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Igf2 AND insulin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039048/sh2b1-modulates-chromatin-state-and-myod-occupancy-to-enhance-expressions-of-myogenic-genes
#1
Kuan-Wei Chen, Yu-Jung Chang, Chia-Ming Yeh, Yen-Ling Lian, Michael W Y Chan, Cheng-Fu Kao, Linyi Chen
As mesoderm-derived cell lineage commits to myogenesis, a spectrum of signaling molecules, including insulin growth factor (IGF), activate signaling pathways and ultimately instruct chromatin remodeling and the transcription of myogenic genes. MyoD is a key transcription factor during myogenesis. In this study, we have identified and characterized a novel myogenic regulator, SH2B1. Knocking down SH2B1 delays global chromatin condensation and decreases the formation of myotubes. SH2B1 interacts with histone H1 and is required for the removal of histone H1 from active transcription sites, allowing for the expressions of myogenic genes, IGF2 and MYOG...
December 27, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018293/dynamic-changes-in-dna-methylation-occur-during-the-first-year-of-life-in-preterm-infants
#2
Chinthika Piyasena, Jessy Cartier, Nadine Provençal, Tobias Wiechmann, Batbayar Khulan, Raju Sunderasan, Gopi Menon, Jonathan R Seckl, Rebecca M Reynolds, Elisabeth B Binder, Amanda J Drake
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth associates with a substantially increased risk of later cardiovascular disease and neurodevelopmental disorders. Understanding underlying mechanisms will facilitate the development of screening and intervention strategies to reduce disease risk. Changes in DNA methylation have been proposed as one mechanism linking the early environment with later disease risk. We tested the hypothesis that preterm birth associates with altered DNA methylation in genes encoding insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5), which appear particularly vulnerable to early life adversity...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007480/paternal-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-igf2-regulates-stem-cell-activity-during-adulthood
#3
Vilma Barroca, Daniel Lewandowski, Agnieszka Jaracz-Ros, Sylvie-Nathalie Hardouin
Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) belongs to the IGF/Insulin pathway, a highly conserved evolutionarily network that regulates growth, aging and lifespan. Igf2 is highly expressed in the embryo and in cancer cells. During mouse development, Igf2 is expressed in all sites where hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) successively expand, then its expression drops at weaning and becomes undetectable when adult HSC have reached their niches in bones and start to self-renew. In the present study, we aim to discover the role of IGF2 during adulthood...
February 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940961/imps-an-rna-binding-protein-family-that-provides-a-link-between-stem-cell-maintenance-in-normal-development-and-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Nils Degrauwe, Mario-Luca Suvà, Michalina Janiszewska, Nicolo Riggi, Ivan Stamenkovic
IMPs, also known as insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) messenger RNA (mRNA)-binding proteins (IGF2BPs), are highly conserved oncofetal RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that regulate RNA processing at several levels, including localization, translation, and stability. Three mammalian IMP paralogs (IMP1-3) have been identified that are expressed in most organs during embryogenesis, where they are believed to play an important role in cell migration, metabolism, and stem cell renewal. Whereas some IMP2 expression is retained in several adult mouse organs, IMP1 and IMP3 are either absent or expressed at very low levels in most tissues after birth...
November 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895308/epigenetic-inhibition-of-mir-663b-by-long-non-coding-rna-hotair-promotes-pancreatic-cancer-cell-proliferation-via-up-regulation-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-2
#5
Huihua Cai, Yong An, Xuemin Chen, Donglin Sun, Tongbing Chen, Yan Peng, Feng Zhu, Yong Jiang, Xiaozhou He
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly cancers with a poor prognosis. Although microRNAs are involving in the carcinogenesis and development of pancreatic cancer, little information is known regarding the role of miR-663b in pancreatic cancer. In this study, the expression of miR-663b in pancreatic cancer cells was down-regulated by hypermethylation in its putative promoter region, and overexpression of miR-663b repressed cell proliferation, invasion and migration, and induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells...
