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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239937/smoking-does-not-influence-disability-accumulation-in-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#1
O Javizian, L M Metz, S Deighton, M W Koch
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The modifiable risk factor cigarette smoking has been associated with an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) and with disease activity in relapsing-remitting MS. However, less is known about the effect of smoking on disease progression in progressive MS. Here the association between cigarette smoking and disability accumulation in primary progressive MS (PPMS) is investigated. METHODS: Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox proportional hazard modelling were used to investigate the influence of cigarette smoking on the risk of reaching Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 4 and 6 as well as the time from EDSS 4 to 6 in patients with PPMS...
February 26, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239867/inpatient-cost-analysis-for-treatment-of-myasthenia-gravis
#2
Jacklyn O Omorodion, Jesse M Pines, Henry J Kaminski
INTRODUCTION: We explored trends in U.S. inpatient costs of care over a 10-year period. METHODS: We compared myasthenia gravis (MG) to multiple sclerosis (MS) and overall U.S. hospital admissions using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Nationwide Inpatient Sample database for 2003-2013. RESULTS: Total costs of MG inpatient care rose 13-fold from 2003-2013. This was accounted for by a >6-fold increase in discharges and a >2-fold increase in cost per discharge...
February 27, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239850/depressive-symptomology-in-multiple-sclerosis-disability-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-heart-rate-variability
#3
I Ensari, L A Pilutti, R W Motl
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate whether neurological disability status, heart rate variability (HRV), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) explained the variance in depressive symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Associations between CRF (via maximal oxygen uptake; VO2peak ), HRV indices of normalized ultra-low (nULF) and very low frequency domains (nVLF), neurological disability status and depressive symptoms (using the Depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale; HADS-D) were assessed in 53 participants with MS and 17 matched controls...
February 26, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239781/validation-of-the-promis-%C3%A2-measures-of-self-efficacy-for-managing-chronic-conditions
#4
Ann L Gruber-Baldini, Craig Velozo, Sergio Romero, Lisa M Shulman
PURPOSE: The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System(®) (PROMIS(®)) was designed to develop, validate, and standardize item banks to measure key domains of physical, mental, and social health in chronic conditions. This paper reports the calibration and validation testing of the PROMIS Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Conditions measures. METHODS: PROMIS Self-Efficacy for Managing Chronic Conditions item banks comprise five domains, Self-Efficacy for Managing: Daily Activities, Symptoms, Medications and Treatments, Emotions, and Social Interactions...
February 26, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239545/new-rapid-accurate-t2-quantification-detects-pathology-in-normal-appearing-brain-regions-of-relapsing-remitting-ms-patients
#5
Timothy M Shepherd, Ivan I Kirov, Erik Charlson, Mary Bruno, James Babb, Daniel K Sodickson, Noam Ben-Eliezer
INTRODUCTION: Quantitative T2 mapping may provide an objective biomarker for occult nervous tissue pathology in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). We applied a novel echo modulation curve (EMC) algorithm to identify T2 changes in normal-appearing brain regions of subjects with RRMS (N = 27) compared to age-matched controls (N = 38). METHODS: The EMC algorithm uses Bloch simulations to model T2 decay curves in multi-spin-echo MRI sequences, independent of scanner, and scan-settings...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239524/pattern-of-gray-matter-volumes-related-to-retinal-thickness-and-its-association-with-cognitive-function-in-relapsing-remitting-ms
#6
Jan-Patrick Stellmann, Hanife Cetin, Kim Lea Young, Sibylle Hodecker, Jana Pöttgen, Diana Bittersohl, Andrea Hassenstein, Timm Oberwahrenbrock, Christoph Heesen, Susanne Siemonsen
BACKGROUND: Neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) may be investigated in the visual system as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows examining structural integrity in detail. The association between thickness of retinal layers and focal cortical volumes beyond the primary visual system has not been thoroughly investigated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between focal cortical volume and thickness of retinal layers...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239520/association-of-vitamin-d-status-and-clinical-and-radiological-outcomes-in-a-treated-ms-population-in-poland
#7
Sławomir Wawrzyniak, Emilia Mikołajewska, Ewelina Kuczko-Piekarska, Anna Niezgodzińska-Maciejek, Aleksander Goch
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D influences the immune system significantly. Previous studies have found that vitamin D deficiency in adolescence can play a significant role in increasing the risk of developing autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the vitamin D status in serum and clinical and radiological outcomes in a treated population in Poland. METHODS: Inclusion criteria met 83 adult patients aged 20-61 years with diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, who underwent immunomodulatory treatment which lasted at least 12 months...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239352/celastrol-attenuates-multiple-sclerosis-and-optic-neuritis-in-an-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-model
#8
Hongbin Yang, Chang Liu, Jie Jiang, Yuena Wang, Xiaoyu Zhang
This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of celastrol, a natural compound with multiple bioactivities, on multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis (ON) in rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using myelin basic protein, and the animals received daily intraperitoneal injections of celastrol or vehicle for 13 days. The EAE rats showed abnormal neurobehavior and inflammatory infiltration and demyelination in the spinal cord. Significantly upregulated mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ and interleukin-17 and downregulated anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-4 were found in the spinal cord of EAE rats...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238951/oral-administration-of-the-nitroxide-radical-tempol-exhibits-immunomodulatory-and-therapeutic-properties-in-multiple-sclerosis-models
#9
Sarah Neil, Jaebong Huh, Victoria Baronas, Xinhui Li, Henry F McFarland, Murali Cherukuri, James B Mitchell, Jacqueline A Quandt
Therapies with both immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties are thought to have the greatest promise in reducing the severity and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Several reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are implicated in inflammatory-mediated damage to the central nervous system (CNS) in MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl) is a stable nitroxide radical with potent antioxidant activity...
