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materno fetal

Clémence Guiraut, Nicole Cauchon, Martin Lepage, Guillaume Sébire
The medium-size intra-cranial arteries arising from the carotid bifurcation are prone to perinatal arterial ischemic strokes (PAIS). PAIS' physiopathology needs to be better understood to develop preventive and therapeutic interventions that are currently missing. We hypothesized that materno-fetal inflammation leads to a vasculitis affecting selectively the carotidian tree and promoting a focal thrombosis and subsequent stroke. Dams were injected with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Miguel H Bronchud, Francesc Tresserra, Wenjie Xu, Sarah Warren, Maite Cusido, Bernat Zantop, Ana Claudia Zenclussen, Alessandra Cesano
The hypothesis of this work is that, in order to escape the natural immune surveillance mechanisms, cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment might express ectopically genes that are physiologically present in the placenta to mediate fetal immune-tolerance. These natural "placental immune-editing switch" mechanisms (PIES) may represent the result of millions of years of mammalian evolution developed to allow materno-fetal tolerance. Here, we introduce genes of the immune regulatory pathways that are either similarly over- or under-expressed in tumor vs normal tissue...
November 11, 2016: Oncotarget
G Brabant
OBJECTIVE: To determine if bacterial vaginosis is a marker for risk of spontaneous preterm delivery and if its detection and treatment can reduce this risk. METHODS: Consultation of the database Pubmed/Medline, Science Direct, and international guidelines of medical societies. RESULTS: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis resulting in an imbalance in the vaginal flora through the multiplication of anaerobic bacteria and jointly of a disappearance of well-known protective Lactobacilli...
October 26, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
Lisa Hui, Diana W Bianchi
Noninvasive prenatal DNA testing is the vanguard of genomic medicine. In only four years, this screening test has revolutionized prenatal care globally and opened up new prospects for personalized medicine for the fetus. There are widespread implications for increasing the scope of human genetic variation that can be detected before birth, and for discovering more about materno-fetal and placental biology. These include an urgent need to develop pretest education for all pregnant women and consistent posttest management recommendations for those with discordant test results...
October 10, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Isabella Ellinger
Active placental transport of maternal serum calcium (Ca(2+)) to the offspring is pivotal for proper development of the fetal skeleton as well as various organ systems. Moreover, extracellular Ca(2+) levels impact on distinct processes in mammalian reproduction. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) translates changes in extracellular Ca(2+)-concentrations into cellular reactions. This review summarizes current knowledge on the expression of CaSR and its putative functions in reproductive organs. CaSR was detected in placental cells mediating materno-fetal Ca(2+)-transport such as the murine intraplacental yolk sac (IPYS) and the human syncytiotrophoblast...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri, Jorge López-Tello, Abigail L Fowden, Miguel Constancia
Pregnancy success and life-long health depend on a cooperative interaction between the mother and the fetus in the allocation of resources. As the site of materno-fetal nutrient transfer, the placenta is central to this interplay; however, the relative importance of the maternal versus fetal genotypes in modifying the allocation of resources to the fetus is unknown. Using genetic inactivation of the growth and metabolism regulator, Pik3ca (encoding PIK3CA also known as p110α, α/+), we examined the interplay between the maternal genome and the fetal genome on placental phenotype in litters of mixed genotype generated through reciprocal crosses of WT and α/+ mice...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rosa María Martínez García
El embarazo representa un desafío desde el punto de vista nutricional, debido a que las necesidades de nutrientes están aumentadas y una alteración en su ingesta puede afectar la salud materno-fetal. Estados deficitarios en micronutrientes están relacionados con preeclampsia, retraso del crecimiento intrauterino, aborto y anomalías congénitas. Actualmente, la dieta de muchas madres gestantes es insuficiente en micronutrientes, siendo necesaria su suplementación. Se recomienda la suplementación con ácido fólico en dosis de 400 μg/día, y de 5 mg en embarazadas de riesgo, debiendo comenzar al menos 1 mes antes de la concepción y durante las primeras 12 semanas de gestación, y prolongarla durante todo el embarazo en madres con riesgo nutricional...