November 22, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894252/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-the-genetic-basis-underlying-the-seasonal-development-of-keratinized-nuptial-spines-in-leptobrachium-boringii
#6
Wei Zhang, Yue Guo, Jun Li, Li Huang, Eric Gilbert Kazitsa, Hua Wu
BACKGROUND: The expression of sexually selected traits often varies with populations' breeding cycles in many animals. The elucidation of mechanisms underlying the expression of such traits is a research topic in evolutionary biology; however, the genetic basis of the seasonal development of their expression remains unknown. Male Leptobrachium boringii develop keratinized nuptial spines on their upper jaw during the breeding season that fall off when the breeding season ends. To illuminate the genetic basis for the expression of this trait and its seasonal development, we assessed the de novo transcriptome for L...
November 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856936/reveglucosidase-alfa-bmn-701-an-igf-2-tagged-rhacid-%C3%AE-glucosidase-improves-respiratory-functional-parameters-in-a-murine-model-of-pompe-disease
#7
Jeff Peng, Jill Dalton, Mark Butt, Kristin Tracy, Derek Kennedy, Peter Haroldsen, Rhea Cahayag, Stephen Zoog, Charles A O'Neill, Laurie Tsuruda
Pompe disease is a rare neuromuscular disorder caused by an acid α-glucosidase (GAA) deficiency resulting in glycogen accumulation in muscle, leading to myopathy and respiratory weakness. Reveglucosidase alfa (BMN 701), is an insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) tagged rhGAA that enhances rhGAA cellular uptake via a glycosylation independent IGF2-binding region of the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR). These studies evaluated the effects of reveglucosidase alfa treatment on glycogen clearance in muscle relative to rhGAA as well as changes in respiratory function and glycogen clearance in respiratory related tissue in a Pompe mouse model (GAA(tm1Rabn))...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716032/expressed-alleles-of-imprinted-igf2-dlk1-and-meg3-colocalize-in-3d-preserved-nuclei-of-porcine-fetal-cells
#8
Yvette Lahbib-Mansais, Harmonie Barasc, Maria Marti-Marimon, Florence Mompart, Eddie Iannuccelli, David Robelin, Juliette Riquet, Martine Yerle-Bouissou
BACKGROUND: To explore the relationship between spatial genome organization and gene expression in the interphase nucleus, we used a genomic imprinting model, which offers parental-specific gene expression. Using 3D FISH in porcine fetal liver cells, we compared the nuclear organization of the two parental alleles (expressed or not) of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), a paternally imprinted gene located on chromosome 2. We investigated whether its nuclear positioning favors specific locus associations...
October 1, 2016: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708216/smoking-associated-lung-cancer-prevention-by-blockade-of-the-beta-adrenergic-receptor-mediated-insulin-like-growth-factor-receptor-activation
#9
Hye-Young Min, Hye-Jin Boo, Ho Jin Lee, Hyun-Ji Jang, Hye Jeong Yun, Su Jung Hwang, John Kendal Smith, Hyo-Jong Lee, Ho-Young Lee
Activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is associated with carcinogenesis, but its contribution to smoking-associated lung carcinogenesis is poorly understood. Here we show that a tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) activation via β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) is crucial for smoking-associated lung carcinogenesis. Treatment with NNK stimulated the IGF-1R signaling pathway in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which was suppressed by pharmacological or genomic blockade of β-AR and the downstream signaling including a Gβγ subunit of β-AR and phospholipase C (PLC)...
September 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687727/prohibitin-1-regulates-the-h19-igf2-axis-and-proliferation-in-hepatocytes
#10
Komal Ramani, Nirmala Mavila, Kwang Suk Ko, José M Mato, Shelly C Lu
Prohibitin 1 (PHB1) is a mitochondrial chaperone that regulates cell growth. Phb1 knock-out mice exhibit liver injury and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Phb1 knock-out livers show induction of tumor growth-associated genes, H19 and insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2). These genes are controlled by the imprinting control region (ICR) containing CCCTC-binding transcription factor (CTCF)-binding sites. Because Phb1 knock-out mice exhibited induction of H19 and Igf2, we hypothesized that PHB1-mediated regulation of the H19-Igf2 axis might control cell proliferation in normal hepatocytes...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667266/upregulation-of-ins-igf2-read-through-expression-and-identification-of-a-novel-ins-igf2-splice-variant-in-insulinomas
#11
Lene E Johannessen, Ioannis Panagopoulos, Sven-Petter Haugvik, Ivar Prydz Gladhaug, Sverre Heim, Francesca Micci
Fusion transcripts arising from the combination of exons residing on neighboring genes on the same chromosome may give rise to chimeric or novel proteins. Such read-through transcripts have been detected in different cancers where they may be of pathogenetic interest. In this study, we describe for the first time the expression of a read-through transcript in insulinomas, a functioning neuroendocrine pancreatic neoplasm. The read-through transcript INS-IGF2, composed of exons from the two genes proinsulin precursor (INS) and insulin‑like growth factor 2 (IGF2), both mapping to chromosomal subband 11p15...
