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Iriditis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807716/iritectol-g-a-novel-iridal-type-triterpenoid-from-iris-tectorum-displays-anti-epileptic-activity-in-vitro-through-inhibition-of-sodium-channels
#1
Chunlei Zhang, Juan Chen, Fang Zhao, Ruoyun Chen, Dequan Yu, Zhengyu Cao
Iritectol G, a novel iridal-type triterpenoid containing an uncommon tetrahydrofuran moiety, was isolated from the rhizomes of Iris tectorum. The structure was elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis. Iritectol G inhibited spontaneous and 4-aminopyridine-evoked calcium oscillations in primary cultured neocortical neurons with IC50 values of 8.2μM and 12.5μM, respectively. Further electrophysiological study demonstrated that iritectol G preferred to interact with inactivated state of voltage-gated sodium channel with an IC50 value of 7...
August 12, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798487/epitaxial-thin-films-of-pyrochlore-iridate-bi2-xir2-yo7-%C3%AE-structure-defects-and-transport-properties
#2
W C Yang, Y T Xie, W K Zhu, K Park, A P Chen, Y Losovyj, Z Li, H M Liu, M Starr, J A Acosta, C G Tao, N Li, Q X Jia, J J Heremans, S X Zhang
While pyrochlore iridate thin films are theoretically predicted to possess a variety of emergent topological properties, experimental verification of these predictions can be obstructed by the challenge in thin film growth. Here we report on the pulsed laser deposition and characterization of thin films of a representative pyrochlore compound Bi2Ir2O7. The films were epitaxially grown on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates and have lattice constants that are a few percent larger than that of the bulk single crystals...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765523/robust-spin-correlations-at-high-magnetic-fields-in-the-harmonic-honeycomb-iridates
#3
K A Modic, B J Ramshaw, J B Betts, Nicholas P Breznay, James G Analytis, Ross D McDonald, Arkady Shekhter
The complex antiferromagnetic orders observed in the honeycomb iridates are a double-edged sword in the search for a quantum spin-liquid: both attesting that the magnetic interactions provide many of the necessary ingredients, while simultaneously impeding access. Focus has naturally been drawn to the unusual magnetic orders that hint at the underlying spin correlations. However, the study of any particular broken symmetry state generally provides little clue about the possibility of other nearby ground states...
August 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753323/two-dimensional-j_-eff-1-2-antiferromagnetic-insulator-unraveled-from-interlayer-exchange-coupling-in-artificial-perovskite-iridate-superlattices
#4
Lin Hao, D Meyers, Clayton Frederick, Gilberto Fabbris, Junyi Yang, Nathan Traynor, Lukas Horak, Dominik Kriegner, Yongseong Choi, Jong-Woo Kim, Daniel Haskel, Phil J Ryan, M P M Dean, Jian Liu
We report an experimental investigation of the two-dimensional J_{eff}=1/2 antiferromagnetic Mott insulator by varying the interlayer exchange coupling in [(SrIrO_{3})_{1}, (SrTiO_{3})_{m}] (m=1, 2 and 3) superlattices. Although all samples exhibited an insulating ground state with long-range magnetic order, temperature-dependent resistivity measurements showed a stronger insulating behavior in the m=2 and m=3 samples than the m=1 sample which displayed a clear kink at the magnetic transition. This difference indicates that the blocking effect of the excessive SrTiO_{3} layer enhances the effective electron-electron correlation and strengthens the Mott phase...