2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Matthew W Kemp, Masatoshi Saito, Haruo Usuda, Timothy J Molloy, Yuichiro Miura, Shinichi Sato, Shimpei Watanabe, Michael Clarke, Michael Fossler, Augusto Scmidt, Suhas G Kallapur, Boris W Kramer, John P Newnham, Alan H Jobe
BACKGROUND: Antenatal steroids are standard of care for cases of anticipated preterm labor to improve neonatal outcomes. However, steroids are potent drugs, and their use in pregnancy remains largely unoptimized. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to measure the maternofetal pharmacokinetics of constant, low-dose intravenous betamethasone phosphate infusions and correlate these data with the transcriptional effect exerted by subclinical betamethasone exposures on the ovine fetal lung...
December 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Anshuja Singla, Sumita Mehta, Shalini Rajaram, Sneha Shree
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate materno-fetal outcomes in pregnant women with jaundice. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted over a period of 6 months in a tertiary care hospital of Delhi, India. 82 pregnant women with jaundice were included. The serum was screened for viral markers, liver function tests, and coagulation status. RESULTS: The mean age of women was 27.3 ± 4.3 years. 43.9 % (n = 36) women were HEV positive, 36 % (n = 27) HBsAg positive, 4 % (n = 3) HAV positive and 1...
June 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
O R Vaughan, K L Davies, J W Ward, M J de Blasio, A L Fowden
Fetal nutrition is determined by maternal availability, placental transport and uteroplacental metabolism of carbohydrates. Cortisol affects maternal and fetal metabolism but whether maternal cortisol concentrations within the physiological range regulate uteroplacental carbohydrate metabolism remains unknown. This study determined the effect of maternal cortisol infusion (1.2 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) iv. for 5 days, n = 20) on fetal glucose, lactate and oxygen supplies in pregnant ewes on day ∼130 of pregnancy (term = 145 days)...
June 13, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Pascale Chavatte-Palmer, Anne Tarrade
The placenta is a complex, transient organ associated with viviparity, which is located at the interface of the dam and fetus during pregnancy. It is formed after attachment, or implantation, of the blastocyst on the uterine lining and derives from complex cellular and molecular interactions between uterine and embryonic tissues. In mammals, there are many forms of placentation but this organ has the same function in all species: it is responsible for orchestrating materno-fetal exchanges, together with endocrine and immunological functions...
June 2016: Annales D'endocrinologie
O Picone, L Grangeot-Keros, Mv Senat, F Fuchs, E Bouthry, Jm Ayoubi, A Benachi, C Vauloup-Fellous
Diagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) primary infection is reliable, but diagnosis of CMV non-primary infection (NPI) is questionable. Our aim is to highlight the difficulties met in diagnosis of CMV NPI. We illustrate that in proven cases of CMV NPI, very different serologic and molecular patterns may be observed and that routine serologic testing may fail to help with diagnosis. These results point out that many data available in literature concerning the prevalence of NPI, materno-fetal transmission rates and consequences of NPI may be wrong...
January 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Alison D Gernand, Kerry J Schulze, Christine P Stewart, Keith P West, Parul Christian
Micronutrients, vitamins and minerals accessible from the diet, are essential for biologic activity. Micronutrient status varies widely throughout pregnancy and across populations. Women in low-income countries often enter pregnancy malnourished, and the demands of gestation can exacerbate micronutrient deficiencies with health consequences for the fetus. Examples of efficacious single micronutrient interventions include folic acid to prevent neural tube defects, iodine to prevent cretinism, zinc to reduce risk of preterm birth, and iron to reduce the risk of low birth weight...
