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Glutamine AND beta cells

Hao Zhang, Weipeng Su, Zhixiong Ying, Yueping Chen, Le Zhou, Yue Li, Jingfei Zhang, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may play beneficial roles against intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)-induced hepatic damage in suckling piglets. METHODS: Fourteen IUGR and seven normal birth weight (NBW) neonatal male piglets were selected. Piglets were weaned at 7 days of postnatal age and fed the control formula milk (NBW-CON and IUGR-CON groups) or the control formula milk supplemented with 1...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Fabiana K Ludka, Maurício P Cunha, Tharine Dal-Cim, Luisa Bandeira Binder, Leandra C Constantino, Caio M Massari, Wagner C Martins, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues, Carla I Tasca
Intracerebroventricular (icv) amyloid-beta (Aβ)1-40 infusion to mice has been demonstrated to cause neurotoxicty and depressive-like behavior and it can be used to evaluate antidepressant and neuroprotective effect of drugs. Atorvastatin is a widely used statin that has demonstrated antidepressant-like effect in predictable animal behavioral models and neuroprotective effect against Aβ1-40 infusion. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of in vivo atorvastatin treatment against Aβ1-40-induced changes in mood-related behaviors and biochemical parameters in ex vivo hippocampal slices from mice...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Chelsea M Griffith, Mi-Xin Xie, Wen-Ying Qiu, Andrew A Sharp, Chao Ma, Aihua Pan, Xiao-Xin Yan, Peter R Patrylo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition, neurofibrillary tangles and cognitive decline. Recent pharmacologic studies have found that ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels may play a role in AD and could be a potential therapeutic target. Interestingly, these channels are found in both neurons and astrocytes. One of the hallmarks associated with AD is reactive gliosis and a change in astrocytic function has been identified in several neuropathological conditions including AD...
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Lu An, Paul M Harrison
BACKGROUND: Prions are proteinaceous particles that propagate alternative protein conformations/states to further copies of the same proteins, and are transmitted from cell-to-cell, and organism-to-organism. Prions are usually made of the beta-sheet rich assemblies termed amyloid. The original prion protein PrP causes devastating neurodegenerative disorders in humans and other mammals. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, many prion-forming proteins have been observed; a prominent feature of these proteins is an intrinsically disordered domain rich in glutamine (Q) and asparagine (N) residues...
2016: Biology Direct
Ramesh Katam, Katsumi Sakata, Prashanth Suravajhala, Tibor Pechan, Devaiah M Kambiranda, Karamthot Sivasankar Naik, Baozhu Guo, Sheikh M Basha
UNLABELLED: Water stress (WS) predisposes peanut plants to fungal infection resulting in pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Major changes during water stress including oxidative stress, lead to destruction of photosynthetic apparatus and other macromolecules within cells. Two peanut cultivars with diverse drought tolerance characteristics were subjected to WS, and their leaf proteome was compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis complemented with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Arnulf H Koeppen, R Liane Ramirez, Alyssa B Becker, Joseph E Mazurkiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are highly vulnerable to frataxin deficiency in Friedreich ataxia (FA), an autosomal recessive disease due to pathogenic homozygous guanine-adenine-adenine trinucleotide repeat expansions in intron 1 of the FXN gene (chromosome 9q21.11). An immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence study of DRG in 15 FA cases and 12 controls revealed that FA causes major primary changes in satellite cells and inflammatory destruction of neurons. A panel of antibodies was used to reveal the cytoplasm of satellite cells (glutamine synthetase, S100, metabotropic glutamate receptors 2/3, excitatory amino acid transporter 1, ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 10, and cytosolic ferritin), gap junctions (connexin 43), basement membranes (laminin), mitochondria (ATP synthase subunit beta and frataxin), and monocytes (CD68 and IBA1)...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Laleh Shariati, Mehran Modaress, Hossein Khanahmad, Zahra Hejazi, Mohammad Amin Tabatabaiefar, Mansoor Salehi, Mohammad Hossein Modarressi
OBJECTIVE: To compare methods for erythroid differentiation of K562 cells that will be promising in the treatment of beta-thalassemia by inducing γ-globin synthesis. RESULTS: Cells were treated separately with: RPMI 1640 medium without glutamine, RPMI 1640 medium without glutamine supplemented with 1 mM sodium butyrate, RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 1 mM sodium butyrate, 25 µg cisplatin/ml, 0.1 µg cytosine arabinoside/ml. The highest differentiation (84 %) with minimum toxicity was obtained with cisplatin at 15 µg /ml...
