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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042339/clonal-dissemination-of-oxa-48-producing-enterobacter-cloacae-isolated-from-companion-animals-in-algeria
#1
Massilia Yousfi, Abdelaziz Touati, Anaelle Muggeo, Brazane Mira, Asma Bourouis, Lucien Brasme, Thomas Guillard, Christophe de Champs
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in companion animals. METHODS: Between October 2015 and April 2016, 533 rectal swabs were obtained from healthy and diseased pets in different cities in Algeria. Samples collected were plated on MacConkey agar supplemented with ertapenem (0.5mg/L). The isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion method...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040585/emergence-of-mcr-1-and-carbapenemase-genes-in-hospital-sewage-water-in-beijing-china
#2
Longyang Jin, Ruobing Wang, Xiaojuan Wang, Qi Wang, Yawei Zhang, Yuyao Yin, Hui Wang
Objectives: This study identified and characterized mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae (MCRPE) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in hospital sewage water. Methods: Influent and effluent sewage samples were collected from five tertiary hospitals in Beijing in December 2016. Samples were screened for MCRPE and CPE using antibiotic selection media. Results were confirmed by PCR amplification of β-lactamase and colistin resistance (mcr-1 and mcr-2) genes and by sequencing...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039717/high-prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-libyan-war-casualties-admitted-to-a-tertiary-care-hospital-germany
#3
Benedikt Lohr, Yvonne Pfeifer, Ursel Heudorf, Christoph Rangger, Douglas E Norris, Klaus-Peter Hunfeld
The ongoing Libyan conflict constantly causes victims among the military and civilian population. Cross-border transfer of patients represents a high risk of introducing multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), for example, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and carbapenem-resistant gram-negative organisms (CROs), into the country of destination. This study assessed the MDRO status in Libyan war casualties (n = 67) admitted to Northwest Medical Centre in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, from August 2016 till January 2017...
October 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038281/putative-integrative-mobile-elements-that-exploit-the-xer-recombination-machinery-carrying-blaimi-type-carbapenemase-genes-in-the-enterobacter-cloacae-complex-in-singapore
#4
Tse H Koh, Nurdyana Binte Abdul Rahman, Jeanette W P Teo, My-Van La, Balamurugan Periaswamy, Swaine L Chen
Whole genome sequencing was performed on 16 isolates of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter cloacae complex to determine the flanking regions of blaIMI-type genes. Phylogenetic analysis of MLST targets separated the isolates into 4 clusters. The blaIMI-type genes were all found on IMEX elements. The IMEX elements of 5 isolates were similar to those described in Canada, while the remainder were novel. Five isolates had IMEX elements lacking a resolvase and recombinase.
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038057/bio-prospecting-of-coral-porites-lutea-mucus-associated-bacteria-palk-bay-reefs-southeast-coast-of-india
#5
N K Ahila, S Prakash, B Manikandan, J Ravindran, N M Prabhu, E Kannapiran
Coral mucus is one of the key localization in the coral holobiont, as this serves as an energy rich substrate for a wide range of abundant, diverse and multifunctional microbiota. However, very little is known about the functional role of bacterial communities in their associations with corals. In the present study, a total of 48 isolates were obtained from Porites lutea wherein the genus of Bacillus sp. and Vibrio sp. were predominant. Bio-prospecting the coral mucus revealed the existence of (10.42%) antagonistic bacteria against the tested bacterial pathogens...
October 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030447/housefly-musca-domestica-and-blow-fly-protophormia-terraenovae-as-vectors-of-colistin-resistance-genes-carrying-bacteria
#6
Jilei Zhang, Jiawei Wang, Li Chen, Afrah Kamal Yassin, Patrick Kelly, Patrick Butaye, Jing Li, Jiansen Gong, Russell Cattley, Kezong Qi, Chengming Wang
Flies have the capacity to transfer pathogens between different environments, acting as one of the most important vectors of human diseases worldwide. In this study, we trapped flies on a university campus and tested them for mobile resistance genes against colistin, a last-resort antibiotic in human medicine for treating clinical infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Quantitative PCRs we developed showed that 34.1% of Musca domestica (86/252) and 51.1% of Protophormia terraenovae (23/45) were positive for the mcr-1, 1...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026658/resolving-plasmid-structures-in-enterobacteriaceae-using-the-minion-nanopore-sequencer-assessment-of-minion-and-minion-illumina-hybrid-data-assembly-approaches
#7
Sophie George, Louise Pankhurst, Alasdair Hubbard, Antonia Votintseva, Nicole Stoesser, Anna E Sheppard, Amy Mathers, Rachel Norris, Indre Navickaite, Chloe Eaton, Zamin Iqbal, Derrick W Crook, Hang T T Phan
This study aimed to assess the feasibility of using the Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) MinION long-read sequencer in reconstructing fully closed plasmid sequences from eight Enterobacteriaceae isolates of six different species with plasmid populations of varying complexity. Species represented were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens and Klebsiella oxytoca, with plasmid populations ranging from 1-11 plasmids with sizes of 2-330 kb. Isolates were sequenced using Illumina (short-read) and ONT's MinION (long-read) platforms, and compared with fully resolved PacBio (long-read) sequence assemblies for the same isolates...
