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Choroid plexus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931262/glymphatic-distribution-of-csf-derived-apoe-into-brain-is-isoform-specific-and-suppressed-during-sleep-deprivation
#1
Thiyagaragan M Achariyar, Baoman Li, Weiguo Peng, Philip B Verghese, Yang Shi, Evan McConnell, Abdellatif Benraiss, Tristan Kasper, Wei Song, Takahiro Takana, David M Holtzman, Maiken Nedergaard, Rashid Deane
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a major carrier of cholesterol and essential for synaptic plasticity. In brain, it's expressed by many cells but highly expressed by the choroid plexus and the predominant apolipoprotein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The role of apoE in the CSF is unclear. Recently, the glymphatic system was described as a clearance system whereby CSF and ISF (interstitial fluid) is exchanged via the peri-arterial space and convective flow of ISF clearance is mediated by aquaporin 4 (AQP4), a water channel...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923718/using-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-to-understand-ingestive-behavior
#2
REVIEW
Stephen C Woods, Aaron A May, Min Liu, Patrick Tso, Denovan P Begg
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) offers a window into the workings of the brain and blood-brain barrier (BBB). Molecules that enter into the central nervous system (CNS) by passive diffusion or receptor-mediated transport through the choroid plexus often appear in the CSF prior to acting within the brain. Other molecules enter the CNS by passing through the BBB into the brain's interstitial fluid prior to appearing in the CSF. This pattern is also often observed for molecules synthesized by neurons or glia within the CNS...
December 3, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917889/comparative-study-between-a-spectral-domain-and-a-high-speed-single-beam-swept-source-octa-system-for-identifying-choroidal-neovascularization-in-amd
#3
R Told, L Ginner, A Hecht, S Sacu, R Leitgeb, A Pollreisz, U Schmidt-Erfurth
This comparative study between a SD- and SS-OCTA system for visualizing neovascular patterns in AMD, also assessed the influence of cataract on OCTA imaging. 25 eyes with active CNV (AMD) were documented by FA, ICGA and SD-OCT. Two OCTA devices were used: A custom built SS-OCTA (1050 nm, 400,000 A-scans/s, 5 × 5 mm, no image segmentation); AngioVue (OptoVue, CA, USA) SD-OCTA (840 nm, 70.000 A-scans/s, 3 × 3 mm, SSADA technology). Two retina experts graded CNV types and vascular patterns. Cataract influence on OCTA image quality was reported for the superficial retinal plexus (6 eyes)...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913261/typical-symptoms-of-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-caused-by-choroid-plexus-papilloma-in-the-cerebellopontine-angle-a-case-report
#4
Hiroshi Ito, Yukiko Nakahara, Masatou Kawashima, Jun Masuoka, Tatsuya Abe, Toshio Matsushima
BACKGROUND: Choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) are rare benign intracranial tumors. Here, we report a rare case of CPP presenting with typical symptoms of normal-pressure hydrocephalus not with obstructive hydrocephalus. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 45-year-old female presented with a 6-year history of headache and typical symptoms of normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) such as gait disturbance, urinary incontinence, and cognitive dysfunction in addition to the more common symptoms of choroid plexus papillomas (CPP), such as lower cranial nerve dysfunctions and ataxia...
