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Choroid plexus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774144/effects-of-passage-and-cryopreservation-on-neurotrophic-factor-secretion-from-choroid-plexus-epithelial-cells
#1
Feng Zhao, Xiao-Yan Ding, Feng Wu, Xiao-Hui Li, Yu-Huan Li, Sheng-Li Huang
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of passage and cryopreservation of choroid plexus epithelial cells on their secretion of neurotrophic factors. Choroid plexus epithelial cells were cryopreserved and thawed following primary culture or passage cultured for up to two passages. The supernatant of primary, first/second passage and cryopreserved-thawed choroid plexus epithelial cells was collected when cells reached 80-90% confluence. ELISA was used to quantify brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) levels in the cell supernatant...
June 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772051/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-pigmented-paravenous-retinochoroidal-atrophy
#2
Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Chiara Giuffrè, Alessandro Rabiolo, Maurizio Battaglia Parodi, Francesco Bandello
A 58-year-old man with bilateral pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy (PPRCA) associated with macular coloboma in the right eye underwent color fundus photography and fundus autofluorescence with the California ultra-widefield retinal imaging system (Optos, Dunfermline, UK), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Heidelberg Spectralis HRA + OCT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), and en face OCT angiography (OCTA) (AngioPlex, Cirrus HD-OCT 5000; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA)...
May 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753894/value-of-the-application-of-neuroendoscope-in-the-treatment-of-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-blockage
#3
Quantang Wei, Yimin Xu, Kaiwen Peng, Songtao Qi, Yuping Peng, Huangyi Ji, Yu Li, Mingxing Qiu, Yanyi Ying, Xiaoyu Qiu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the value of the application of neuroendoscope techniques in the treatment of ventriculoperitoneal shunt blockage. METHODS: Our study included 3 plans for revision surgeries for ventriculoperitoneal shunt blockage. In Plan A, the choroid plexus or ependyma that grew inside the ventricular catheter was completely removed. In Plan B, the terminal part of the ventricular catheter was clipped and removed. In Plan C, the ventricular catheter was carefully extracted with the assistance of neuroendoscope, and the tissues that blocked the catheter were removed...
May 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746413/intravitreal-anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-treatment-at-2-month-intervals-reduces-foveal-avascular-zone-enlargement-and-vision-loss-in-radiation-maculopathy-a-pilot-study
#4
Alejandra Daruich, Alexandre Matet, Ann Schalenbourg, Leonidas Zografos
PURPOSE: To evaluate, in eyes with radiation maculopathy, the effect of 2-month-interval anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy on best-corrected visual acuity and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) enlargement using optical coherence tomography angiography. METHODS: Consecutive treatment-naive patients with radiation maculopathy after proton beam irradiation for choroidal melanoma were retrospectively included. Clinical and optical coherence tomography angiography data at baseline and the 6-month visit were recorded...
May 3, 2018: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746407/swept-source-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-reveals-internal-limiting-membrane-peeling-alters-deep-retinal-vasculature
#5
Zofia Michalewska, Jerzy Nawrocki
PURPOSE: To describe morphology of retinal and choroidal vessels in swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography before and after vitrectomy with the temporal inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique for full-thickness macular holes. METHODS: Prospective, observational study of 36 eyes of 33 patients with full-thickness macular holes swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography was performed in patients before and 1 month after vitrectomy...
April 30, 2018: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740340/tissue-distribution-of-kir7-1-inwardly-rectifying-k-channel-probed-in-a-knock-in-mouse-expressing-a-haemagglutinin-tagged-protein
#6
Isabel Cornejo, Sandra Villanueva, Johanna Burgos, Karen I López-Cayuqueo, Régine Chambrey, Francisca Julio-Kalajzić, Neudo Buelvas, María I Niemeyer, Dulce Figueiras-Fierro, Peter D Brown, Francisco V Sepúlveda, L P Cid
Kir7.1 encoded by the Kcnj13 gene in the mouse is an inwardly rectifying K+ channel present in epithelia where it shares membrane localization with the Na+ /K+ -pump. Further investigations of the localisation and function of Kir7.1 would benefit from the availability of a knockout mouse, but perinatal mortality attributed to cleft palate in the neonate has thwarted this research. To facilitate localisation studies we now use CRISPR/Cas9 technology to generate a knock-in mouse, the Kir7.1-HA that expresses the channel tagged with a haemagglutinin (HA) epitope...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740265/transcriptional-profiling-of-ligand-expression-in-cell-specific-populations-of-the-adult-mouse-forebrain-that-regulates-neurogenesis
#7
Kasum Azim, Rainer Akkermann, Martina Cantone, Julio Vera, Janusz J Jadasz, Patrick Küry