August 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026619/16s-rrna-deep-sequencing-identifies-actinotignum-schaalii-as-the-major-component-of-a-polymicrobial-intra-abdominal-infection-and-implicates-a-urinary-source
#8
Andrew Bryan, Lindsey M Kirkpatrick, John J Manaloor, Stephen J Salipante
Introduction. It can be difficult to catalogue the individual organisms comprising polymicrobial patient infections, both because conventional clinical microbiological culture does not facilitate the isolation and enumeration of all members of a complex microbial community, and because fastidious organisms may be mixed with organisms that grow rapidly in vitro. Empiric antimicrobial treatment is frequently employed based on the anatomical site and the suspected source of the infection, especially when an appropriately collected surgical specimen is not obtained...
May 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023074/bacterial-quality-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-diabetic-and-non-diabetics-of-the-population-of-ma-an-province-jordan
#9
Ali Al-Asoufi, Ali Khlaifat, Amjad Al Tarawneh, Khalid Alsharafa, Muhamad Al-Limoun, Khaled Khleifat
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have malfunction in bladder which prompt urine accumulation in its pool which serves a decent situation to the microbes to be develop and cause Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). The UTI is the most infectious disease that affects both males and females. This study was designed to detect the bacterial species responsible for UTI in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients in Ma'an province, Jordan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred sixteen urine samples were investigated to determine UTI-causing bacteria...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020126/factors-associated-with-acquisition-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae
#10
Lilian Silva Lavagnoli, Bil Randerson Bassetti, Thais Dias Lemos Kaiser, Kátia Maria Kutz, Crispim Cerutti
OBJECTIVE: to identify possible risk factors for acquisition of Enterobacterial strains with a marker for resistance to carbapenems. METHODS: exploratory case-control study performed in hospital settings. The study sample consisted of patients with biological specimens that tested positive for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (cases), with the disk diffusion test and Etest, and controls with biological samples testing negative for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae...
October 5, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993329/inhibition-of-fosfomycin-resistance-protein-fosa-by-phosphonoformate-foscarnet-in-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-pathogens
#11
Ryota Ito, Adam D Tomich, Christi L McElheny, Roberta Mettus, Nicolas Sluis-Cremer, Yohei Doi
FosA proteins confer fosfomycin resistance in Gram-negative pathogens via glutathione-mediated modification of the antibiotic. In this study, we assessed whether inhibition of FosA by sodium phosphonoformate (PPF; foscarnet), a clinically approved antiviral agent, would reverse fosfomycin resistance in representative Gram-negative pathogens. The inhibitory activity of PPF against purified recombinant FosA from Escherichia coli (FosA3), Klebsiella pneumoniae (FosA(KP)), Enterobacter cloacae (FosA(EC)) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (FosA(PA)) was determined by steady-state kinetics...
October 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986650/expression-of-stem-cell-factors-in-the-adult-sea-cucumber-digestive-tube
#12
Vladimir Mashanov, Olga Zueva, Daria Mashanova, José E García-Arrarás
Homeostatic cell turnover has been extensively characterized in mammals. In their adult tissues, lost or aging differentiated cells are replenished by a self-renewing cohort of stem cells. The stem cells have been particularly well studied in the intestine and are clearly identified by the expression of marker genes including Lgr5 and Bmi1. It is, however, unknown if the established principles of tissue renewal learned from mammals would be operating in non-mammalian systems. Here, we study homeostatic cell turnover in the sea cucumber digestive tube, the organ with high tissue plasticity even in adult animals...
October 7, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975535/spatiotemporal-expression-of-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-5-in-the-development-of-anorectal-malformations-in-fetal-rats
#13
Xiao Bing Tang, Li Chen, Wei Lin Wang, Zheng Wei Yuan, Yu Zuo Bai
This study examined the expression patterns of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (Pcsk5) during anorectal development in normal and anorectal malformations (ARM) rat embryos, determine the possible role of Pcsk5 in the pathogenesis of ARM. An ARM rat model was developed by the administration of ethylenethiourea gestational day 10 (GD10). Embryos were harvested by surgical excision from GD13 to GD16, and the spatiotemporal expression of Pcsk5 was evaluated, using immunohistochemistry staining, Western blotting and real time RT-PCR...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971872/kinetics-of-sulbactam-hydrolysis-by-%C3%AE-lactamases-and-their-inhibition
#14
Adam B Shapiro
Sulbactam is one of 4 β-lactamase inhibitors in current clinical use to counteract drug resistance caused by degradation of β-lactam antibiotics by these bacterial enzymes. As a β-lactam itself, sulbactam is susceptible to degradation by β-lactamases. We investigated the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of sulbactam hydrolysis by 14 β-lactamases representing clinically widespread groups within all 4 Ambler classes: CTX-M-15, KPC-2, SHV-5, and TEM-1 for class A; IMP-1, NDM-1, and VIM-1 for class B; Acinetobacter baumannii ADC-7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AmpC and Enterobacter cloacae P99 for class C; and OXA-10, OXA-23, OXA-24, and OXA-48 for class D...
