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Choroid plexus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919452/the-affinity-of-transthyretin-for-t3-or-t4-does-not-determine-which-form-of-the-hormone-accumulates-in-the-choroid-plexus
#1
Samantha J Richardson, Stijn Van Herck, Joke Delbaere, Bronwyn M McAllan, Veerle M Darras
Normal development of the brain is dependent on the required amounts of thyroid hormones (THs) reaching specific regions of the brain during each stage of ontogeny. Many proteins are involved with regulation of TH bioavailability in the brain: the TH distributor protein transthyretin (TTR), TH transmembrane transporters (e.g. MCT8, MCT10, LAT1, OATP1C1) and deiodinases (D1, D2 and D3) which either activate or inactivate THs. Previous studies revealed that in mammals, T4, but not T3, accumulated in the choroid plexus and then entered the cerebrospinal fluid...
September 14, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913776/interactions-of-antisera-to-different-chlamydia-and-chlamydophila-species-with-the-ribosomal-protein-rps27a-correlate-with-impaired-protein-synthesis-in-a-human-choroid-plexus-papilloma-cell-line
#2
Abdullah Almamy, Christian Schwerk, Horst Schroten, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Abdul Rahman Asif, Bernhard Reuss
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and the Chlamydophila species (CS) Chlamydophila pneumoniae (CPn), and Chlamydophila psittaci (CPs) are suggested to induce autoantibodies causative of several human autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of the present study was therefore to identify cellular protein interaction partners with antisera to CT (α-CT) or CS (α-CS) and to identify functional consequences of such interaction in vitro. As detected with a commercial first trimester human prenatal brain multiprotein array (hEXselect, Engine, Germany), the most frequent interaction partner with both α-CT and α-CS was the ribosomal small subunit protein RPS27a...
September 14, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912477/brain-barriers-and-functional-interfaces-with-sequential-appearance-of-abc-efflux-transporters-during-human-development
#3
Kjeld Møllgård, Katarzyna M Dziegielewska, Camilla B Holst, Mark D Habgood, Norman R Saunders
Adult brain is protected from entry of drugs and toxins by specific mechanisms such as ABC (ATP-binding Cassette) efflux transporters. Little is known when these appear in human brain during development. Cellular distribution of three main ABC transporters (ABCC1, ABCG2, ABCB1) was determined at blood-brain barriers and interfaces in human embryos and fetuses in first half of gestation. Antibodies against claudin-5 and -11 and antibodies to α-fetoprotein were used to describe morphological and functional aspects of brain barriers...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894228/ascorbic-acid-tethered-polymeric-nanoparticles-enable-efficient-brain-delivery-of-galantamine-an-in-vitro-in-vivo-study
#4
Kavita R Gajbhiye, Virendra Gajbhiye, Imtiaz A Siddiqui, Srikanth Pilla, Vandana Soni
The aim of this work was to enhance the transportation of the galantamine to the brain via ascorbic acid grafted PLGA-b-PEG nanoparticles (NPs) using SVCT2 transporters of choroid plexus. PLGA-b-PEG copolymer was synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, gel permeation chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. PLGA-b-PEG-NH2 and PLGA-b-mPEG NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method. PLGA-b-PEG NPs with desirable size, polydispersity, and drug loading were used for the conjugation with ascorbic acid (PLGA-b-PEG-Asc) to facilitate SVCT2 mediated transportation of the same into the brain...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889016/the-effect-of-melatonin-from-slow-release-implants-on-basic-and-tlr-4-mediated-gene-expression-of-inflammatory-cytokines-and-their-receptors-in-the-choroid-plexus-in-ewes
#5
M Kowalewska, A P Herman, A Szczepkowska, J Skipor
The present study concerns the effect of melatonin from slow-release implants on the expression of genes coding interleukin-1β (Il1B), inerleukin-6 (Il6), tumour necrosis factor α (Tnf) and their receptors: IL-1 receptor type I (Il1r1) and type II (Il1r2), IL-6 receptor (Il6r) and signal transducer (Il6st), TNFα receptor type I (Tnfrsf1a) and II (Tnfrsf1b) and retinoid-related orphan receptor α (RorA) and Rev.-erbα in the ovine choroid plexus (CP) under basal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged conditions...
September 5, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885847/regulation-of-reduced-folate-carrier-rfc-by-vitamin-d-receptor-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#6
Camille Alam, Md Tozammel Hoque, Richard H Finnell, I David Goldman, Reina Bendayan
Folates are essential for brain development and function. Folate transport in mammalian tissues is mediated by three major folate transport systems, i.e., reduced folate carrier (RFC), proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) and folate receptor alpha (FRα), known to be regulated by ligand-activated nuclear receptors such as vitamin D receptor (VDR). Folate uptake at the choroid plexus, which requires the actions of both FRα and PCFT, is critical to cerebral folate delivery. Inactivating FRα or PCFT mutations cause severe cerebral folate deficiency resulting in early childhood neurodegeneration...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884229/time-to-event-analysis-of-surgically-treated-posthemorrhagic-hydrocephalus-in-preterm-infants-a-single-institution-retrospective-study
#7
Rowland H Han, Daniel Berger, Mohamed Gabir, Brandon S Baksh, Diego M Morales, Amit M Mathur, Christopher D Smyser, Jennifer M Strahle, David D Limbrick
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to report time points relevant to the neurosurgical management of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH). METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively on 104 preterm infants with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) who received neurosurgical intervention for PHH at St. Louis Children's Hospital from 1994 to 2016. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed for various endpoints. RESULTS: IVH grade on head ultrasound obtained through routine clinical care was II, III, and IV in 5 (4...
