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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166393/implicit-theories-concerning-the-intelligence-of-individuals-with-down-syndrome
#1
Claire Enea-Drapeau, Michèle Carlier, Pascal Huguet
Studies over the past three decades have shown that learning difficulties are not only determined by neurological disorders, but also by motivational and/or socio-cognitive factors Among these factors, implicit theories of intelligence (also referred to as conceptions, mindsets or beliefs about intelligence) are key elements. The belief that intelligence is fixed (entity theory), as opposed to malleable (incremental theory), is generally associated with negative teaching practices and poorer student outcomes, yet beliefs about the intelligence of individuals with intellectual disabilities have not received much attention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165654/infusions-of-nerve-growth-factor-into-the-developing-frontal-cortex-leads-to-deficits-in-behavioral-flexibility-and-increased-perseverance
#2
Sagar J Desai, Brian L Allman, Nagalingam Rajakumar
In the pursuit of further establishing a neurodevelopmental animal model to investigate the mechanisms underlying impaired executive function, a core and severely debilitating symptom of schizophrenia, we sought to characterize the deficits in behavioral flexibility in adult rats following neonatal infusions of nerve growth factor (NGF) into the medial part of the developing frontal cortex. Our previous studies using this neonatal frontal cortical lesion model have shown that it leads to adult-onset positive and negative symptom-like features, and several neuropathological abnormalities of schizophrenia...
November 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165584/carers-as-system-navigators-exploring-sources-processes-and-outcomes-of-structural-burden
#3
Laura M Funk, Lisette Dansereau, Sheila Novek, Barbara J Bowers
Background and Objectives: Structural features of formal care systems influence the amount, difficulty, and complexity of what carers do as they interface with those systems. In this study, we explored how carers navigate health and social care systems, and their experiences of structural burden related to features such as complexity and fragmentation. Research Design and Methods: This qualitative descriptive inquiry drew on data from in-person interviews with 32 carers of older adults, which were analyzed first using inductive thematic analysis and then using structural burden as a conceptual lens...
November 19, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165015/lessons-learned-from-volar-plate-fixation-of-scaphoid-fracture-nonunions
#4
Seth D Dodds, John B Williams, Max Seiter, Clark Chen
Treating scaphoid nonunions presents difficulties particularly when there is bone loss, significant humpback deformity or avascular necrosis. We describe a new type of fixation with a volar scaphoid plate that adds to the methods of internal fixation that are available for the treatment of recalcitrant scaphoid nonunions. We will also discuss 'lessons learned' from a cases series. The case series includes 20 consecutive patients treated with volar buttress plating and a pedicled vascularized bone graft from the ipsilateral volar distal radius...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164086/a-novel-missense-mutation-of-the-nsd1-gene-associated-with-overgrowth-in-three-generations-of-an-italian-family-case-report-differential-diagnosis-and-review-of-mutations-of-nsd1-gene-in-familial-sotos-syndrome
#5
Gianluigi Laccetta, Francesca Moscuzza, Angela Michelucci, Andrea Guzzetta, Sara Lunardi, Francesca Lorenzoni, Paolo Ghirri
Sotos syndrome (SoS) is characterized by overgrowth of prenatal onset, learning disability, and characteristic facial appearance; it is usually due to haploinsufficiency of NSD1 gene at chromosome 5q35. An Italian child was born at 37 weeks of gestation (weight 2,910 g, 25th-50th centiles; length 50 cm, 75th centile; head circumference 36 cm, 97th centile) showing cryptorchidism on the right side, hypertelorism, dolichocephaly, broad and prominent forehead, and narrow jaw; the pregnancy was worsened by maternal preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, and his mother had a previous history of four early miscarriages...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163285/effects-of-phonological-training-on-the-reading-and-reading-related-abilities-of-hong-kong-children-with-dyslexia
#6
Li-Chih Wang
This study aimed to investigate phonological awareness training by examining outcomes among Chinese children who learn Chinese without phonetic system training. Fifty-six Hong Kong children from the 3rd to 6th grades were recruited. Two-thirds of the children had been officially identified as dyslexic by the local government, and the remainder were considered high risk for dyslexia. The children were divided equally into a control group and an experimental group, with the groups matched as closely as possible by age and gender...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162571/classroom-promotion-of-oral-language-cpol-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-school-based-intervention-to-improve-children-s-literacy-outcomes-at-grade-3-oral-language-and-mental-health
#7
Sharon Goldfeld, Pamela Snow, Patricia Eadie, John Munro, Lisa Gold, Ha N D Le, Francesca Orsini, Beth Shingles, Katherine Lee, Judy Connell, Amy Watts
INTRODUCTION: Oral language and literacy competence are major influences on children's developmental pathways and life success. Children who do not develop the necessary language and literacy skills in the early years of school then go on to face long-term difficulties. Improving teacher effectiveness may be a critical step in lifting oral language and literacy outcomes. The Classroom Promotion of Oral Language trial aims to determine whether a specifically designed teacher professional learning programme focusing on promoting oral language can lead to improved teacher knowledge and practice, and advance outcomes in oral language and literacy for early years school children, compared with usual practice...