November 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666821/the-tobacco-specific-carcinogen-operated-calcium-channel-promotes-lung-tumorigenesis-via-igf2-exocytosis-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#12
Hye-Jin Boo, Hye-Young Min, Hyun-Ji Jang, Hye Jeong Yun, John Kendal Smith, Quanri Jin, Hyo-Jong Lee, Diane Liu, Hee-Seok Kweon, Carmen Behrens, J Jack Lee, Ignacio I Wistuba, Euni Lee, Waun Ki Hong, Ho-Young Lee
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) binding to the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) induces Ca(2+) signalling, a mechanism that is implicated in various human cancers. In this study, we investigated the role of NNK-mediated Ca(2+) signalling in lung cancer formation. We show significant overexpression of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in association with IGF-1R activation in human preneoplastic lung lesions in smokers. NNK induces voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC)-intervened calcium influx in airway epithelial cells, resulting in a rapid IGF2 secretion via the regulated pathway and thus IGF-1R activation...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651310/chronic-stress-faciliates-lung-tumorigenesis-by-promoting-exocytosis-of-igf2-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#13
Hyun-Ji Jang, Hye-Jin Boo, Ho Jin Lee, Hye-Young Min, Ho-Young Lee
Molecular insights into how chronic stress affects lung tumorigenesis may offer new routes to chemoprevention. In this study, we show that chronic stress in mice chemically or genetically initiated for lung cancer leads to the release of norepinephrine (NE) and other catecholamines, thereby promoting lung tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, NE induced phosphorylation of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) through the β-adrenergic receptor (βAR)-PKA pathway. VDCC triggered calcium mobilization, thereby inducing activation of IGF-1R via exocytosis of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2)...
September 20, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650505/novel-deletion-in-11p15-5-imprinting-center-region-1-in-a-patient-with-beckwith-wiedemann-syndrome-provides-insight-into-distal-enhancer-regulation-and-tumorigenesis
#14
Nadine Bachmann, Roman Crazzolara, Florian Bohne, Dieter Kotzot, Kathrin Maurer, Thorsten Enklaar, Dirk Prawitt, Carsten Bergmann
BACKGROUND: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an early-onset overgrowth disorder with a high risk for embryonal tumors. It is mainly caused by dysregulation of imprinted genes on chromosome 11p15.5; however, the driving forces in the development of tumors are not fully understood. PROCEDURE: We report on a female patient presenting with macrosomia, macroglossia, organomegaly and extensive bilateral nephroblastomatosis. Adjuvant chemotherapy was initiated; however, the patient developed hepatoblastoma and Wilms tumor at 5 and 12 months of age, respectively...
September 21, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647425/rna-transcript-expression-of-igf-i-pi3k-pathway-components-in-regenerating-skeletal-muscle-is-sensitive-to-initial-injury-intensity
#15
Ronald W Matheny, Christopher T Carrigan, Mary N Abdalla, Alyssa V Geddis, Luis A Leandry, Carlos A Aguilar, Stuart S Hobbs, Maria L Urso
OBJECTIVE: Skeletal muscle regeneration is a complex process involving the coordinated input from multiple stimuli. Of these processes, actions of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways are vital; however, whether IGF-I or PI3K expression is modified during regeneration relative to initial damage intensity is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether mRNA expression of IGF-I/PI3K pathway components was differentially regulated during muscle regeneration in mice in response to traumatic injury induced by freezing of two different durations...