February 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238799/inhibition-of-drp1-hyper-activation-is-protective-in-animal-models-of-experimental-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Fucheng Luo, Karl Herrup, Xin Qi, Yan Yang
Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a leading neurological disorder of young adults, is characterized by the loss of oligodendrocytes (OLs), demyelination, inflammation and neuronal degeneration. Here we show that dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a mitochondrial fission protein, is activated in primary OL cells exposed to TNF-α induced inflammation or oxidative stress, as well as in EAE-immunized and cuprizone toxicity-induced demyelinating mouse models. Inhibition of Drp1 hyper-activation by the selective inhibitor P110 abolishes Drp1 translocation to the mitochondria, reduces mitochondrial fragmentation and stems necrosis in primary OLs exposed to TNF-α and H2O2...
February 23, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238679/how-does-paying-attention-improve-sexual-functioning-in-women-a%C3%A2-review-of-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Nikita Arora, Lori A Brotto
INTRODUCTION: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD), consisting of a constellation of distressing sexual symptoms, is highly prevalent worldwide. Given the central role played by psychological factors in the development of FSD, psychologically and in particular mindfulness-based interventions have arisen as potential treatment options for women. Although mindfulness-based interventions have been evaluated in samples of women with gynecologic cancer; a history of sexual abuse; multiple sclerosis; and spinal cord injury; and provoked vestibulodynia, the mechanisms by which mindfulness leads to improvements in sexual functioning are largely unstudied...
February 23, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237728/recognition-of-viral-and-self-antigens-by-th1-and-th1-th17-central-memory-cells-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-reveals-distinct-roles-in-immune-surveillance-and-relapses
#12
Moira Paroni, Virginia Maltese, Marco De Simone, Valeria Ranzani, Paola Larghi, Chiara Fenoglio, Anna M Pietroboni, Milena A De Riz, Maria C Crosti, Stefano Maglie, Monica Moro, Flavio Caprioli, Riccardo Rossi, Grazisa Rossetti, Daniela Galimberti, Massimiliano Pagani, Elio Scarpini, Sergio Abrignani, Jens Geginat
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that is caused by autoreactive T cells and associated with viral infections. However, the phenotype of pathogenic T cells in peripheral blood remains to be defined, and how viruses promote MS is debated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify and characterize potentially pathogenic autoreactive T cells, as well as protective antiviral T cells, in patients with MS...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237622/theiler-s-murine-encephalomyelitis-virus-infection-of-sjl-j-and-c57bl-6j-mice-models-for-multiple-sclerosis-and-epilepsy
#13
REVIEW
Ana Beatriz DePaula-Silva, Tyler J Hanak, Jane E Libbey, Robert S Fujinami
Mouse models are great tools to study the mechanisms of disease development. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus is used in two distinct viral infection mouse models to study the human diseases multiple sclerosis (MS) and epilepsy. Intracerebral (i.c.) infection of the SJL/J mouse strain results in persistent viral infection of the central nervous system and a MS-like disease, while i.c. infection of the C57BL/6J mouse strain results in acute seizures and epilepsy. Our understanding of how the immune system contributes to the development of two disparate diseases caused by the same virus is presented...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236843/multiple-sclerosis-and-air-pollution-exposure-mechanisms-toward-brain-autoimmunity
#14
Sayed Esmaeil Mousavi, Pouria Heydarpour, Jacques Reis, Masoud Amiri, Mohammad Ali Sahraian
The association between neurodegenerative diseases and environmental exposures, in particular air pollution, has been noticed in the last two decades, but the importance of this environmental factor in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis has not been considered extensively. However, recent evidence suggests that major mechanisms involved in MS pathogenesis, such as inflammatory factors expression, free radicals overproduction, the blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, neuroinflammation, vitamin D deficiency and mitochondrial dysfunction could also occur due to exposure to air pollutants...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236802/assessment-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-fampridine
#15
Beatriz Mejuto, Paloma Castellano, Concepción Castro, Luis Manuel López
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the efficacy and safety of fampridine for walking improvement in adult patients with multiple sclerosis. METHOD: A descriptive retrospective study of all patients who initiated treatment with fampridine between March, 2014 and February, 2015. Efficacy was assessed through the 25-foot walk test and the 12-item walking scale for multiple sclerosis. It was reviewed whether patients had suffered any of the most frequent adverse effects described in the pivotal clinical trial...