October 2, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969732/delayed-reconstruction-of-a-traumatic-cloaca-following-obstetric-anal-sphincter-rupture
#15
Ali Ezer, Alper Parlakgumus
Permanent communication between the rectum and the vagina along with full thickness of anal sphincter faults can be a result of an unsuccessful primary repair of fourth degree obstetric trauma. This results into complete fecal incontinence and impaired quality of life. Anterior overlapping sphincteroplasty can be chosen as a method of treatment for fecal incontinence due to obstetric injuries. However, large perineal body reconstructions are generally pretty challenging tasks for surgeons. What we will describe here for the repair of a traumatic cloaca, occurred 23 years ago during vaginal delivery, is the use of a transpositional flap following overlapping sphincteroplasty...
September 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964987/potential-for-gulls-to-transport-bacteria-from-human-waste-sites-to-beaches
#16
Elizabeth W Alm, Quri R Daniels-Witt, Deric R Learman, Hodon Ryu, Dustin W Jordan, Thomas M Gehring, Jorge Santo Domingo
Contamination of recreational beaches due to fecal waste from gulls complicates beach monitoring and may pose a risk to public health. Gulls that feed at human waste sites may ingest human fecal microorganisms associated with that waste. If these gulls also visit beaches, they may serve as vectors, transporting fecal microorganisms to the beach where they may subsequently contaminate sand and water. In this study, samples collected from landfills, treated wastewater storage lagoons, and public beaches demonstrated a spatial and temporal overlap of markers for gull and human-associated microorganisms...
September 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962008/ampc-%C3%AE-lactamase-induction-by-avibactam-and-relebactam
#17
David M Livermore, Dorota Jamrozy, Shazad Mushtaq, Wright W Nichols, Katherine Young, Neil Woodford
Background: Diazabicyclooctanes, e.g. avibactam and relebactam, are a new class of β-lactamase inhibitors. Their spectrum includes AmpC enzymes, but it is important to understand whether they also induce these enzymes. Methods: Levels of ampC mRNA were measured by RT-PCR during 4 h of exposure of Enterobacter cloacae , Citrobacter freundii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( n  =   5 strains per species) to avibactam, relebactam and cefoxitin at 0, 1, 4 and 32 mg/L...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962001/rapid-detection-of-esbl-carbapenemases-mrsa-and-other-important-resistance-phenotypes-within-6-8%C3%A2-h-by-automated-disc-diffusion-antibiotic-susceptibility-testing
#18
Michael Hombach, Marion Jetter, Peter M Keller, Nicolas Blöchliger, Natalia Kolesnik-Goldmann, Erik C Böttger
Background: In principle, automated systems allow rapid reading of disc diffusion AST (rAST) within 6-8 h. Objectives: This study analysed whether rAST can discriminate resistance phenotypes such as ESBL, carbapenemases and MRSA/methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis from WT populations. We describe species-drug combinations that may require clinical breakpoint adaptions for early reading due to zone diameter changes during the incubation period. Methods: In total, 1852 clinical strains [ Escherichia coli ( n  =   475), Klebsiella pneumoniae ( n  =   375), Enterobacter cloacae ( n  =   301), Staphylococcus aureus ( n  =   407) and S...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961900/pharmacodynamics-of-nitrofurantoin-at-different-ph-levels-against-pathogens-involved-in-urinary-tract-infections
#19
Fiona Fransen, Maria J B Melchers, Claudia M C Lagarde, Joseph Meletiadis, Johan W Mouton
Background: Urinary tract infections are among the most common human infections. Due to the progressive increase in ESBL-producing bacteria and the unavailability of new antibiotics, re-evaluation of 'old' antibiotics is needed. However, the pharmacodynamics of nitrofurantoin under variable pH conditions are poorly understood. We determined the pharmacodynamic properties of nitrofurantoin at different pH levels using time-kill assays. Methods: Time-kill assays were performed at four pH levels (5...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960693/clinical-and-risk-factor-analysis-of-cloacal-defects-in-the-national-birth-defects-prevention-study
#20
Kim M Keppler-Noreuil, Kristin M Conway, Dereck Shen, Anthony J Rhoads, John C Carey, Paul A Romitti
Cloacal exstrophy (CE) and persistent cloaca (PC) (alternatively termed urorectal septum malformation sequence [URSMS]), represent two major cloacal defects (CDs). Clinical characteristics and risk factors often are studied for both defects combined, rather than exploring if these defects have different etiologies. We enumerated clinical features for 47 CE and 54 PC (inclusive of URSMS) cases from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Thirty-three CE cases were classified as isolated and 14 as multiple (presence of unassociated major defects); respective totals for PC cases were 26 and 28...
September 28, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
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