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Amy E Vinson, Gail Randel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peer support, a method of providing for the well being of healthcare providers following adverse or stressful events, is garnering increased attention in light of the increased prevalence and awareness of burnout, depression and suicidality in physicians. In this review, we will summarize the evolution of the 'second victim,' explore methods of support and examine how new regulatory requirements are changing the peer support landscape. RECENT FINDINGS: As peer support and the second victim are investigated more, themes are emerging regarding the natural history of recovery...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Jeffrey Olivet, Morgan Haselden, Sarah Piscitelli, Rachael Kenney, Alexander Shulman, Deborah Medoff, Lisa Dixon
AIM: Recent research on first episode psychosis (FEP) has demonstrated the effectiveness of coordinated specialty care (CSC) models to support young adults and their families, yet few tools exist to promote engagement in care. This study aimed to develop a prototype computer-based role-playing game (RPG) designed for young people who have experienced FEP, and conduct a pilot study to determine feasibility and test whether the game improves consumers' attitudes toward treatment and recovery...
March 15, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Vera Leo, Aleksi J Sihvonen, Tanja Linnavalli, Mari Tervaniemi, Matti Laine, Seppo Soinila, Teppo Särkämö
Coupling novel verbal material with a musical melody can potentially aid in its learning and recall in healthy subjects, but this has never been systematically studied in stroke patients with cognitive deficits. In a counterbalanced design, we presented novel verbal material (short narrative stories) in both spoken and sung formats to stroke patients at the acute poststroke stage and 6 months poststroke. The task comprised three learning trials and a delayed recall trial. Memory performance on the spoken and sung tasks did not differ at the acute stage, whereas sung stories were learned and recalled significantly better compared with spoken stories at the 6 months poststroke stage...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Nancy L Segal
This article begins with the story of a 51-year-old Los Angeles, California man, Justin Goldberg, whose daughter caught a glimpse of his striking look-alike at a popular market. Many people have so-called doppelgängers, but this occurrence is especially intriguing - the individual in question, born in New York City in the mid-1960s to an unwed mother, was an adoptee placed by the Louise Wise Adoption Agency. This agency, under the guidance of a prominent psychiatrist, decided to place twins in separate homes...
March 15, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Tamas Kozicz, Aart Schene, Eva Morava
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Tristan J Coulter, Clifford J Mallett, Jefferson A Singer
The current study adopted McAdams' multilayer framework as the basis to develop a psychological portrait of an elite athlete who was identified as being particularly 'mentally tough'. The aim was to use this single case as an exemplar to demonstrate the utility of McAdams' framework for understanding the complexity of sport performers across three domains of personality: dispositional traits, characteristic adaptations, and narrative identity. We operationalised these domains through the development of specific research questions and, subsequently, the collection and integration of the participant's Big Five traits, personal strivings, coping strategies, and response to a life story interview...
January 2018: European Journal of Personality
George Zaharias
OBJECTIVE: To raise awareness of narrative-based medicine (NBM) as a valuable approach to the consultation, which, if practised more widely by GPs, would convey considerable benefits to both patients and physicians. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: Principally, the perspectives of 2 of NBM's key proponents, Rita Charon and John Launer. MAIN MESSAGE: This first in a series of 3 articles outlines what NBM is and its benefits. In holding the patient story as central, NBM shifts the doctor's focus from the need to problem solve to the need to understand...
March 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Colleen T Fogarty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Family Medicine
S Justman
Though James Lind is renowned as a pioneer of the clinical trial, he records the 1747 trial aboard the Salisbury in passing, never followed up on it, never campaigned for clinical trials as a means of medical discovery, and eventually pronounced scurvy an insoluble enigma. The case can be made that in confessing his lack of an unfailing remedy for scurvy and his trouble making sense of the disease's behaviour, Lind did medicine a greater service than by conducting his now-famous trial. At the time, medical progress was hindered by the all-too-common practice of proclaiming success and concealing failure...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
K Donaldson, W A Wallace, C Henry, A Seaton
The building of the Edinburgh New Town, from the mid-18th to the mid-19th centuries, was a major advance in harmonious and elegant town planning. However, there is anecdotal evidence that it led to the occurrence of an epidemic of silicosis/tuberculosis among the stonemasons. We have reviewed contemporary accounts of the episode and early records of the understanding of silicosis. We have also studied the lung of a contemporary stonemason, preserved in the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, and confirmed the presence of silico-tuberculosis in it...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Barclay T Stewart, Adam Gyedu, Cameron Gaskill, Godfred Boakye, Robert Quansah, Peter Donkor, Jimmy Volmink, Charles Mock
OBJECTIVE: Capacity assessments serve as surrogates for surgical output in low- and middle-income countries where detailed registers do not exist. The relationship between surgical capacity and output was evaluated in Ghana to determine whether a more critical interpretation of capacity assessment data is needed on which to base health systems strengthening initiatives. METHODS: A standardized surgical capacity assessment was performed at 37 hospitals nationwide using WHO guidelines; availability of 25 essential resources and capabilities was used to create a composite capacity score that ranged from 0 (no availability of essential resources) to 75 (constant availability) for each hospital...