March 1, 2017: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236206/glutamate-t-cells-and-multiple-sclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Mia Levite
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system, where it induces multiple beneficial and essential effects. Yet, excess glutamate, evident in a kaleidoscope of acute and chronic pathologies, is absolutely catastrophic, since it induces excitotoxicity and massive loss of brain function. Both the beneficial and the detrimental effects of glutamate are mediated by a large family of glutamate receptors (GluRs): the ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) and the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), expressed by most/all cells of the nervous system, and also by many non-neural cells in various peripheral organs and tissues...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235811/fast-multiple-sclerosis-progression-in-north-africans-both-genetics-and-environment-matter
#17
Youssef Sidhom, Elisabeth Maillart, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel, Imen Kacem, Catherine Lubetzki, Riadh Gouider, Caroline Papeix
OBJECTIVE: To compare multiple sclerosis (MS) disability progression among North Africans (NAs) living in France (NAF) and in Tunisia (NAT) and Caucasian patients born and living in France (CF). METHODS: Patients with MS admitted to the day hospital in the Neurology Department at Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital (France) and Razi Hospital (Tunisia) were questioned on their place of birth and the place of birth of their parents. To compare delay to outcomes, log-rank tests were used...
February 24, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235778/clinical-evoked-potentials-in-neurology-a-review-of-techniques-and-indications
#18
REVIEW
Agustina M Lascano, Patrice H Lalive, Martin Hardmeier, Peter Fuhr, Margitta Seeck
Evoked potentials (EPs) are a powerful and cost-effective tool for evaluating the integrity and function of the central nervous system. Although imaging techniques, such as MRI, have recently become increasingly important in the diagnosis of neurological diseases, over the past 30 years, many neurologists have continued to employ EPs in specific clinical applications. This review presents an overview of the recent evolution of 'classical' clinical applications of EPs in terms of early diagnosis and disease monitoring and is an extension of a previous review published in this journal in 2005 by Walsh and collaborators...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235673/laquinimod-enhances-central-nervous-system-barrier-functions
#19
Fred Lühder, Hania Kebir, Francesca Odoardi, Tanja Litke, Maike Sonneck, Jorge Ivan Alvarez, Jan Winchenbach, Nadine Eckert, Liat Hayardeny, Ella Sorani, Dmitri Lodygin, Alexander Flügel, Alexandre Prat
Laquinimod is currently being tested as a therapeutic drug in multiple sclerosis. However, its exact mechanism of action is still under investigation. Tracking of fluorescently-tagged encephalitogenic T cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis, revealed that laquinimod significantly reduces the invasion of pathogenic effector T cells into the CNS tissue. T-cell activation, differentiation and amplification within secondary lymphoid organs after immunization with myelin antigen, their migratory capacity and re-activation within the nervous tissue were either only mildly affected or remained unchanged...
February 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231687/the-assessment-of-disease-characteristics-on-multiple-sclerosis-patients-quality-of-life-in-iran
#20
Aziz Rezapoor, Abdollah Almasian Kia, Sahar Goodarzi, Mojtaba Hasoumi, Soraya Nouraei Motlagh, Sajad Vahedi
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis, and predict the effect of MS characteristics such as disease course, disease severity and relapse on patients' quality of life. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 171 patients enrolled in the study. The health related quality of life were assessed through Persian version of MSQoL54 questionnaire. To measure patients' disability status, we used Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)...
February 19, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
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