In the adult central nervous system (CNS), the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the forebrain is the largest and most active source of neural stem cells (NSCs) that generates mainly neurons and few glial cells lifelong. A large body of evidence has shed light on the distinct families of signaling ligands (i.e., morphogens, growth factors, secreted molecules that alter signaling pathways) in regulating NSC biology. However, most of the research has focused on the mRNA expression of individual or few signaling ligands and their pathway components in specific cell types of the CNS in the context of neurogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740101/tissue-distribution-and-cell-tropism-of-brucella-canis-in-naturally-infected-canine-foetuses-and-neonates
#8
Tayse Domingues de Souza, Tatiane Furtado de Carvalho, Juliana Pinto da Silva Mol, João Vítor Menezes Lopes, Monique Ferreira Silva, Tatiane Alves da Paixão, Renato Lima Santos
Brucella canis infection is an underdiagnosed zoonotic disease. Knowledge about perinatal brucellosis in dogs is extremely limited, although foetuses and neonates are under risk of infection due to vertical transmission. In this study, immunohistochemistry was used to determine tissue distribution and cell tropism of B. canis in canine foetuses and neonates. Diagnosis of B. canis in tissues of naturally infected pups was based on PCR and sequencing of amplicons, bacterial isolation, and immunohistochemistry, whose specificity was confirmed by laser capture microdissection...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739868/the-dorsal-wave-of-neocortical-oligodendrogenesis-begins-embryonically-and-requires-multiple-sources-of-sonic-hedgehog
#9
Caitlin C Winkler, Odessa R Yabut, Santiago P Fregoso, Hector G Gomez, Brett E Dwyer, Samuel J Pleasure, Santos J Franco
Neural progenitor cells in the developing dorsal forebrain give rise to excitatory neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes for the neocortex. Compared to neurons and astrocytes, less is known about the molecular mechanisms that instruct dorsal forebrain progenitors to an oligodendrocyte fate. In this study, we show that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is required in dorsal progenitors for their late embryonic transition to oligodendrogenesis. Using genetic lineage-tracing in mice of both sexes, we demonstrate that the majority of oligodendrocytes in the embryonic neocortex derive from Emx1+ dorsal forebrain progenitors...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739644/evaluation-of-choroid-plexus-with-fetal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-what-happens-in-ventriculomegaly
#10
Sila Ulus, Cem Turam, Deniz Mutlu, Ipek Inal Kaleli, Mert Kocak, Umit Aksoy Ozcan
OBJECTIVES: Diagnosis of ventriculomegaly (VM) and identification of choroid plexus (CP) can be challenging with fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our aim is to create an adjunct method for supporting the diagnosis of VM by investigating the CP-ventricular wall separation distance in fetuses with and without VM (nV) with fetal MRI. METHODS: T2-weighted fetal MRIs of 154 fetuses were retrospectively evaluated. The CP separation was defined as the distance between the medial wall of the dependent ventricle and distal tip of the CP glomus...
May 5, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726796/chronic-encapsulated-intraventricular-hematoma-in-a-pediatric-patient-case-report
#11
Jeremy Wetzel, David Bray, David Wrubel
Chronic encapsulated intraventricular hematoma (CEIVH) is a rare, intraventricular, nonneoplastic mass lesion that can become symptomatic from mass effect or obstructive hydrocephalus. Only 5 cases have been reported in the literature, and only one of these occurred in a pediatric patient and dates back to the pre-modern neuroimaging and pre-microsurgical era of neurosurgery. Imaging features can mimic those of many more common intraventricular lesions, such as choroid plexus tumors or cavernous malformations...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721942/the-role-of-hypoxia-hypoxia-inducible-factor-hif-and-vegf-in-retinal-angiomatous-proliferation
#12
Maya Barben, Marijana Samardzija, Christian Grimm
In industrialized countries, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in elderly people. Hallmarks of the non-neovascular (dry) form of AMD are the formation of drusen and geographic atrophy, whereas the exudative (wet) form of the disease is characterized by invading blood vessels. In retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP), a special form of wet AMD, intraretinal vessels grow from the deep plexus into the subretinal space. Little is known about the mechanisms leading to intraretinal neovascularization, but age-related changes such as reduction of choroidal blood flow, accumulation of drusen, and thickening of the Bruch's membrane may lead to reduced oxygen availability in photoreceptors...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721578/circumventricular-organs-of-human-brain-visualized-on-post-contrast-3d-fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-imaging
#13
Minako Azuma, Toshinori Hirai, Yoshihito Kadota, Zaw Aung Khant, Yohei Hattori, Mika Kitajima, Hiroyuki Uetani, Yasuyuki Yamashita
PURPOSE: Although contrast-enhanced three-dimensional T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D T2-FLAIR) images are useful for assessing various neuronal diseases, physiological enhancement of the circumventricular organs on the images have not been investigated. We aimed to assess the physiological appearance of the circumventricular organs on contrast-enhanced 3D T2-FLAIR images. METHODS: We studied 3-T MR images of the brain of 30 individuals with no apparent brain abnormalities...
