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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079611/it-is-just-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder%C3%A2-or-is-it
#1
Dana C Won, Christian Guilleminault, Peter J Koltai, Stacey D Quo, Martin T Stein, Irene M Loe
Carly is a 5-year-old girl who presents for an interdisciplinary evaluation due to behaviors at school and home suggestive of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parent report of preschool teacher concerns was consistent with ADHD. Psychological testing showed verbal, visual-spatial, and fluid reasoning IQ scores in the average range; processing speed and working memory were below average. Carly's behavior improved when her mother left the room, and she was attentive during testing with a psychologist...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077034/written-reflection-in-assessment-and-appraisal-gp-and-gp-trainee-views
#2
Pamela Curtis, Gordon Taylor, Ruth Riley, Tom Pelly, Michael Harris
BACKGROUND: In the UK, evidence of written reflection is part of licensing and revalidation for general practitioners (GPs). However, there is little evidence of specific benefits compared to other forms of reflective practice. AIM: To seek GPs' and general practice (GP) trainees' views on the role of written reflection in learning and assessment. DESIGN AND SETTING: An online survey of 1005 GPs and GP trainees (GPTs) in the UK. METHOD: An anonymous questionnaire containing 38 attitudinal items was administered...
January 12, 2017: Education for Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076596/prevalence-of-inter-hemispheric-asymetry-in-children-and-adolescents-with-interdisciplinary-diagnosis-of-non-verbal-learning-disorder
#3
Alessandra Bernardes Caturani Wajnsztejn, Bianca Bianco, Caio Parente Barbosa
Objective: To describe clinical and epidemiological features of children and adolescents with interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder and to investigate the prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry in this population group. Methods: Cross-sectional study including children and adolescents referred for interdisciplinary assessment with learning difficulty complaints, who were given an interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder...
October 2016: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072417/dopaminergic-dynamics-underlying-sex-specific-cocaine-reward
#4
Erin S Calipari, Barbara Juarez, Carole Morel, Deena M Walker, Michael E Cahill, Efrain Ribeiro, Ciorana Roman-Ortiz, Charu Ramakrishnan, Karl Deisseroth, Ming-Hu Han, Eric J Nestler
Although both males and females become addicted to cocaine, females transition to addiction faster and experience greater difficulties remaining abstinent. We demonstrate an oestrous cycle-dependent mechanism controlling increased cocaine reward in females. During oestrus, ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neuron activity is enhanced and drives post translational modifications at the dopamine transporter (DAT) to increase the ability of cocaine to inhibit its function, an effect mediated by estradiol. Female mice conditioned to associate cocaine with contextual cues during oestrus have enhanced mesolimbic responses to these cues in the absence of drug...
January 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070910/formation-of-orthographic-representations-in-spanish-dyslexic-children-the-role-of-syllable-complexity-and-frequency
#5
Paz Suárez-Coalla, Fernando Cuetos
Recent studies have suggested that Spanish children with dyslexia have difficulty storing orthographic representations of new words. But given that the syllable plays an important role in word recognition in Spanish, it is possible that the formation of orthographic representations is influenced by the characteristics of the syllables that make up the words. The objective of this study was to determine whether syllabic frequency and syllabic complexity influence orthographic learning in children with dyslexia...
January 9, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069580/learning-from-appraisal-could-help-to-spot-doctors-in-difficulty-say-researchers
#6
Abi Rimmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068401/advantages-of-synthetic-noise-and-machine-learning-for-analyzing-radioecological-data-sets
#7
Igor Shuryak
The ecological effects of accidental or malicious radioactive contamination are insufficiently understood because of the hazards and difficulties associated with conducting studies in radioactively-polluted areas. Data sets from severely contaminated locations can therefore be small. Moreover, many potentially important factors, such as soil concentrations of toxic chemicals, pH, and temperature, can be correlated with radiation levels and with each other. In such situations, commonly-used statistical techniques like generalized linear models (GLMs) may not be able to provide useful information about how radiation and/or these other variables affect the outcome (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066703/how-common-are-wm-deficits-in-children-with-difficulties-in-reading-and-mathematics
#8
Susan E Gathercole, Francesca Woolgar, Rogier A Kievit, Duncan Astle, Tom Manly, Joni Holmes
The extent to which deficits in working memory (WM) are characteristic of children with reading and mathematics difficulties was investigated in a large sample aged 5-15 years reported to have problems in attention, learning and memory. WM performance was highly correlated with reading and mathematics scores. Although deficits in individual tests of short-term memory (STM) and WM occurred in less than half of the children with detected learning difficulties, three-quarters of the children with low reading and mathematics scores obtained one or more WM scores in the deficit range...