March 13, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
David Michalovich, Sergey Nejentsev
Activated PI3 kinase delta syndrome (APDS) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by dominant mutations that increase activity of phosphoinositide-3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ). APDS can be caused by mutations in the PIK3CD gene that encodes PI3Kδ catalytic subunit p110δ (APDS1) or mutations in the PIK3R1 gene that encodes regulatory subunit p85α (APDS2). APDS research advanced rapidly after the initial discovery in 2013. More than 200 APDS patients have been identified around the world. Multiple novel APDS mutations were reported and molecular mechanisms leading to PI3Kδ activation have been elucidated...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ronda S Henry-Tillman
The keynote address The Tale of Two Stories: Challenges and Innovations in Breast Cancer Management presented on March 19-20, 2017 at the celebratory Festschrift Lecture in honor of the great Dr. LaSalle Leffall's on behalf of his impact and contributions to the field of Breast cancer science and treatment as a leader, surgeon, and mentor. This presentation and follow up opinion paper in the field of Breast Disease highlights the challenges that have baffled us and the innovations that have changed and translated into outcomes and those that have not...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Cristina S Mesquita, Ângela C Maia
The use of retrospective self-reports is a major methodological concern when ascertaining the occurrence of victimization experiences, with additional concerns when assessing psychiatric patients. The test for consistency can overcome some of these concerns, increasing the confidence in the information reported. Our aim was twofold: (1) to know the consistency of victimization reports; and (2) to test the role of changes on emotional distress in predicting report discrepancies, in a sample of 34 adult psychiatric patients...
March 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Thomas R Egnew
Many clinicians may feel poorly prepared to manage patient suffering resulting from the travails of chronic illness. This essay explores the thesis that chronically and terminally ill patients can be holistically healed by transcending the suffering occasioned by the degradations of their illnesses. Suffering is conveyed as a story and clinicians can encourage healing by co-constructing patients' illness stories. By addressing the inevitable existential conflicts uncovered in patients' narratives and helping them edit their stories to promote acceptance and meaning, suffering can be transcended...
March 2018: Annals of Family Medicine
Bruce L Innis, Julia A Lynch
Soon after the 1991 molecular cloning of hepatitis E virus (HEV), recombinant viral capsid antigens were expressed and tested in nonhuman primates for protection against liver disease and infection. Two genotype 1 subunit vaccine candidates entered clinical development: a 56 kDA vaccine expressed in insect cells and HEV 239 vaccine expressed in Escherichia coli Both were highly protective against hepatitis E and acceptably safe. The HEV 239 vaccine was approved in China in 2011, but it is not yet prequalified by the World Health Organization, a necessary step for introduction into those low- and middle-income countries where the disease burden is highest...
March 12, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Giorgina B Piccoli, Bernard G Jaar, Hayley Henderson
This editorial introduces a series of interviews with the pioneers of Nephrology. It's a story that speaks by itself, given the thousands of people that are now alive thanks to the remarkable advances in renal replacement therapies such as dialysis, and kidney transplantation but also the many scientific advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of kidney diseases worldwide.The interviews that we have selected for this series are, however, not dealing with their achievements, and their success; they try to pass on to future generations the idea of how they were, why they were passionate, what they loved, and, not last, where they found poetry in our profession...
March 12, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Vinícius Barreto-Silva, Marcelo Bigliassi, Priscila Chierotti, Leandro R Altimari
Immersive environments induced by audiovisual stimuli are hypothesised to facilitate the control of movements and ameliorate fatigue-related symptoms during exercise. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of pleasant and unpleasant audiovisual stimuli on perceptual and psychophysiological responses during moderate-intensity exercises performed on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer. Twenty young adults were administered three experimental conditions in a randomised and counterbalanced order: unpleasant stimulus (US; e...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Kevin H Dunn, Adrienne C Eastlake, Michael Story, Eileen D Kuempel
Control banding (CB) has been widely recommended for the selection of exposure controls for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the absence of ENM-specific occupational exposure limits (OELs). Several ENM-specific CB strategies have been developed but have not been systematically evaluated. In this article, we identify the data inputs and compare the guidance provided by eight CB tools, evaluated on six ENMs, and assuming a constant handling/use scenario. The ENMs evaluated include nanoscale silica, titanium dioxide, silver, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and cellulose...
February 23, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Hayoung A Lim, Angela L Watson
Background: Music is widely recognized as a motivating stimulus. Investigators have examined the use of music to improve a variety of motivation-related outcomes; however, these studies have focused primarily on passive music listening rather than active participation in musical activities. Objective: To examine the influence of participation in musical tasks and unique participant characteristics on energetic arousal. Methods: We used a one-way Welch's ANOVA to examine the influence of musical participation (i...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Music Therapy
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