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Choroid plexus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711405/a-unique-glycan-isoform-of-transferrin-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-a-potential-diagnostic-marker-for-neurological-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Kyoka Hoshi, Hiromi Ito, Yuka Matsumoto, Kiyoshi Saito, Takashi Honda, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is sequestered from blood by the blood-brain barrier and directly communicates with brain parenchymal interstitial fluid, leading to contain specific biomarkers of neurological diseases. SCOPE OF REVIEW: CSF contains glycan isoforms of transferrin (Tf): one appears to be derived from the brain and the other from blood. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: CSF contains two glycan-isoforms; brain-type Tf and serum-type Tf...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708222/multimodal-imaging-in-a-patient-with-traumatic-choroidal-ruptures
#2
Luisa Pierro, Chiara Giuffrè, Alessandro Rabiolo, Marco Gagliardi, Alessandro Arrigo, Francesco Bandello
PURPOSE: To describe the case and the follow-up of a traumatic choroidal rupture characterized by means of multimodal imaging including color fundus photographs, infrared reflectance, blue autofluorescence, swept-source optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 17-year-old boy was referred to our clinic complaining of reduction in visual acuity in the right eye (RE) after a blunt ocular trauma during a soccer match...
July 5, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707091/-fluorescein-indocyanine-green-and-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-patients-with-native-exudative-age-related-macular-degeneration
#3
L J B Pauleikhoff, K Blobner, K Wehrmann, N Feucht, C P Lohmann, M Maier
INTRODUCTION: The newly developed optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) has provided new means to depict the vascular plexus in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). If these images are to be used as a basis for therapeutic decisions, it is of vital importance to classify choroidal neovascularization (CNV) as either classical or occult. This study aimed at comparing the findings in OCT-A imaging of CNV with the traditional multimodal imaging through fluorescein angiography (FLA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA)...
July 13, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701191/blood-brain-barrier-and-foetal-onset-hydrocephalus-with-a-view-on-potential-novel-treatments-beyond-managing-csf-flow
#4
REVIEW
M Guerra, J L Blázquez, E M Rodríguez
Despite decades of research, no compelling non-surgical therapies have been developed for foetal hydrocephalus. So far, most efforts have pointed to repairing disturbances in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and to avoid further brain damage. There are no reports trying to prevent or diminish abnormalities in brain development which are inseparably associated with hydrocephalus. A key problem in the treatment of hydrocephalus is the blood-brain barrier that restricts the access to the brain for therapeutic compounds or systemically grafted cells...
July 13, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699153/-hydrocephalus-due-to-hyperplasia-of-the-choroid-plexuses-in-a-patient-with-trisomy-9-mosaicism-a-real-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenge
#5
P Puerta-Roldan, A Guillen-Quesada, R Carrasco, J Muchart, M Serrano, E Ferrer
INTRODUCTION: Trisomy 9 is an unusual chromosome abnormality in live-born patients, which is frequently accompanied by functional and structural anomalies of the central nervous system. Among many other alterations, several studies have been published in the English-speaking literature that show an association between chromosome 9 abnormality and pathologies affecting the choroid plexuses. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 4-month-old male with trisomy 9 mosaicism associated to hydrocephalus secondary to choroid plexus hyperplasia, who was referred due to a clinical picture of intracranial hypertension...
August 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692063/inflammation-dependent-cerebrospinal-fluid-hypersecretion-by-the-choroid-plexus-epithelium-in-posthemorrhagic-hydrocephalus
#6
Jason K Karimy, Jinwei Zhang, David B Kurland, Brianna Carusillo Theriault, Daniel Duran, Jesse A Stokum, Charuta Gavankar Furey, Xu Zhou, M Shahid Mansuri, Julio Montejo, Alberto Vera, Michael L DiLuna, Eric Delpire, Seth L Alper, Murat Gunel, Volodymyr Gerzanich, Ruslan Medzhitov, J Marc Simard, Kristopher T Kahle
The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) secretes higher volumes of fluid (cerebrospinal fluid, CSF) than any other epithelium and simultaneously functions as the blood-CSF barrier to gate immune cell entry into the central nervous system. Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), an expansion of the cerebral ventricles due to CSF accumulation following intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), is a common disease usually treated by suboptimal CSF shunting techniques. PHH is classically attributed to primary impairments in CSF reabsorption, but little experimental evidence supports this concept...