August 2016: Biotechnology Letters
Marina Delic-Sarac, Selma Mutevelic, Jasenko Karamehic, Djemo Subasic, Tomislav Jukic, Jozo Coric, Ognjen Ridjic, Mirsad Panjeta, Lejla Zunic
INTRODUCTION: Anti GAD (antibodies on glutamic acid decarboxylase) and anti-IA2 antibodies (against tyrosine phosphatase), today, have their place and importance in diagnosis and prognosis of Type 1 diabetes. Huge number of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 have these antibodies. Insulin antibodies are of critical importance in diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 1 for pediatric population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During 2014, the samples of 80 patients from Clinical Center University Sarajevo (CCUS) Pediatrics clinic's, Endocrinology department were analyzed on anti-GAD and IA2 antibodies...
February 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
Wangfei Wang, Constance J Jeffery
Proteins expressed on the bacterial cell surface play important roles in infection and virulence and can be targets for vaccine development or used as biomarkers. Surprisingly, an increasing number of surface proteins are being found to be identical to intracellular enzymes and chaperones, and a few dozen intracellular/surface moonlighting proteins have been found that have different functions inside the cell and on the cell surface. The results of twenty-two published bacterial surface proteomics studies were analyzed using bioinformatics tools to consider how many additional intracellular proteins are also found on the cell surface...
April 26, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
K S Antonets, K V Volkov, A L Maltseva, L M Arshakian, A P Galkin, A A Nizhnikov
Amyloids are protein fibrils adopting structure of cross-beta spine exhibiting either pathogenic or functionally significant properties. In prokaryotes, there are several groups of functional amyloids; however, all of them were identified by specialized approaches that do not reveal all cellular amyloids. Here, using our previously developed PSIA (Proteomic Screening and Identification of Amyloids) approach, we have conducted a proteomic screening for candidates for novel amyloid-forming proteins in Escherichia coli as one of the most important model organisms and biotechnological objects...
January 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Lu An, David Fitzpatrick, Paul M Harrison
BACKGROUND: Prions are transmissible, propagating alternative states of proteins, and are usually made from the fibrillar, beta-sheet-rich assemblies termed amyloid. Prions in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae propagate heritable phenotypes, uncover hidden genetic variation, function in large-scale gene regulation, and can act like diseases. Almost all these amyloid prions have asparagine/glutamine-rich (N/Q-rich) domains. Other proteins, that we term here 'prionogenic amyloid formers' (PAFs), have been shown to form amyloid in vivo, and to have N/Q-rich domains that can propagate heritable states in yeast cells...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Vadivel Parthsarathy, Nigel Irwin, Annie Hasib, Christine M Martin, Stephen McClean, Vikas K Bhat, Ming T Ng, Peter R Flatt, Victor A Gault
BACKGROUND: Xenin-25 is a K-cell derived gut peptide with insulin-releasing activity which is rapidly degraded following release into the circulation. We hypothesized that substitution of all naturally-occurring Lys and Arg residues with Gln would lead to prolonged enzyme resistance and enhanced biological efficacy. METHODS: Peptide stability was assessed using murine plasma, in vitro insulin-releasing actions evaluated in BRIN-BD11 cells and acute glucose-lowering and insulin-releasing actions examined in high fat fed mice...
April 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Mariana F Rodrigues, Emilie Obre, Fabiana H M de Melo, Gilson C Santos, Antonio Galina, Miriam G Jasiulionis, Rodrigue Rossignol, Franklin D Rumjanek, Nivea D Amoêdo
Tumours display different cell populations with distinct metabolic phenotypes. Thus, subpopulations can adjust to different environments, particularly with regard to oxygen and nutrient availability. Our results indicate that progression to metastasis requires mitochondrial function. Our research, centered on cell lines that display increasing degrees of malignancy, focused on metabolic events, especially those involving mitochondria, which could reveal which stages are mechanistically associated with metastasis...
March 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
Ilknur Alsan Cetin, Beste M Atasoy, Serap Cilaker, Lutfiye Zumre Arican Alicikus, Meral Karaman, Nevin Ersoy, Ayse Nur Demiral, Osman Yilmaz
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a specific diet, containing beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, L-glutamine and L-arginine (HMB/Glu/Arg), on chemoradiation-induced injuries of the rat gastrointestinal mucosa. Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups: control (n = 5); radiation (n = 14); 5-fluorouracil treatment (5-FU; n = 14); and radiation and 5-FU treatment (n = 14). Rats were fed either a standard diet or a specific diet (SpD) containing HMB/Glu/Arg supplementation for 7 days prior to radiation exposure and/or 5-FU treatment...