July 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695843/magnetic-impurity-doping-induced-spin-glass-state-and-short-range-zigzag-order-in-the-honeycomb-iridate-na2iro3
#5
W P Cai, Z R Yan, R M Liu, M H Qin, M Zeng, X B Lu, X S Gao, J-M Liu
Based on the modified Heisenberg-Kitaev model, the effects of magnetic substitution on the magnetic properties of the honeycomb-lattice iridate [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] are studied using Monte Carlo simulations. It is observed that the long-range zigzag state of the original system is rather fragile and can be replaced by a spin-glass state even for small substitution, well consistent with the experimental observation in Ru-substituted samples (Mehlawat et al 2015 Phys. Rev. B 92 134412). Both the disordered Heisenberg and Kitaev interactions caused by the magnetic ion-doping are suggested to be responsible for the magnetic phase transitions in the system...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693457/calculation-of-iris-claw-iol-power-for-correction-of-late-in-the-bag-iol-complex-dislocation
#6
Valentín Huerva, Francisco J Ascaso, Isabel Caral, Andrzej Grzybowski
BACKGROUND: To assess the constants and formula for aphakia correction with iris-claw IOLs to achieve the best refractive status in cases of late in-the-bag IOL complex dislocation. METHODS: A literature search was performed. The following data were obtained: Iris-claw IOL model, Iridal or retroiridal enclavation, A-constant, ultrasound or optical biometry, formula employed and refractive outcomes. Acceptable emmetropia was considered if the resulting spherical equivalent (SE) was within ±1...
July 11, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686843/cadmium-concentration-in-grains-of-durum-wheat-triticum-turgidum-l-subsp-durum
#7
Marzia Vergine, Alessio Aprile, Erika Sabella, Alessandra Genga, Maria Siciliano, Patrizia Rampino, Marcello Salvatore Lenucci, Andrea Luvisi, Luigi De Bellis
Heavy metal excess in soil represents a critical problem for crop productivity. Among these pollutants, cadmium (Cd) is one of the most dangerous in terms of food-chain contamination. Two durum wheat near-isogenic lines (NILs) and 12 commercial varieties (cultivars Arcangelo, Aureo, Aziziah, Cappelli, Cirillo, Creso, Iride, Maestrale, Parsifal, Russello, Strongfield, and Svevo) of durum wheat were exposed to a nontoxic level of Cd to evaluate its concentration in grains, roots, and shoots, as well as effects on biomass production...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658588/utility-of-1-tropicamide-in-improving-the-quality-of-images-for-tele-screening-of-diabetic-retinopathy-in-patients-with-dark-irides
#8
Touka Banaee, Mohammad-Reza Ansari-Astaneh, Hamidreza Pourreza, Fatemeh Faal Hosseini, Maryam Vatanparast, Nasser Shoeibi, Vajihe Jami
PURPOSE: To compare the quality of fundus photographs taken before and after instillation of one drop of tropicamide. METHODS: The 45º fundus photographs were taken with a non-mydriatic fundus camera in three conditions of the pupil; pre-mydriatic, 10 minutes after one drop of tropicamide, and fully dilated. Two photographs were taken in each condition; one centered on the macula and the other on the optic disc. Two vitreoretinal specialists graded the images. RESULTS: A total of 1768 fundus photographs of 149 diabetic patients with dark irides were included...
August 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632845/iris-malformation-and-anterior-segment-dysgenesis-in-mice-and-humans-with-a-mutation-in-pi-3-kinase
#9
Marie H Solheim, Allen C Clermont, Jonathon N Winnay, Erlend Hallstensen, Anders Molven, Pål R Njølstad, Eyvind Rødahl, C Ronald Kahn
Purpose: To determine the ocular consequences of a dominant-negative mutation in the p85α subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3R1) using a knock-in mouse model of SHORT syndrome, a syndrome associated with short stature, lipodystrophy, diabetes, and Rieger anomaly in humans. Methods: We investigated knock-in mice heterozygous for the SHORT syndrome mutation changing arginine 649 to tryptophan in p85α (PIK3R1) using physical examination, optical coherence tomography (OCT), tonometry, and histopathologic sections from paraffin-embedded eyes, and compared the findings to similar investigations in two human subjects with SHORT syndrome heterozygous for the same mutation...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537276/magnetic-field-induced-multiple-topological-phases-in-pyrochlore-iridates-with-mott-criticality
#10
Kentaro Ueda, Taekoo Oh, Bohm-Jung Yang, Ryoma Kaneko, Jun Fujioka, Naoto Nagaosa, Yoshinori Tokura
The interplay between electron correlation and spin-orbit coupling in solids has been proven to be an abundant gold mine for emergent topological phases. Here we report the results of systematic magnetotransport study on bandwidth-controlled pyrochlore iridates R2Ir2O7 near quantum metal-insulator transition (MIT). The application of a magnetic field along [001] crystallographic direction (H//[001]) significantly decreases resistivity while producing a unique Hall response, which indicates the emergence of the novel semi-metallic state in the course of the magnetic transformation from all-in all-out (AIAO, 4/0) to 2-in 2-out (2/2) spin configuration...