December 2016: Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060982/-ethical-dilemmas-about-disclosure-of-errors-in-medicine
#9
Sebastián Lavanderos, Juan Pedraza, Moisés Russo N, Sofía P Salas
Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine’s report “To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System” awareness of the importance of medical errors has increased. These are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and recent studies suggest that they can be the third leading cause of death in the United States. Difficulties have been identified by health personnel to prevent, detect and disclose to patients the occurrence of a medical error, an also to report them to the appropriate authorities. Although human error cannot be eliminated, it is possible to design safety systems to mitigate their frequency and consequences...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059566/early-verb-action-and-noun-object-mapping-across-sensory-modalities-a-neuro-developmental-view
#10
Lakshmi Gogate, George Hollich
The authors provide an alternative to the traditional view that verbs are harder to learn than nouns by reviewing three lines of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence in word-mapping development across cultures. First, preverbal infants tune into word-action and word-object pairings using domain-general mechanisms. Second, while post-verbal infants from noun-friendly language environments experience verb-action mapping difficulty, infants from verb-friendly language environments do not. Third, children use language-specific conventions to learn all types of words, although still strongly influenced by their language environment...
January 6, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055941/a-dynamic-neighborhood-learning-based-gravitational-search-algorithm
#11
Aizhu Zhang, Genyun Sun, Jinchang Ren, Xiaodong Li, Zhenjie Wang, Xiuping Jia
Balancing exploration and exploitation according to evolutionary states is crucial to meta-heuristic search (M-HS) algorithms. Owing to its simplicity in theory and effectiveness in global optimization, gravitational search algorithm (GSA) has attracted increasing attention in recent years. However, the tradeoff between exploration and exploitation in GSA is achieved mainly by adjusting the size of an archive, named Kbest, which stores those superior agents after fitness sorting in each iteration. Since the global property of Kbest remains unchanged in the whole evolutionary process, GSA emphasizes exploitation over exploration and suffers from rapid loss of diversity and premature convergence...
December 30, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055849/hetero-manifold-regularisation-for-cross-modal-hashing
#12
Feng Zheng, Yi Tang, Ling Shao
Recently, cross-modal search has attracted considerable attention but remains a very challenging task because of the integration complexity and heterogeneity of the multi-modal data. To address both challenges, in this paper, we propose a novel method termed hetero-manifold regularisation (HMR) to supervise the learning of hash functions for efficient cross-modal search. A hetero-manifold integrates multiple sub-manifolds defined by homogeneous data with the help of cross-modal supervision information. Taking advantages of the hetero-manifold, the similarity between each pair of heterogeneous data could be naturally measured by three order random walks on this hetero-manifold...
December 28, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055142/executive-functions-deficits-impair-extinction-of-generalization-of-fear-of-movement-related-pain
#13
N G Niederstrasser, A Meulders, M Meulders, D Struyf, J W Vlaeyen
BACKGROUND: Generalization of fear of movement-related pain across novel but similar movements can lead to fear responses to movements that are actually not associated with pain. The peak-shift effect describes a phenomenon whereby particular novel movements elicit even greater fear responses than the original pain-provoking movement (CS+), because they represent a more extreme version of the CS+. There is great variance in the propensity to generalize as well as the speed of extinction learning when these novel movements are not followed by pain...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054796/robust-social-categorization-emerges-from-learning-the-identities-of-very-few-faces
#14
Robin S S Kramer, Andrew W Young, Matthew G Day, A Mike Burton
Viewers are highly accurate at recognizing sex and race from faces-though it remains unclear how this is achieved. Recognition of familiar faces is also highly accurate across a very large range of viewing conditions, despite the difficulty of the problem. Here we show that computation of sex and race can emerge incidentally from a system designed to compute identity. We emphasize the role of multiple encounters with a small number of people, which we take to underlie human face learning. We use highly variable everyday 'ambient' images of a few people to train a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model on identity...