September 7, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880093/quantification-of-transporter-and-receptor-proteins-in-dog-brain-capillaries-and-choroid-plexus-relevance-for-the-distribution-in-brain-and-csf-of-selected-bcrp-and-p-gp-substrates
#8
Clemens Braun, Atsushi Sakamoto, Holger Fuchs, Naoki Ishiguro, Shinobu Suzuki, Yunhai Cui, Klaus Klinder, Michitoshi Watanabe, Tetsuya Terasaki, Achim Sauer
Transporters at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) play a pivotal role as gatekeepers for efflux or uptake of endogenous and exogenous molecules. The protein expression of a number of them has already been determined in the brains of rodents, non-human primates and humans using quantitative targeted absolute proteomics (QTAP). The dog is an important animal model for drug discovery and development, especially for safety evaluations. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the relevance of the transporter protein expression for drug distribution in the dog brain and CSF...
September 7, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870626/immunoreactivity-of-urate-transporters-glut9-and-urat1-is-located-in-epithelial-cells-of-the-choroid-plexus-of-human-brains
#9
Naoya Uemura, Ryuta Murakami, Yoichi Chiba, Ken Yanase, Ryuji Fujihara, Masato Mashima, Koichi Matsumoto, Machi Kawauchi, Gotaro Shirakami, Masaki Ueno
It has been suggested that urate plays a protective role in neurons, while hyperuricemia is correlated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. However, whether there is a system that directly transports urate into the brain remains to be clarified. In this study, the localization of glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9) and urate transporter 1 (URAT1), which are known to be representative reabsorptive urate transporters, was immunohistochemically examined in autopsied human brains. Immunoreactivity of GLUT9 was observed on the apical side of the cytoplasm of epithelial cells in the choroid plexus and in the cilia of ependymal cells of the human brain...
September 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868031/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-employing-a-novel-technique-for-investigation-in-vogt-koyanagi-harada-disease
#10
Panagiotis Giannakouras, Konstantinos Andreanos, Barbara Giavi, Andreas Diagourtas
PURPOSE: To report a case of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease and describe the imaging findings by means of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: Medical and ophthalmological history, ophthalmological examination, laboratory evaluation, B-scan ultrasonography, fluorescein and indocyanine angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed at baseline, as well as OCTA. RESULTS: A 50-year-old healthy female presented with decreased vision in both eyes...
May 2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867747/involvement-of-carrier-mediated-transport-at-the-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barrier-in-spermine-clearance-from-rat-brain
#11
Shin-Ichi Akanuma, Hirokazu Shimada, Yoshiyuki Kubo, Ken-Ichi Hosoya
Spermine is the end-product in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway, and its excess accumulation induces neuroexcitatory responses and neurotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the involvement of transport systems at the brain barriers in the clearance of spermine. In vivo rat spermine elimination from brain parenchyma across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB) was assessed by intracerebral and intracerebroventricular administration techniques, respectively...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866068/treating-csf-rhinorrhea-without-dura-repair-a-case-report-of-posterior-fossa-choroid-plexus-papilloma
#12
François Lechanoine Resident, Ilyess Zemmoura, Stéphane Velut
BACKGROUND: Choroid plexus papilloma revealed by non traumatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea had only been described five times in the literature. The challenges in this situation are to recognize CSF leak, to rapidly understand the pathophysiology of the leak, and to choose the best treatment strategy in emergency. We report an original case of posterior fossa choroid plexus papilloma revealed by CSF leak. We then discuss the surgical strategy and the pathophysiology of CSF leak, which is explained, in this case, by both hyperproduction of CSF and local skull base erosion...
August 30, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859040/successful-treatment-of-recurrent-li-fraumeni-syndrome-related-choroid-plexus-carcinoma
#13
Matthew McEvoy, Nathan Robison, Peter Manley, Torunn Yock, Kristine Konopka, Robert E Brown, Johannes Wolff, Adam L Green
The management of choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) is challenging and multifaceted. Here, we discuss a 3-year-old girl with CPC and Li-Fraumeni syndrome who achieved full remission after surgery and chemotherapy, with radiation therapy spared. At recurrence, we used a novel, standard-dose cytotoxic chemotherapy regimen, focal proton radiation therapy, and targeted agents based on morphoproteomic analysis to achieve long-term survival. We highlight the rationale for our therapy at recurrence, as well as the risk-benefit analyses necessary in decision making for these patients...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856748/propionibacterium-acnes-associated-neurosarcoidosis-a-case-report-with-review-of-the-literature
#14
Guang Yang, Yoshinobu Eishi, Anwar Raza, Heather Rojas, Adina Achiriloaie, Kenneth De Los Reyes, Ravi Raghavan
A 56-year-old woman with a 3-year history of hydrocephalus and ventriculo-peritoneal shunt placement, presented with worsening altered level of consciousness for 2 days. Imaging studies showed severe ventriculomegaly involving the lateral and third ventricles with multiple septated cysts noted in the lateral ventricles predominantly near the frontal horns. Histopathologic examination of the excised brain lesion revealed choroid plexus tissue and adjacent cerebral parenchyma with several non-caseating granulomas...