May 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498709/topological-magnon-bands-and-unconventional-superconductivity-in-pyrochlore-iridate-thin-films
#11
Pontus Laurell, Gregory A Fiete
We theoretically study the magnetic properties of pyrochlore iridate bilayer and trilayer thin films grown along the [111] direction using a strong coupling approach. We find the ground state magnetic configurations on a mean field level and carry out a spin-wave analysis about them. In the trilayer case the ground state is found to be the all-in-all-out (AIAO) state, whereas the bilayer has a deformed AIAO state. For all parameters of the spin-orbit coupled Hamiltonian we study, the lowest magnon band in the trilayer case has a nonzero Chern number...
April 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480600/ophthalmic-parameters-in-adult-lowland-paca-cuniculus-paca-raised-in-captivity
#12
Camila P Balthazar da Silveira, Tiago B Lima, Roberta M Crivelaro, Luciana C C de Lacerda, Ivan R M Pádua, Roberta Renzo, Alexandre A F de Barros Sobrinho, Fabrício S Oliveira, Marcela Aldrovani, José L Laus
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ophthalmic parameters of lowland pacas, including the anatomic features, tear production, intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, and morphology of the corneal endothelium. ANIMALS STUDIED: Thirteen adult, anesthetized Cuniculus paca. PROCEDURE: Eyes were evaluated using slit-lamp biomicroscopy, the Schirmer tear test I, digital applanation tonometry, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy, and noncontact specular microscopy...
May 8, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441067/anterior-segment-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-for-identification-of-iris-vasculature-and-staging-of-iris-neovascularization-a-pilot-study
#13
Philipp K Roberts, Debra A Goldstein, Amani A Fawzi
Purpose/Aim of the study: To assess the ability of optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA) to visualize the normal iris vasculature as well as neovascularization of the iris (NVI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study participants with healthy eyes, patients at risk of NVI development and patients with active or regressed NVI were consecutively included in this cross-sectional observational study. Imaging was performed using a commercially available OCTA system (RTVue- XR Avanti, Optovue Inc...
August 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426434/neutron-scattering-by-dirac-multipoles
#14
S W Lovesey, D D Khalyavin
Scattering by magnetic charge formed by Dirac multipoles that are magnetic and polar is examined in the context of materials with properties that challenge conventional concepts. An order parameter composed of Dirac quadrupoles has been revealed in the pseudo-gap phase of ceramic, high-T c superconductors on the basis of Kerr effect and magnetic neutron Bragg diffraction measurements. Construction of Dirac quadrupoles that emerge from centrosymmetric sites used by Cu ions in the ceramic superconductor Hg1201 is illustrated, together with selection rules for excitations that will feature in neutron inelastic scattering, and RIXS experiments...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405391/red-fluorescence-of-the-triplefin-tripterygion-delaisi-is-increasingly-visible-against-background-light-with-increasing-depth
#15
Pierre-Paul Bitton, Ulrike K Harant, Roland Fritsch, Connor M Champ, Shelby E Temple, Nico K Michiels
The light environment in water bodies changes with depth due to the absorption of short and long wavelengths. Below 10 m depth, red wavelengths are almost completely absent rendering any red-reflecting animal dark and achromatic. However, fluorescence may produce red coloration even when red light is not available for reflection. A large number of marine taxa including over 270 fish species are known to produce red fluorescence, yet it is unclear under which natural light environment fluorescence contributes perceptively to their colours...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356055/a-genome-wide-association-study-reveals-a-locus-for-bilateral-iridal-hypopigmentation-in-holstein-friesian-cattle
#16
Anne K Hollmann, Martina Bleyer, Andrea Tipold, Jasmin N Neßler, Wilhelm E Wemheuer, Ekkehard Schütz, Bertram Brenig
BACKGROUND: Eye pigmentation abnormalities in cattle are often related to albinism, Chediak-Higashi or Tietz like syndrome. However, mutations only affecting pigmentation of coat color and eye have also been described. Herein 18 Holstein Friesian cattle affected by bicolored and hypopigmented irises have been investigated. RESULTS: Affected animals did not reveal any ophthalmological or neurological abnormalities besides the specific iris color differences. Coat color of affected cattle did not differ from controls...