October 2015: Radiation Research
Salil Kumar Bhowmik, Esmeralda Ramirez-Peña, James Michael Arnold, Vasanta Putluri, Nathalie Sphyris, George Michailidis, Nagireddy Putluri, Stefan Ambs, Arun Sreekumar, Sendurai A Mani
Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induces cancer stem cell (CSC) characteristics and promotes tumor invasiveness; however relatively little is known about the metabolic reprogramming in EMT. Here we show that breast epithelial cells undergo metabolic reprogramming following EMT. Relative to control, cell lines expressing EMT transcription factors show ≥1.5-fold accumulation of glutamine, glutamate, beta-alanine and glycylleucine as well as ≥1.5-fold reduction of phosphoenolpyruvate, urate, and deoxycarnitine...
December 15, 2015: Oncotarget
Ursula Greferath, Emily E Anderson, Andrew I Jobling, Kirstan A Vessey, Gemma Martinez, Robb U de Iongh, Michael Kalloniatis, Erica L Fletcher
While photoreceptor loss is the most devastating result of inherited retinal degenerations such as retinitis pigmentosa, inner retinal neurons also undergo significant alteration. Detailing these changes has become important as many vision restorative therapies target the remaining neurons. In this study, the rd1-Fos-Tau-LacZ (rd1-FTL) mouse model was used to explore inner retinal change at a late stage of retinal degeneration, after the loss of photoreceptor nuclei. The rd1-FTL model carries a mutation in the phosphodiesterase gene, Pde6b, and an axonally targeted transgenic beta galactosidase reporter system under the control of the c-fos promoter...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Rasha M Hussein, Reem M Hashem, Laila A Rashed
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation and aggregation of extracellular amyloid β (Aβ) peptides and intracellular aggregation of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein. Recent evidence indicates that accumulation and aggregation of intracellular amyloid β peptides may also play a role in disease pathogenesis. This would suggest that intracellular Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) that maintain cellular protein homeostasis might be candidates for disease amelioration...
2015: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Clifford J Cookman, Scott M Belcher
Medulloblastoma (Med) is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. The role of ESR2 [estrogen receptor (ER)-β] in promoting Med growth was comprehensively examined in three in vivo models and human cell lines. In a novel Med ERβ-null knockout model developed by crossing Esr2(-/-) mice with cerebellar granule cell precursor specific Ptch1 conditional knockout mice, the tumor growth rate was significantly decreased in males and females. The absence of Esr2 resulted in increased apoptosis, decreased B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), and IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) expression, and decreased levels of active MAPKs (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (AKT)...
July 2015: Endocrinology
Accalia Fu, Karine Robitaille, Brandon Faubert, Courtney Reeks, Xiao-Qing Dai, Alexandre B Hardy, Krishana S Sankar, Svetlana Ogrel, Osama Y Al-Dirbashi, Jonathan V Rocheleau, Michael B Wheeler, Patrick E MacDonald, Russell Jones, Robert A Screaton
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Precise regulation of insulin secretion by the pancreatic beta cell is essential for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Insulin secretory activity is initiated by the stepwise breakdown of ambient glucose to increase cellular ATP via glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. Knockout of Lkb1, the gene encoding liver kinase B1 (LKB1) from the beta cell in mice enhances insulin secretory activity by an undefined mechanism. Here, we sought to determine the molecular basis for how deletion of Lkb1 promotes insulin secretion...
July 2015: Diabetologia
Lara Console, Mariafrancesca Scalise, Zlatina Tarmakova, Imogen R Coe, Cesare Indiveri
The human amino acid transporter SLC1A5 (ASCT2) contains two N-glycosylation sites (N163 and N212) located in the large extracellular loop. In the homology structural model of ASCT2 these Asn residues are extracellularly exposed. Mutants of the two Asn exhibited altered electrophoretic mobility. N163Q and N212Q displayed multiple bands with apparent molecular masses from 80kDa to 50kDa. N163/212Q displayed a single band of 50kDa corresponding to the unglycosylated protein. The presence in membrane of WT and mutants was evaluated by protein biotinylation assay followed by immunoblotting...
July 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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