November 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162190/early-life-stress-fk506-binding-protein-5-gene-fkbp5-methylation-and-inhibition-related-prefrontal-function-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#8
Madeline B Harms, Rasmus Birn, Nadine Provencal, Tobias Wiechmann, Elisabeth B Binder, Sebastian W Giakas, Barbara J Roeber, Seth D Pollak
Individuals who have experienced high levels of childhood stress are at increased risk for a wide range of behavioral problems that persist into adulthood, yet the neurobiological and molecular mechanisms underlying these associations remain poorly understood. Many of the difficulties observed in stress-exposed children involve problems with learning and inhibitory control. This experiment was designed to test individuals' ability to learn to inhibit responding during a laboratory task. To do so, we measured stress exposure among a community sample of school-aged children, and then followed these children for a decade...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162061/medical-student-attitudes-and-educational-interventions-to-prevent-neurophobia-a-longitudinal-study
#9
Lisa Shiels, Pratish Majmundar, Aleksander Zywot, John Sobotka, Christine S M Lau, Tuula O Jalonen
BACKGROUND: With an aging American population, the burden of neurologic disease is intensifying and the decline in neurology residents and practicing neurologists is leaving these patients helpless and unable to find care. 'Neurophobia', a chronic illness that begins early in medical school, has been identified as a cause for the low number of neurology residents. METHODS: A longitudinal study surveyed medical students at the beginning of their first year (M1) and then again at the beginning of their second year (M2)...
November 21, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158109/outcome-modulation-across-tasks-in-the-primate-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#10
Encarni Marcos, Simon Nougaret, Satoshi Tsujimoto, Aldo Genovesio
Animals need to learn and to adapt to new and changing environments so that appropriate actions that lead to desirable outcomes are acquired within each context. The prefrontal cortex (PF) is known to underlie such function that directly implies that the outcome of each response must be represented in the brain for behavioral policies update. However, whether such PF signal is context dependent or it is a general representation beyond the specificity of a context is still unclear. Here, we analyzed the activity of neurons in the dorsolateral PF (PFdl) recorded while two monkeys performed two perceptual magnitude discrimination tasks...
November 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157232/implementation-of-an-interprofessional-team-based-learning-program-involving-seven-undergraduate-health-and-social-care-programs-from-two-universities-and-students-evaluation-of-their-readiness-for-interprofessional-learning
#11
Lap Ki Chan, Fraide Ganotice, Frances Kam Yuet Wong, Chak Sing Lau, Susan M Bridges, Celia Hoi Yan Chan, Namkiu Chan, Phoebe Wing Lam Chan, Hai Yong Chen, Julie Yun Chen, Jody Kwok Pui Chu, Charlene C Ho, Jacqueline Mei Chi Ho, Tai Pong Lam, Veronica Suk Fun Lam, Qingyun Li, Jian Gang Shen, Julian Alexander Tanner, Winnie Wan Yee Tso, Arkers Kwan Ching Wong, Gordon Tin Chun Wong, Janet Yuen Ha Wong, Nai Sum Wong, Alan Worsley, Lei King Yu, Tin Pui Yum
BACKGROUND: Interprofessional learning is gaining momentum in revolutionizing healthcare education. During the academic year 2015/16, seven undergraduate-entry health and social care programs from two universities in Hong Kong took part in an interprofessional education program. Based on considerations such as the large number of students involved and the need to incorporate adult learning principles, team-based learning was adopted as the pedagogy for the program, which was therefore called the interprofessional team-based learning program (IPTBL)...
November 21, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156410/how-do-we-learn-to-kill-in-volleyball-the-role-of-working-memory-capacity-and-expertise-in-volleyball-motor-learning
#12
Elisa Bisagno, Sergio Morra
This study examines young volleyball players' learning of increasingly complex attack gestures. The main purpose of the study was to examine the predictive role of a cognitive variable, working memory capacity (or "M capacity"), in the acquisition and development of motor skills in a structured sport. Pascual-Leone's theory of constructive operators (TCO) was used as a framework; it defines working memory capacity as the maximum number of schemes that can be simultaneously activated by attentional resources...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154621/sensory-constraints-on-perceptual-simulation-during-sentence-reading
#13
Xuefei Gao, Ting Jiang
Resource-constrained models of language processing predict that perceptual simulation during language understanding would be compromised by sensory limitations (such as reading text in unfamiliar/difficult font), whereas strong versions of embodied theories of language would predict that simulating perceptual symbols in language would not be impaired even under sensory-constrained situations. In 2 experiments, sensory decoding difficulty was manipulated by using easy and hard fonts to study perceptual simulation during sentence reading (Zwaan, Stanfield, & Yaxley, 2002)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154491/does-differential-visual-exploration-contribute-to-visual-memory-impairments-in-22q11-2-microdeletion-syndrome
#14
M Bostelmann, B Glaser, A Zaharia, S Eliez, M Schneider
BACKGROUND: Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a genetic syndrome characterised by a unique cognitive profile. Individuals with the syndrome present several non-verbal deficits, including visual memory impairments and atypical exploration of visual information. In this study, we seek to understand how visual attention may contribute to memory difficulties in 22q11.2DS by tracking eye movements during the encoding phase of a visual short-term memory task. METHOD: Eye movements were recorded during a computerised version of the multiple-choice Benton Visual Retention Test, which consisted of exploring and then recognising complex visual stimuli...