May 2, 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701803/rapid-increase-of-brain-type-transferrin-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-after-shunt-surgery-for-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-a-prognosis-marker-for-cognitive-recovery
#14
Yuta Murakami, Yuka Matsumoto, Kyoka Hoshi, Hiromi Ito, Takashi J Fuwa, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Madoka Nakajima, Masakazu Miyajima, Hajime Arai, Kenneth Nollet, Naho Kato, Rie Nishikata, Naohito Kuroda, Takashi Honda, Jun Sakuma, Kiyoshi Saito, Yasuhiro Hashimoto
Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a dementia-inducing disorder. Primary cause of iNPH is speculated to be a reduction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) absorption, which secondarily induces hydrocephalus, compression of brain, and reduction of CSF production. Patients are treated by surgically inserting a shunt to deliver excess CSF to the abdominal cavity. The prognosis for cognitive improvement after shunt surgery has been difficult to predict. We therefore investigated various CSF proteins, hoping to find a biomarker predictive of cognitive performance one to two years after shunt surgery...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695968/neurosteroid-transport-in-the-brain-role-of-abc-and-slc-transporters
#15
REVIEW
Markus Grube, Paul Hagen, Gabriele Jedlitschky
Neurosteroids, comprising pregnane, androstane, and sulfated steroids can alter neuronal excitability through interaction with ligand-gated ion channels and other receptors and have therefore a therapeutic potential in several brain disorders. They can be formed in brain cells or are synthesized by an endocrine gland and reach the brain by penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Especially sulfated steroids such as pregnenolone sulfate (PregS) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) depend on transporter proteins to cross membranes...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693258/microvascular-anatomy-of-the-brain-of-the-adult-pipid-frog-xenopus-laevis-daudin-a-scanning-electron-microscopic-study-of-vascular-corrosion-casts
#16
Alois Lametschwandtner, Bernd Minnich
To demonstrate the 3D microvascular anatomy of the brain of the model organism Xenopus laevis Daudin scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts was correlated with light microscopy of stained 7 µm thick serial tissues sections. Results showed that supplying arteries descended from the leptomeningeal surface without remarkable branchings straight to the subventricular zone where they branched and capillarized. Capillaries showed few H- and/or Y-shaped anastomoses during their centrifugal course toward the leptomeningeal surface where they drained into cerebral venules and veins...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689026/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-findings-in-patients-with-nonocular-beh%C3%A3-et-disease
#17
Karim A Raafat, Riham S H M Allam, Basma M Medhat
PURPOSE: To describe the optical coherence tomography angiography findings in nonocular Behçet disease. METHODS: The superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) and outer retinal and choroidal flow were evaluated using optical coherence tomography angiography. Perimetry was performed to correlate any microvascular and functional changes. RESULTS: Capillary nonperfusion areas were found in the superficial capillary plexus in 16/20 eyes (80%) and in the DCP in 17/20 eyes (85%)...
April 23, 2018: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687903/na-k-2cl-cotransporter-nkcc-physiological-function-in-nonpolarized-cells-and-transporting-epithelia
#18
Eric Delpire, Kenneth B Gagnon
Two genes encode the Na+ -K+ -2Cl- cotransporters, NKCC1 and NKCC2, that mediate the tightly coupled movement of 1Na+ , 1K+ , and 2Cl- across the plasma membrane of cells. Na+ -K+ -2Cl- cotransport is driven by the chemical gradient of the three ionic species across the membrane, two of them maintained by the action of the Na+ /K+ pump. In many cells, NKCC1 accumulates Cl- above its electrochemical potential equilibrium, thereby facilitating Cl- channel-mediated membrane depolarization. In smooth muscle cells, this depolarization facilitates the opening of voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels, leading to Ca2+ influx, and cell contraction...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685290/pd-1-immune-checkpoint-blockade-promotes-brain-leukocyte-infiltration-and-diminishes-cyst-burden-in-a-mouse-model-of-toxoplasma-infection
#19
Jianchun Xiao, Ye Li, Robert H Yolken, Raphael P Viscidi
Tissue cysts, the hallmark of chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection, are predominantly located in the brain making clearance of the parasite difficult. Currently available anti-T. gondii drugs are ineffective on cysts and fail to prevent reactivation of latent toxoplasmosis. We examined whether abrogation of inhibitory signaling pathways that maintain T cells in an exhausted state can be exploited for treating T. gondii tissue cysts. By using a mouse model of chronic toxoplasmosis, we showed immune checkpoint blockade directed against the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway results in a significant reduction in brain cyst number (77% lower)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682078/a-case-of-vago-glossopharyngeal-neuralgia-caused-by-choroid-plexus
#20
Ali Akay, Mete Rükşen, Sertaç İşlekel
Vascular compression has been reported to be the most common reason for vago-glossopharyngeal neuralgia (VGN). The treatment may include medications, ganglion blockade with a radiofrequency ablation, and microvascular decompression (MVD). A review of the literature reveals that VGN may develop due to choroid plexus compression, and the number of reported cases is very limited. The current case is the fifth in the relevant literature. In this paper, choroid plexus compression has been shown intraoperatively during the treatment of rare idiopathic VGN using MVD...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
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