March 29, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289487/not-everything-is-blue-or-brown-quantification-of-ocular-coloration-in-psychological-research-beyond-dichotomous-categorizations
#17
Juan Olvido Perea García, Tomáš Grenzner, Gabriela Hešková, Panagiotis Mitkidis
The notion that phenomenologically observable differences in the human eye are correlated with behavioral tendencies (other than gaze-following) has been addressed poorly in the psychological literature. Most notably, the proposed correlations are based on an arbitrary categorization in discrete categories of the continuous variability across various traits that could be contributing to individual eye morphologies. We review the relevant literature and assume a view of human eyes as sign stimuli, identifying the relative contrast between the iridal and scleral areas as the main contributor to the strength of the signal...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262638/coulomb-correlations-in-4d-and-5d-oxides-from-first-principles-or-how-spin-orbit-materials-choose-their-effective-orbital-degeneracies
#18
C Martins, M Aichhorn, S Biermann
The interplay of spin-orbit coupling and Coulomb correlations has become a hot topic in condensed matter theory and is especially important in 4d and 5d transition metal oxides, like iridates or rhodates. Here, we review recent advances in dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT)-based electronic structure calculations for treating such compounds, introducing all necessary implementation details. We also discuss the evaluation of Hubbard interactions in spin-orbit materials. As an example, we perform DMFT calculations on insulating strontium iridate (Sr2IrO4) and its 4d metallic counterpart, strontium rhodate (Sr2RhO4)...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256840/charge-transfer-in-iridate-manganite-superlattices
#19
Satoshi Okamoto, John Nichols, Changhee Sohn, So Yeun Kim, Tae Won Noh, Ho Nyung Lee
Charge transfer in superlattices consisting of SrIrO3 and SrMnO3 is investigated using density functional theory. Despite the nearly identical work function and nonpolar interfaces between SrIrO3 and SrMnO3, rather large charge transfer was experimentally reported at the interface between them. Here, we report a microscopic model that captures the mechanism behind this phenomenon, providing a qualitative understanding of the experimental observation. This leads to unique strain dependence of such charge transfer in iridate-manganite superlattices...
March 7, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240948/comparison-of-indocyanine-green-and-sodium-fluorescein-for-anterior-segment-angiography-of-ophthalmically-normal-eyes-of-goats-sheep-and-alpacas-performed-with-a-digital-single-lens-reflex-camera-adaptor
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Alexander J LoPinto, Chris G Pirie, Sandra L Ayres, Daniela Bedenice
OBJECTIVE To compare results of anterior segment angiography of ophthalmically normal eyes of goats, sheep, and alpacas performed by use of indocyanine green (ICG) and sodium fluorescein (SF). ANIMALS 10 female goats (mean ± SD age, 6.8 ± 1.7 years), 10 female sheep (3.0 ± 2.2 years), and 10 alpacas (7 females and 3 males; 6.8 ± 3.8 years). PROCEDURES A catheter was aseptically placed into a jugular vein. Each animal was anesthetized and properly positioned, and 0.25% ICG was administered. Images were obtained by use of an adaptor system consisting of a modified digital single-lens reflex camera, camera adaptor, and camera lens...
March 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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