May 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri, Emily J Camm
Size at birth is a critical determinant of life expectancy, and is dependent primarily on the placental supply of nutrients. However, the placenta is not just a passive organ for the materno-fetal transfer of nutrients and oxygen. Studies show that the placenta can adapt morphologically and functionally to optimize substrate supply, and thus fetal growth, under adverse intrauterine conditions. These adaptations help meet the fetal drive for growth, and their effectiveness will determine the amount and relative proportions of specific metabolic substrates supplied to the fetus at different stages of development...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Xiao Huang, Michael Lüthi, Edgar C Ontsouka, Sampada Kallol, Marc U Baumann, Daniel V Surbek, Christiane Albrecht
STUDY HYPOTHESIS: Using optimized conditions, primary trophoblast cells isolated from human term placenta can develop a confluent monolayer in vitro, which morphologically and functionally resembles the microvilli structure found in vivo. STUDY FINDING: We report the successful establishment of a confluent human primary trophoblast monolayer using pre-coated polycarbonate inserts, where the integrity and functionality was validated by cell morphology, biophysical features, cellular marker expression and secretion, and asymmetric glucose transport...
June 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
F Delay, M Coste Burel, M Joubert, N Winer
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection. The aim of this research was to describe the decision-process for parents to pursue gestation or to ask medical abortion after materno-fetal CMV infection. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study is to analyze the decision-process for parents after materno-fetal infection with positive PCR after amniocentesis, to ask or not a medical termination of pregnancy (TOP). The secondary objectives are to compare ours results with literature review (pronostics factors, ultrasonographic signs and neonatal symptomatology)...
February 19, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
María T Prieto-Sánchez, María Ruiz-Palacios, José E Blanco-Carnero, Ana Pagan, Christian Hellmuth, Olaf Uhl, Wolfgang Peissner, Antonio J Ruiz-Alcaraz, Juan J Parrilla, Berthold Koletzko, Elvira Larqué
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Maternal-fetal transfer of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is impaired by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. MFSD2a was recently recognized as a lyso-phospholipid (lyso-PL) transporter that facilitates DHA accretion in brain. The role of this transporter in placenta is uncertain. We evaluated effects of GDM and its treatment (diet or insulin) on phospholipid species, fatty acid profile in women, cord blood and placental fatty acid carriers...
January 29, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Nilesh Chandra, Mohit Mehndiratta, B D Banerjee, K Guleria, A K Tripathi
Oxidative stress has been proposed as one of the causes involved in idiopathic fetal growth restriction (IFGR). However, the exact relationship between oxidative stress and IFGR is not understood. This study aimed at understanding the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in IFGR materno-fetal dyads and matched controls. 75 materno-fetal dyads with IFGR were enrolled with equal number of normal low risk controls. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured as marker of oxidative stress, while paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of serum were measured as markers of antioxidant status...
March 2016: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Mepur H Ravindranath, Vadim Jucaud, Curtis Y Maehara, Paul I Terasaki
The presence of IgG against pathogens in the cord blood (CB) of vaccinated mothers is attributed to transplacental transfer. However, previous studies using lymphocytotoxicity assay showed anti-HLA IgG in mother's blood (MB) but not in CB, perhaps due to non-transfer of anti-HLA IgG or assay limitations in detecting anti-HLA IgG. Anti-HLA IgG of native and purified sera of 16 MB and CB pairs were measured using an array of microbeads coated with HLA-I/-II molecules on a Luminex platform. Two cases showed no anti-HLA-I IgG in either MB or CB; four MB cases displayed polyallelic HLA-reactive IgG, with negligible or no reactivity by the corresponding CB sera...
February 2016: Immunology Letters
Robyn M Maude, Joan P Skinner, Maralyn J Foureur
BACKGROUND: Fetal monitoring guidelines recommend intermittent auscultation for the monitoring of fetal wellbeing during labour for low-risk women. However, these guidelines are not being translated into practice and low-risk women birthing in institutional maternity units are increasingly exposed to continuous cardiotocographic monitoring, both on admission to hospital and during labour. When continuous fetal monitoring becomes routinised, midwives and obstetricians lose practical skills around intermittent auscultation...
June 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
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