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Choroid plexus

Supawadee Sukseree, Lajos László, Florian Gruber, Sophie Bergmann, Marie Sophie Narzt, Ionela Mariana Nagelreiter, Romana Höftberger, Kinga Molnár, Günther Rauter, Thomas Birngruber, Lionel Larue, Gabor G Kovacs, Erwin Tschachler, Leopold Eckhart
Defects in autophagy and the resulting deposition of protein aggregates have been implicated in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. While gene targeting in the mouse has facilitated the characterization of these processes in different types of neurons, potential roles of autophagy and accumulation of protein substrates in neuroepithelial cells have remained elusive. Here we report that Atg7f/f Tyr-Cre mice, in which autophagy-related 7 (Atg7) is conditionally deleted under the control of the tyrosinase promoter, are a model for accumulations of the autophagy adapter and substrate sequestosome-1/p62 in both neuronal and neuroepithelial cells...
March 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Devin Ancona, Dan York, Robert J Higgins, Danika Bannasch, Peter J Dickinson
Choroid plexus tumors (CPTs) occur spontaneously in humans and dogs providing an opportunity for comparative cross species analysis of common tumor mechanisms. Large scale chromosomal copy number alterations are the hallmark of human CPTs and identification of driver genes within these regions is problematic. Copy number alterations in 12 spontaneous dog CPTs were defined using an Illumina 170 K single nucleotide polymorphism array and were characterized by highly recurrent whole chromosomal losses in up to 100% of cases with few chromosome wide gains...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Tomoaki Sasaki, John Kim, Toshio Moritani, Aristides A Capizzano, Shawn P Sato, Yutaka Sato, Patricia Kirby, Shunta Ishitoya, Akiko Oya, Masahiro Toda, Sayaka Yuzawa, Koji Takahashi
PURPOSE: To explore the utility of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and tumor volume to predict histological grade and prognosis in patients with choroid plexus tumors. METHODS: ADC and tumor volumes were retrospectively evaluated in 25 patients with choroid plexus papilloma (CPP; WHO grade 1 [n = 13]), atypical CPP (aCPP; grade 2 [n = 8]), or choroid plexus carcinoma (grade 3 [n = 4]) The prognostic roles of ADC and tumor volume were assessed...
March 15, 2018: Neuroradiology
Morgan L Shannon, Ryann M Fame, Kevin F Chau, Neil Dani, Monica L Calicchio, Gwenaelle S Géléoc, Hart G W Lidov, Sanda Alexandrescu, Maria K Lehtinen
Choroid plexus tumors and ciliary body medulloepithelioma are predominantly pediatric neoplasms. Progress in understanding the pathogenesis of these tumors has been hindered by their rarity and lack of models that faithfully recapitulate the disease. Here, we find that endogenous c-Myc is down-regulated in the forebrain neuroepithelium, whose neural plate border domains give rise to anterior choroid plexus and ciliary body. To uncover the consequences of persistent MYC (c-Myc) expression, c-Myc expression was forced in multipotent neural precursors (Nestin-Cre:MYC), which produced a fully penetrant model of choroid plexus carcinoma and ciliary body medulloepithelioma...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Ruobing Huang, Ana Namburete, Alison Noble
We present a general framework for automatic segmentation of fetal brain structures in ultrasound images inspired by recent advances in machine learning. The approach is based on a region descriptor that characterizes the shape and local intensity context of different neurological structures without explicit models. To validate our framework, we present experiments to segment two fetal brain structures of clinical importance that have quite different ultrasonic appearances-the corpus callosum (CC) and the choroid plexus (CP)...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Sho Tamai, Yasuhiko Hayashi, Yasuo Sasagawa, Masahiro Oishi, Mitsutoshi Nakada
Background: Although it is well known that most choroid plexus cysts (CPCs) are asymptomatic, previous studies have reported that they can infrequently cause progressive hydrocephalus along with their increasing sizes. Among those cases, some patients needed cyst fenestration or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion to recover neurological deterioration. Meanwhile, some CPCs revealed spontaneous resolution, and in rare cases, they developed re-accumulation. Some reports have described series of radiological findings about their changes in location...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Fanxing Zeng, Jonathon A Nye, Ronald J Voll, Leonard Howell, Mark M Goodman
Nine pyridyloxypyridyl indole carboxamides were synthesized and displayed high affinities for 5-HT2C receptors and high selectivity over 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B . Among them, 6-methyl- N -[6-[(2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)oxy]-3-pyridinyl]1 H -indole-3-carboxamide ( 8 ) exhibits the highest 5-HT2C binding affinity ( K i = 1.3 nM) and high selectivity over 5-HT2A (∼1000 times) and 5-HT2B (∼140 times). [11 C] 8 was synthesized by palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction between pinacolboranate 16 and [11 C]CH3 I with an average radiochemical yield of 27 ± 4% ( n = 8, decay-corrected from end of [11 C]CH3 I synthesis)...