July 10, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686125/atypical-choroid-plexus-papilloma-spontaneous-resolution-of-diffuse-leptomeningeal-contrast-enhancement-after-primary-tumor-removal-in-2-pediatric-cases
#7
Marcello Scala, Giovanni Morana, Claudia Milanaccio, Marco Pavanello, Paolo Nozza, Maria Luisa Garrè
Atypical choroid plexus papillomas can metastasize in the form of leptomeningeal seeding. Postoperative chemotherapy is the recommended first-line treatment when gross-total removal is not achieved or in cases of disseminated disease. Here the authors report on 2 children with atypical choroid plexus papillomas and MRI findings of diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement at diagnosis, later presenting with spontaneous resolution of the leptomeningeal involvement after removal of the primary lesions. Observations in this report expand our knowledge about the natural history and biological behavior of these tumors and highlight the role of close neuroimaging surveillance in the management of atypical choroid plexus papillomas in cases with MRI evidence of diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement at presentation...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684370/a-primary-pigmented-choroid-plexus-papilloma-located-within-the-sella-turcica-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Xuan Gong, Chao Liu, Longbo Zhang, Zhenyan Li, Christopher M Bartley, Zhixiong Liu
BACKGROUND: Choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) are rare benign tumors and the pigmented subtype is even more rarely observed. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present the case of a 43-year-old woman with complaints of headache and progressive left monocular visual deterioration, whose initial plain CT showed an ovate high density tumor located within in sellar region. MRI revealed a homogeneously contrast-enhancing tumor extending from the sella turcica to the suprasellar cistern...
July 3, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680296/distribution-and-function-of-the-bestrophin-1-best1-channel-in-the-brain
#9
REVIEW
Soo-Jin Oh, C Justin Lee
Bestrophin-1 (Best1) is a calcium-activated anion channel identified from retinal pigment epithelium where human mutations are associated with Best's macular degeneration. Best1 is known to be expressed in a variety of tissues including the brain, and is thought to be involved in many physiological processes. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge on aspects of expression and function of Best1 in the brain. Best1 protein is observed in cortical and hippocampal astrocytes, in cerebellar Bergmann glia and lamellar astrocytes, in thalamic reticular neurons, in meninges and in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678217/choroid-plexus-tuberculoma-diagnosis-management-and-role-of-endoscopy
#10
Nishanth Sadashiva, Bevinahalli N Nandeesh, Dhaval Shukla, Bhagavatula I Devi
Ventricular involvement in central nervous system tuberculosis can be in the form of tuberculous ependymitis, intraventricular tuberculoma, intraventricular tuberculous abscess, choroid plexitis and choroid plexus tuberculoma. Only a few cases of choroid plexus tuberculomas have been described and even more rare is the description of the role of endoscopy in management of intraventricular tuberculomas. We report a 33-year-old patient while on treatment for tubercular meningitis who developed a left side choroid plexus lesion with loculated temporal horn...
July 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677107/a-french-retrospective-study-on-clinical-outcome-in-102-choroid-plexus-tumors-in-children
#11
A Siegfried, S Morin, C Munzer, M B Delisle, M Gambart, S Puget, C A Maurage, C Miquel, C Dufour, P Leblond, N André, D Figarella Branger, J Kanold, J-L Kemeny, C Icher, A Vital, E Uro Coste, A I Bertozzi
The aim of this study was to review and describe therapeutic approaches in children with choroid plexus tumor (CPT) based on a nationwide series. The World Health Organization classification subdivides these rare tumors into three histological subtypes corresponding to three grades of malignancy: low grade (grade I) choroid plexus papilloma (CPP), intermediate grade (grade II) atypical choroid plexus papilloma (aCPP) and high grade (grade III) choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC). This retrospective study included 102 French children younger than 18 years, treated from 2000 to 2012: 54 CPP, 26 aCPP and 22 CPC...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670657/risk-factors-for-new-onset-shunt-dependency-after-craniotomies-for-intracranial-tumors-in-adult-patients
#12
Sayied Abdol Mohieb Hosainey, Benjamin Lassen, John K Hald, Eirik Helseth, Torstein R Meling
The risk of developing a de novo shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (HC) after undergoing a craniotomy for brain tumor in adult patients is largely unknown. All craniotomies for intracranial tumors at Oslo University Hospital in adult patients ≥18 years of age during a 10-year period (2004-2013) were included. None were lost to follow-up. Patients who developed a shunt-dependent HC were identified by cross-linking our prospectively collected tumor database to patients with a NCSP surgical procedure code of hydrocephalus (AAF)...