December 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154029/basic-numerical-competences-in-large-scale-assessment-data-structure-and-long-term-relevance
#15
Stefa Hirsch, Katharina Lambert, Karien Coppens, Korbinian Moeller
Basic numerical competences are seen as building blocks for later numerical and mathematical achievement. The current study aimed at investigating the structure of early numeracy reflected by different basic numerical competences in kindergarten and its predictive value for mathematical achievement 6 years later using data from large-scale assessment. This allowed analyses based on considerably large sample sizes (N > 1700). A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a model differentiating five basic numerical competences at the end of kindergarten fitted the data better than a one-factor model of early numeracy representing a comprehensive number sense...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146567/self-guided-web-based-interventions-scoping-review-on-user-needs-and-the-potential-of-embodied-conversational-agents-to-address-them
#16
REVIEW
Mark R Scholten, Saskia M Kelders, Julia Ewc Van Gemert-Pijnen
BACKGROUND: Web-based mental health interventions have evolved from innovative prototypes to evidence-based and clinically applied solutions for mental diseases such as depression and anxiety. Open-access, self-guided types of these solutions hold the promise of reaching and treating a large population at a reasonable cost. However, a considerable factor that currently hinders the effectiveness of these self-guided Web-based interventions is the high level of nonadherence. The absence of a human caregiver apparently has a negative effect on user adherence...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146192/calcium-imaging-method-to-visualize-the-spatial-patterns-of-neural-responses-in-the-pygmy-squid-idiosepius-paradoxus-central-nervous-system
#17
Motoki Koizumi, Shuichi Shigeno, Makoto Mizunami, Nobuaki K Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Cephalopods exhibit unique behaviors such as camouflage and tactile learning. The brain functions correlated to these behaviors have long been analyzed through behavioral observations of animals subject to surgical manipulation or electrical stimulation of brain lobes. However, physiological methods have rarely been introduced to investigate the functions of each individual lobe, though physiological work on giant axons and slices of the vertical lobe system of the cephalopods have provided deep insights into ion conductance of nerves and long-term synaptic plasticity...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141863/eight-color-multiplex-immunohistochemistry-for-simultaneous-detection-of-multiple-immune-checkpoint-molecules-within-the-tumor-microenvironment
#18
Mark A J Gorris, Altuna Halilovic, Katrin Rabold, Anne van Duffelen, Iresha N Wickramasinghe, Dagmar Verweij, Inge M N Wortel, Johannes C Textor, I Jolanda M de Vries, Carl G Figdor
Therapies targeting immune checkpoint molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 have advanced the field of cancer immunotherapy. New mAbs targeting different immune checkpoint molecules, such as TIM3, CD27, and OX40, are being developed and tested in clinical trials. To make educated decisions and design new combination treatment strategies, it is vital to learn more about coexpression of both inhibitory and stimulatory immune checkpoints on individual cells within the tumor microenvironment. Recent advances in multiple immunolabeling and multispectral imaging have enabled simultaneous analysis of more than three markers within a single formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue section, with accurate cell discrimination and spatial information...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135750/student-and-educator-experiences-of-maternal-child-simulation-based-learning-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#19
Karen MacKinnon, Lenora Marcellus, Julie Rivers, Carol Gordon, Maureen Ryan, Diane Butcher
BACKGROUND: Although maternal-child care is a pillar of primary health care, there is a global shortage of maternal-child health care providers. Nurse educators experience difficulties providing undergraduate students with maternal-child learning experiences for a number of reasons. Simulation has the potential to complement learning in clinical and classroom settings. Although systematic reviews of simulation are available, no systematic reviews of qualitative evidence related to maternal-child simulation-based learning (SBL) for undergraduate nursing students and/or educators have been located...
November 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134482/potential-or-problem-an-investigation-of-secondary-school-teachers-attributions-of-the-educational-outcomes-of-students-with-specific-learning-difficulties
#20
Stuart Woodcock, Elizabeth Hitches
Despite strong support for inclusive education in principle, many teachers and administrators still demonstrate mixed responses to the inclusion of certain students in their classrooms. Students with specific learning difficulties (SpLD) form a large group of students in inclusive classrooms yet some provincial, state and national jurisdictions fail to acknowledge the existence of these students. Not acknowledging and understanding these students can deny them the recognition and resources necessary for their genuine participation in education and, in turn, society...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
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