August 30, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841111/spinal-drop-metastasis-from-a-benign-fourth-ventricular-choroid-plexus-papilloma-in-a-pediatric-patient-case-report
#15
Ramin A Morshed, Darryl Lau, Peter P Sun, Lauren R Ostling
Choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) are typically benign tumors that can occur in any age group but are more commonly found in pediatric patients. Although these tumors are benign, there are several reports in adult patients of distant metastases present either at the time of diagnosis or occurring months to years after initial resection. Here, the authors report the case of a 14-year-old boy who presented with symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure due to obstructive hydrocephalus that was caused by a large fourth ventricular mass...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836308/siglec-h-is-a-microglia-specific-marker-that-discriminates-microglia-from-cns-associated-macrophages-and-cns-infiltrating-monocytes
#16
Hiroyuki Konishi, Masaaki Kobayashi, Taikan Kunisawa, Kenta Imai, Akira Sayo, Bernard Malissen, Paul R Crocker, Katsuaki Sato, Hiroshi Kiyama
Several types of myeloid cell are resident in the CNS. In the steady state, microglia are present in the CNS parenchyma, whereas macrophages reside in boundary regions of the CNS, such as perivascular spaces, the meninges and choroid plexus. In addition, monocytes infiltrate into the CNS parenchyma from circulation upon blood-brain barrier breakdown after CNS injury and inflammation. Although several markers, such as CD11b and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), are frequently used as microglial markers, they are also expressed by other types of myeloid cell and microglia-specific markers were not defined until recently...
August 24, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835515/a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-reduces-intracranial-pressure-in-a-rat-model-of-hydrocephalus
#17
Hannah F Botfield, Maria S Uldall, Connar S J Westgate, James L Mitchell, Snorre M Hagen, Ana Maria Gonzalez, David J Hodson, Rigmor H Jensen, Alexandra J Sinclair
Current therapies for reducing raised intracranial pressure (ICP) under conditions such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension or hydrocephalus have limited efficacy and tolerability. Thus, there is a pressing need to identify alternative drugs. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are used to treat diabetes and promote weight loss but have also been shown to affect fluid homeostasis in the kidney. We investigated whether exendin-4, a GLP-1R agonist, is able to modulate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) secretion at the choroid plexus and subsequently reduce ICP in rats...
August 23, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833469/clinicopathologic-features-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-24-cats-with-histopathologically-confirmed-neurologic-feline-infectious-peritonitis
#18
A H Crawford, A L Stoll, D Sanchez-Masian, A Shea, J Michaels, A R Fraser, E Beltran
BACKGROUND: Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is the most common infectious central nervous system (CNS) disease in the cat and is invariably fatal. Improved means of antemortem diagnosis is required to facilitate clinical decision making. Information regarding the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of neurologic FIP currently is limited, resulting in the need for better descriptions to optimize its use as a diagnostic tool. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinicopathologic features and MRI findings in cases of confirmed neurologic FIP...
September 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831205/phosphorylated-mtor-expression-profiles-in-human-normal-and-carcinoma-tissues
#19
Hojung Lee
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key controller of cell growth and proliferation in normal tissues and solid tumors. In the present study, an immunohistochemical analysis of the expression pattern of phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR) was performed in human normal fetal and adult tissues and various carcinoma tissues. p-mTOR expression showed tissue and cell type specificity in normal and cancer tissues. In normal fetal and adult tissues, p-mTOR staining was observed in the intestinal crypt, intrahepatic bile ductule, pancreatic duct, distal nephron of the kidney, umbrella cell of urothelium, mesothelial cell, and choroid plexus...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820225/bilateral-thalamic-edema-from-coexisting-choroid-plexus-arteriovenous-malformation-and-sinus-thrombosis-case-report
#20
Ryan B Kochanski, Andrew K Johnson, Roham Moftakhar
Bilateral thalamic dysfunction secondary to venous congestion may result from either venous sinus thrombosis or high flow arteriovenous malformations or a combination of both. We present a case of bilateral thalamic edema resulting from concomitant choroid plexus arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and straight sinus thrombosis and describe our treatment approach. The patient presented with several weeks of progressive confusion and memory deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging and venography (MRI/ MRV) showed bilateral thalamic T2 hyperintensities and straight sinus thrombosis...
2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
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