July 3, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665241/shunt-dependent-hydrocephalus-management-style-among-members-of-the-american-society-of-pediatric-neurosurgeons
#13
Mark R Kraemer, Carolina Sandoval-Garcia, Taryn Bragg, Bermans J Iskandar
OBJECTIVE The authors conducted a survey to evaluate differences in the understanding and management of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus among members of the American Society of Pediatric Neurosurgeons (ASPN). METHODS Surveys were sent to all 204 active ASPN members in September 2014. One hundred thirty responses were received, representing a 64% response rate. Respondents were asked 13 multiple-choice and free-response questions regarding 4 fundamental problems encountered in shunted-hydrocephalus management: shunt malfunction, chronic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) overdrainage, chronic headaches, and slit ventricle syndrome (SVS)...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654010/effects-of-pup-separation-on-stress-response-in-postpartum-female-rats
#14
Manu Kalyani, Phyllis Callahan, James M Janik, Haifei Shi
There is a complex collection of neuroendocrine function during the postpartum period. Prolactin (PRL) released by suckling stimulus and its PRL receptors (PRL-R) in the central nervous system (CNS) are involved in hyporesponsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in lactating mammals including rodents and humans. It is not clear how long it takes to reestablish the attenuated HPA axis activity of lactating rats to a pre-pregnancy state after pup separation. We first tested the hypothesis that HPA axis activity in response to an acute stress in postpartum rats would return to a pre-pregnancy state after pup separation...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650992/galectin-8-as-an-immunosuppressor-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-a-target-of-human-early-prognostic-antibodies-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Evelyn Pardo, Claudia Cárcamo, Reinaldo Uribe-San Martín, Ethel Ciampi, Fabián Segovia-Miranda, Cristobal Curkovic-Peña, Fabián Montecino, Christopher Holmes, Juan Enrique Tichauer, Eric Acuña, Francisco Osorio-Barrios, Marjorie Castro, Priscilla Cortes, Claudia Oyanadel, David M Valenzuela, Rodrigo Pacheco, Rodrigo Naves, Andrea Soza, Alfonso González
Galectin-8 (Gal-8) is a member of a glycan-binding protein family that regulates the immune system, among other functions, and is a target of antibodies in autoimmune disorders. However, its role in multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), remains unknown. We study the consequences of Gal-8 silencing on lymphocyte subpopulations and the development of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), to then assess the presence and clinical meaning of anti-Gal-8 antibodies in MS patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647462/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-macular-features-after-proton-beam-radiotherapy-for-small-choroidal-melanoma
#16
Alexandre Sellam, Florence Coscas, Livia Lumbroso-Le Rouic, Rémi Dendale, Marco Lupidi, Gabriel Coscas, Laurence Desjardins, Nathalie Cassoux
PURPOSE: To describe the macular features of patients treated with proton beam therapy for choroidal melanoma (CM), using the optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCTA). DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. METHODS: This study included patients treated with proton beam radiotherapy (PBR) for a small CM. Only patients that had received 100% of the dose 60 GyEBR to the macular area were included in the analysis. All the patients have undergone a full ophthalmological examination including: visual acuity, OCT B-scan and OCTA...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644061/diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-assessment-of-choroid-plexus-aging
#17
Banu Alicioglu, Guliz Yilmaz, Ozgur Tosun, Nail Bulakbasi
Recent studies have pointed out dysfunction and histopathological changes of the choroid plexuses (CPs) with aging. This paper reviews apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the CPs for age-related changes. All the brain MR images of the patients between January 2013 and June 2014 in our Radiology Department were retrospectively investigated. Patients with major cranial abnormalities (brain tumors, hyperacute or acute ischemia, developmental anomalies, hemorrhage, hydrocephaly) were excluded. Diffusion-weighted images were obtained at the parameter values of b = 1000 s/mm(2) in the axial plane...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643039/primary-intraventricular-meningiomas-in-children-experience-of-two-cases-with-review-of-literature
#18
Kapil D Muley, Salman T Shaikh, Chandrashekhar E Deopujari, Uday B Andar
Meningiomas are rare in the pediatric age group, more so in the intraventricular location. They arise in the lateral ventricles from the arachnoid cells contained within the choroid plexus, in the third ventricle from the velum interpositum and in the fourth ventricle from the choroids. These tumors are usually large and have an aggressive behaviour. Surgical management of intra-ventricular meningiomas is challenging because of their deep location, large size at presentation and increased vascularity. The authors report two such cases who presented with symptoms of raised intra cranial pressure and on evaluation were found to have associated hydrocephalus...
June 22, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636961/myeloid-cells-in-the-central-nervous-system
#19
REVIEW
Jasmin Herz, Anthony J Filiano, Ashtyn Smith, Nir Yogev, Jonathan Kipnis
The central nervous system (CNS) and its meningeal coverings accommodate a diverse myeloid compartment that includes parenchymal microglia and perivascular macrophages, as well as choroid plexus and meningeal macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes. These myeloid populations enjoy an intimate relationship with the CNS, where they play an essential role in both health and disease. Although the importance of these cells is clearly recognized, their exact function in the CNS continues to be explored. Here, we review the subsets of myeloid cells that inhabit the parenchyma, meninges, and choroid plexus and discuss their roles in CNS homeostasis...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636639/predictive-value-of-serum-transthyretin-for-outcome-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#20
Wojciech Ambrosius, Slawomir Michalak, Radosław Kazmierski, Natalia Andrzejewska, Wojciech Kozubski
INTRODUCTION: The impact of choroid plexus with its blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier in the ischemic stroke pathology is poorly explored. Transthyretin (TTR) is a protein synthesized in liver and just in choroid plexus. OBJECTIVES: The current study was designed to assess the prognostic value of serum TTR for functional outcome (at the time of hospital discharge) and long-term (one-year) overall mortality in ischemic stroke patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study...
2017: PloS One
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