September 14, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643697/changes-in-insulin-like-growth-factor-signaling-alter-phenotypes-in-fragile-x-mice
#16
T L Wise
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited form of intellectual disability that is usually caused by expansion of a polymorphic CGG repeat in the 5' untranslated region of the X-linked FMR1 gene, which leads to hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing. Two non-neurological phenotypes of FXS are enlarged testes and connective tissue dysplasia, which could be caused by alterations in a growth factor signaling pathway. FXS patients also frequently have autistic-like symptoms, suggesting that the signaling pathways affected in FXS may overlap with those affected in autism...
September 19, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627078/-hypoglycemia-as-a-symptom-of-cancer-in-adults
#17
Zdeněk Fryšák, David Karásek
UNLABELLED: Decrease of blood glucose levels below 3 mmol/l is in fully developed cases accompanied by neuroglycopenic symptoms that may even lead to altered state of consciousness. The treating physician frequently faces a complicated situation. This may be due to inappropriately administered drugs including cases motivated by self-harm intentions (insulin, insulin secretagogues), or alcohol abuse. Undernourished people, or those afflicted with a serious systemic infection, end-stage liver or kidney diseases or with a failing heart, belong to a risk group...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621468/humanized-h19-igf2-locus-reveals-diverged-imprinting-mechanism-between-mouse-and-human-and-reflects-silver-russell-syndrome-phenotypes
#18
Stella K Hur, Andrea Freschi, Folami Ideraabdullah, Joanne L Thorvaldsen, Lacey J Luense, Angela H Weller, Shelley L Berger, Flavia Cerrato, Andrea Riccio, Marisa S Bartolomei
Genomic imprinting affects a subset of genes in mammals, such that they are expressed in a monoallelic, parent-of-origin-specific manner. These genes are regulated by imprinting control regions (ICRs), cis-regulatory elements that exhibit allele-specific differential DNA methylation. Although genomic imprinting is conserved in mammals, ICRs are genetically divergent across species. This raises the fundamental question of whether the ICR plays a species-specific role in regulating imprinting at a given locus...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614046/igf2-is-up-regulated-by-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-hepatocellular-carcinomas-and-is-an-actionable-oncogene-product-in-experimental-models
#19
Iris Martinez-Quetglas, Roser Pinyol, Daniel Dauch, Sara Torrecilla, Victoria Tovar, Agrin Moeini, Clara Alsinet, Anna Portela, Leonardo Rodriguez-Carunchio, Manel Solé, Amaia Lujambio, Augusto Villanueva, Swan Thung, Manel Esteller, Lars Zender, Josep M Llovet
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Effective treatments are urgently needed for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is usually diagnosed at advanced stages. Signaling via the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway is aberrantly activated in HCC by IGF2 overexpression. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of IGF2 overexpression and its oncogenic activities and evaluate the anti-tumor effects of reducing IGF2 signaling. METHODS: We obtained 228 HCC samples from patients who underwent liver resection, 168 paired non-tumor adjacent cirrhotic liver samples, and 10 non-tumor liver tissues from patients undergoing resection for hepatic hemangioma...
December 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596280/maternal-low-protein-diet-leads-to-placental-angiogenic-compensation-via-dysregulated-m1-m2-macrophages-and-tnf%C3%AE-expression-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#20
Emilie Vomhof-DeKrey, Diane Darland, Othman Ghribi, Amy Bundy, James Roemmich, Kate Claycombe
A maternal low-protein (LP) diet in Sprague-Dawley rats results in low birth weight, rapid adipose tissue catch-up growth, adult obesity, and insulin resistance. The placenta functions to fulfill the fetus' nutrient demands. Adequate angiogenic factor concentrations help to ensure normal growth and vasculature development of the placenta and, in turn, optimum maternal-to-fetal nutrient delivery. Maternal malnutrition creates a proinflammatory environment that leads to inhibition of placental tissue growth. Therefore, we hypothesized that a maternal LP diet will lead to abnormal angiogenesis via dysregulation of immune cells resulting in increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and reduced angiogenic factor expression...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
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