March 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Jihwan Myung, Christoph Schmal, Sungho Hong, Yoshiaki Tsukizawa, Pia Rose, Yong Zhang, Michael J Holtzman, Erik De Schutter, Hanspeter Herzel, Grigory Bordyugov, Toru Takumi
Mammalian circadian clocks have a hierarchical organization, governed by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus. The brain itself contains multiple loci that maintain autonomous circadian rhythmicity, but the contribution of the non-SCN clocks to this hierarchy remains unclear. We examine circadian oscillations of clock gene expression in various brain loci and discovered that in mouse, robust, higher amplitude, relatively faster oscillations occur in the choroid plexus (CP) compared to the SCN...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Santa Mammana, Paolo Fagone, Eugenio Cavalli, Maria Sofia Basile, Maria Cristina Petralia, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
In physiological conditions, different types of macrophages can be found within the central nervous system (CNS), i.e., microglia, meningeal macrophages, and perivascular (blood-brain barrier) and choroid plexus (blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier) macrophages. Microglia and tissue-resident macrophages, as well as blood-borne monocytes, have different origins, as the former derive from yolk sac erythromyeloid precursors and the latter from the fetal liver or bone marrow. Accordingly, specific phenotypic patterns characterize each population...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wafik Zaky, Jonathan L Finlay
Choroid plexus (CP) carcinoma is a rare pediatric brain neoplasm. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of genome-wide methylation and gene expression profiling to provide additional layers of information to improve tumor risk-stratification. There is a lack of data regarding the best therapy, and approaches have been heterogeneous. Despite multidisciplinary treatment approaches, the outcome remains guarded and treatments have been based on case series and expert opinions. In this study, we discuss the recent wealth of data regarding CP carcinoma molecular biology and current management...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
João R Gomes, Inês Cabrito, Hugo R Soares, Susete Costelha, Anabela Teixeira, Angela Wittelsberger, Catelijne Stortelers, Peter Vanlandschoot, Maria J Saraiva
Transthyretin (TTR) is a transport protein of retinol and thyroxine in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is mainly secreted in liver and choroid plexus, and in smaller amounts in other cells throughout the body. The exact role of TTR and its specific expression in Central Nervous System (CNS) remains understudied. We investigated TTR expression and metabolism in CNS, through the intranasal and intracerebroventricular delivery of a specific anti-TTR Nanobody to the brain, unveiling Nanobody pharmacokinetics to the CNS...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Zaria C Ali, Jane Gray, Konstantinos Balaskas
PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to describe features of choroidal naevi as seen on swept source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and also on en face images derived from structural data from OCTA. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study was carried out. Patients attending a specialised choroidal naevomelanocytic with known naevi were imaged with swept source OCTA. RESULTS: Seventy-one eyes of 70 patients were imaged...
March 9, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Jean-François Ghersi-Egea, Elodie Saudrais, Nathalie Strazielle
Drug bioavailability to the developing brain is a major concern in the treatment of neonates and infants as well as pregnant and breast-feeding women. Central adverse drug reactions can have dramatic consequences for brain development, leading to major neurological impairment. Factors setting the cerebral bioavailability of drugs include protein-unbound drug concentration in plasma, local cerebral blood flow, permeability across blood-brain interfaces, binding to neural cells, volume of cerebral fluid compartments, and cerebrospinal fluid secretion rate...
