression vectors share sequence similarities that allow for broad CRISPR-Cas9 targeting...
August 2, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
Hallgeir Kismul, Pawan Acharya, Mala Ali Mapatano, Anne Hatløy
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of child stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is among the highest in the world. There is a need to systematically investigate how stunting operates at different levels of determination and identify major factors contributing to the development of stunting. The aim of this study was to look for key determinants of stunting in the DRC. METHODS: This study used data from the DRC Demographic Health Survey 2013-14 which included anthropometric measurement for 9030 under 5 year children...
August 1, 2017: BMC Public Health
Yi-Yang Yu, Chun-Hao Jiang, Chao Wang, Liu-Jun Chen, Hong-Yang Li, Quan Xu, Jian-Hua Guo
Rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühnis increasingly threatening rice production in China. DNA fingerprints of 220 R. solani strains isolated in 11 provinces of China were established by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR. Cluster analysis of strains isolated from the same region showed high similarity, indicating that the genetic diversity of R. solani strains is significantly related to geographical origin. We assessed potential bio-control abilities of bio-control agents (BCAs) by values according to inhibition zones against R...
October 2017: Microbiological Research
Wojtek Steffen, Fu Chong Ko, Jigar Patel, Victor Lyamichev, Tom Albert, Jörg Benz, Markus G Rudolph, Frank Bergmann, Thomas Streidl, Peter Kratzsch, Mara Boenitz-Dulat, Tobias Oelschlaegel, Michael Schraeml
Microbial transglutaminases (MTGs) catalyze the formation of Gln-Lys isopeptide bonds and are widely used for the crosslinking of proteins and peptides in food and biotechnological applications, for example, to improve the texture of protein-rich foods or in generating antibody-drug conjugates. Currently used MTGs have low substrate specificity, impeding their biotechnological use as enzymes that don't cross-react with nontarget substrates (i.e. as bio-orthogonal labeling systems). Here, we report the discovery of a MTG from Kutzneria albida (KalbTG) which exhibited no cross-reactivity with known MTG substrates or commonly used target proteins such as antibodies...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ivana K Parker, Krystin Ambrose Price, Tyana Singletary, Priya Srinivasan, James Smith, Kelly A Curtis
Evaluating antibody maturation provides valuable data to characterize immune responses to HIV infection and can provide insight into biomedical intervention efficacy. It is important to develop assays that evaluate antibody maturation in both plasma and mucosal compartments. The nonhuman primate model provides a controlled system to collect temporal data that are integral to assessing intervention strategies. We report the development of a novel multiplex assay, based on the Bio-Plex platform, to evaluate plasma and mucosal IgG and IgA avidity and maturation against simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in this controlled system...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
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