January 5, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052091/sense-of-accomplishment-is-modulated-by-a-proper-level-of-instruction-and-represented-in-the-brain-reward-system
#15
Tomoya Nakai, Hironori Nakatani, Chihiro Hosoda, Yulri Nonaka, Kazuo Okanoya
Problem-solving can be facilitated with instructions or hints, which provide information about given problems. The proper amount of instruction that should be provided for learners is controversial. Research shows that tasks with intermediate difficulty induce the largest sense of accomplishment (SA), leading to an intrinsic motivation for learning. To investigate the effect of instructions, we prepared three instruction levels (No hint, Indirect hint, and Direct hint) for the same insight-problem types. We hypothesized that indirect instructions impose intermediate difficulty for each individual, thereby inducing the greatest SA per person...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045758/a-virtual-reality-simulation-model-of-spinal-ultrasound-role-in-teaching-spinal-sonoanatomy
#16
Reva Ramlogan, Ahtsham U Niazi, Rongyu Jin, James Johnson, Vincent W Chan, Anahi Perlas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound assessment of the lumbar spine improves the success of spinal and epidural anesthesia, especially for patients with underlying difficult anatomy. To assist with the teaching and learning of ultrasound-guided neuraxial anesthesia, we have created an online interactive educational model (http://www.usra.ca/vspine.php and http://pie.med.utoronto.ca/vspine). The aim of the current study was to determine whether the virtual spine model improved the knowledge of neuraxial anatomy and sonoanatomy...
December 29, 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040136/clinical-findings-and-molecular-cytogenetic-study-of-de-novo-pure-chromosome-9p-deletion-pre-and-postnatal-diagnosis
#17
Qiao-Fang Hou, Dong Wu, Yan Chu, Shi-Xiu Liao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this report is to describe the phenotype-genotype correlation of chromosome 9p deletion syndrome cases, particularly the prenatal cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 30-year-old woman was referred to a hospital at 19(+1) weeks of gestation because of omphalocele detected in the fetus. The conventional karyotyping analysis and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) were utilized for the prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling in the fetus...
December 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039782/reduced-sensitivity-to-social-priors-during-action-prediction-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
Valerian Chambon, Chlöé Farrer, Elisabeth Pacherie, Pierre O Jacquet, Marion Leboyer, Tiziana Zalla
An extensive amount of evidence has documented a diminished ability to predict and understand other people's action in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Recently, two theoretical accounts, the "Hypo-priors" and the "Aberrant precision" hypotheses, have suggested that attenuated Bayesian priors or an imbalance of the precision ascribed to sensory evidence relative to prior expectations may be responsible for the atypical perceptual experience and difficulties with action understanding in ASD...
December 28, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039097/skills-comparison-in-pediatric-residents-using-a-2-dimensional-versus-a-3-dimensional-high-definition-camera-in-a-pediatric-laparoscopic-simulator
#19
Riccardo Guanà, Luisa Ferrero, Salvatore Garofalo, Alessia Cerrina, Davide Cussa, Alberto Arezzo, Jurgen Schleef
INTRODUCTION: Advantages in 3-dimensional (3D) laparoscopy are mostly described in adults for better depth perception, precise visualization of anatomical structures, as well as for complex surgical maneuvers in small spaces. Using Visionsense III stereoscopic endoscopy system (Neuromed Spa), we performed a comparative study between surgical skills achievements using 2-dimensional (2D) and 3D laparoscopic equipment in a pediatric laparoscopic surgery simulator model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three skills were evaluated both in 2D and 3D modalities...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035919/investigation-on-the-role-of-bdnf-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-benefits-of-blueberry-extracts-for-the%C3%A2-improvement-of-learning-and-memory-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#20
Long Tan, Hongpeng Yang, Wei Pang, Haiqiang Li, Wei Liu, Shoudan Sun, Nan Song, Wanqi Zhang, Yugang Jiang
BACKGROUND: Blueberry (BB) can provide a wide range of antioxidant benefits for AD. There have amounts of evidences shown that BB extracts could improve brain functions. However, the details are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we aimed to investigate the possible mechanism involved in the improvement of learning and memory capacity from BB extracts in AD. METHODS: APP/PS1 transgenic mice were fed BB extracts for 16 weeks. The capacity of learning and memory was assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) test, and long-term potentiation (LTP) was determined to evaluate hippocampal neuronal plasticity at the end of administration...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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