March 7, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Soyoung Kim, Dongwoo Kim, Se Hoon Kim, Mi-Ae Park, Jong Hee Chang, Mijin Yun
PURPOSE: This prospective study aimed to evaluate the clinical values of11 C-acetate positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in predicting histologic grades and survival in patients with cerebral glioma. METHODS: Seventy-three patients with surgically confirmed cerebral gliomas (19 grade II, 21 grade III, and 33 grade IV) who underwent11 C-acetate PET/CT before surgery were included. Tumor-to-choroid plexus ratio (TCR), which was defined as the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of tumors to the mean SUV of choroid plexus, was compared between three World Health Organization (WHO) grade groups...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Jing Yu, Ning Xu, Ying Zhao, Jinlu Yu
The anterior choroidal artery (AChA) is a critical artery in brain physiology and function. The AChA is involved in many diseases, including aneurysm, brain infarct, Moyamoya disease (MMD), brain tumor, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), etc. The AChA is vulnerable to damage during the treatment of these diseases and is thus a very important vessel. However, a comprehensive systematic review of the importance of the AChA is currently lacking. In this study, we used the PUBMED database to perform a literature review of the AChA to increase our understanding of its role in neurophysiology...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Ingrid Kratzer, Nathalie Strazielle, Elodie Saudrais, Kati Mönkkönen, Céline Maleval, Sandrine Blondel, Jean-François Ghersi-Egea
Exposure of the developing brain to toxins, drugs, or deleterious endogenous compounds during the perinatal period can trigger alterations in cell division, migration, differentiation, and synaptogenesis, leading to life-long neurological impairment. The brain is protected by cellular barriers acting through multiple mechanisms, some of which are still poorly explored. We used a combination of enzymatic assays, live tissue fluorescence microscopy, and an in vitro cellular model of the blood-CSF barrier to investigate an enzymatic detoxification pathway in the developing male and female rat brain...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Shalaka Khade, Asha Shenoy
Choroid plexus papilloma is a rare intracranial neoplasm. These lesions most commonly present in the fourth ventricle in adults and lateral ventricle in children. Herein, we report a case of a 57-year-old male with complaint of backache of few weeks duration. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural and extramedullary space occupying lesion at D8 level. Histology showed multiple free-floating papillae with a central fibrovascular core. The cells showed immunoreactivity for vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, synaptophysin, S-100 protein, and cytokeratins (CK, CK7)...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Edouard Augstburger, Pierre Zéboulon, Chafik Keilani, Christophe Baudouin, Antoine Labbé
Purpose: To analyze retinal and choroidal microvasculature in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) by using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Methods: In this case-control retrospective observational study, patients with atrophic NAION (at least 3 months after onset of symptoms) and normal subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination including spectral-domain OCT, visual field (VF), and OCT-A. Whole en face image vessel density (wiVD) was used to assess retinal blood flow of the radial peripapillary capillaries (RPCs), circumpapillary RPC vessel density (cpVD), superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), and choriocapillaris (CC)...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Sophie Steeland, Nina Gorlé, Charysse Vandendriessche, Sriram Balusu, Marjana Brkic, Caroline Van Cauwenberghe, Griet Van Imschoot, Elien Van Wonterghem, Riet De Rycke, Anneke Kremer, Saskia Lippens, Edward Stopa, Conrad E Johanson, Claude Libert, Roosmarijn E Vandenbroucke
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, and neuroinflammation is an important hallmark of the pathogenesis. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) might be detrimental in AD, though the results coming from clinical trials on anti-TNF inhibitors are inconclusive. TNFR1, one of the TNF signaling receptors, contributes to the pathogenesis of AD by mediating neuronal cell death. The blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier consists of a monolayer of choroid plexus epithelial (CPE) cells, and AD is associated with changes in CPE cell morphology...
February 22, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Monika Bradl, Markus Reindl, Hans Lassmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are severe inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), with the presence of aquaporin 4 (AQP4)-specific serum antibodies in the vast majority of patients, and with the presence of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-specific antibodies in approximately 40% of all AQP4-antibody negative NMOSD patients. Despite differences in antigen recognition, the preferred sites of lesions are similar in both groups of patients: They localize to the spinal cord and to the anterior visual pathway including retina, optic nerves, chiasm, and optic tracts, and - to lesser extent - also to certain predilection sites in the brain...
February 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
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