November 29, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900678/a-customized-quantitative-pcr-microrna-panel-provides-a-technically-robust-context-for-studying-neurodegenerative-disease-biomarkers-and-indicates-a-high-correlation-between-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-choroid-plexus-microrna-expression
#5
Wang-Xia Wang, David W Fardo, Gregory A Jicha, Peter T Nelson
MicroRNA (miRNA) expression varies in association with different tissue types and in diseases. Having been found in body fluids including blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), miRNAs constitute potential biomarkers. CSF miRNAs have been proposed as biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases; however, there is a lack of consensus about the best candidate miRNA biomarkers and there has been variability in results from different research centers, perhaps due to technical factors. Here, we sought to optimize technical parameters for CSF miRNA studies...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899174/concurrent-gliosarcoma-and-choroid-plexus-carcinoma-in-a-cow
#6
A Ortloff, J Neumann, O Illanes
Brain tumours in cattle are uncommon and the spontaneous development of primary brain tumours of different histological types is rare in both man and animals. In man, multiple concurrent primary tumours of different types are occasionally described. We report the rare simultaneous occurrence of two different primary brain tumours, gliosarcoma and choroid plexus carcinoma, diagnosed by microscopical and immunofluorescence evaluation in an 8-year-old cow with a 2-month history of neurological disease. Gliosarcoma is a rare variant of glioblastoma multiforme, characterized by the presence of malignant glial cells and mesenchymal tissue...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898981/macular-features-in-retinitis-pigmentosa-correlations-among-ganglion-cell-complex-thickness-capillary-density-and-macular-function
#7
Lisa Toto, Enrico Borrelli, Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Alfonso Senatore, Luca Di Antonio, Marta Di Nicola, Paolo Carpineto, Leonardo Mastropasqua
Purpose: To investigate correlations among macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) layer thickness, macular capillary density, and macular function in patients affected by retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methods: Fourteen patients (28 eyes) with previous diagnosis of RP were enrolled. The diagnosis of these conditions was made based on both clinical features and electrophysiological examination. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG)...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898074/transcriptome-sequencing-of-the-choroid-plexus-in-schizophrenia
#8
S Kim, Y Hwang, D Lee, M J Webster
The choroid plexus (CP) has a key role in maintaining brain homeostasis by producing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), by mediating transport of nutrients and removing metabolic products from the central nervous system and by responding to peripheral inflammatory signals. Although abnormal markers of immune response and inflammation are apparent in individuals with schizophrenia, the CP of these individuals has not been characterized. We therefore sequenced mRNA from the CP from two independent collections of individuals with schizophrenia and unaffected controls...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893788/effects-of-high-fat-diet-on-stress-response-in-male-and-female-wildtype-and-prolactin-knockout-mice
#9
Manu Kalyani, Kathryn Hasselfeld, James M Janik, Phyllis Callahan, Haifei Shi
Prolactin (PRL) is well characterized for its roles in initiation and maintenance of lactation, and it also suppresses stress-induced responses. Feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) disrupts activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Whether PRL regulates HPA axis activation under HFD feeding is not clear. Male and female wildtype (WT) and PRL knockout (KO) mice were fed either a standard low-fat diet (LFD) or HFD for 12 weeks. Circulating corticosterone (CORT) levels were measured before, during, and after mice were subjected to an acute restraint stress or remained in their home cages as no stress controls...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889024/brain-tumors-in-the-neonate
#10
REVIEW
Karuna V Shekdar, Erin Simon Schwartz
Brain tumors can develop in the prenatal and neonatal time periods. Neuroimaging studies are crucial for the early detection of prenatal and neonatal brain tumors. Imaging allows for characterization of morphology, as well as the detection of hydrocephalus, local invasion, and distant spread. The imaging features of the more common neonatal brain tumors, including teratomas, choroid plexus tumors, ATRTs, and neoplasm mimics are described.
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888330/dendritic-cells-in-central-nervous-system-autoimmunity
#11
REVIEW
Christopher Sie, Thomas Korn
Dendritic cells (DCs) operate at the intersection of the innate and adaptive immune systems. DCs can promote or inhibit adaptive immune responses against neuroantigens. While DC intrinsic properties, i.e., their maturation state or the subset they belong to, are important determinants of the outcome of an autoimmune reaction, tissue-specific cues might also be relevant for the function of DCs. Thus, a better understanding of the performance of distinct DC subsets in specific anatomical niches, not only in lymphoid tissue but also in non-lymphoid tissues such as the meninges, the choroid plexus, and the inflamed CNS parenchyma, will be instrumental for the design of immune intervention strategies to chronic inflammatory diseases that do not put at risk basic surveillance functions of the immune system in the CNS...
November 25, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875487/microvascular-compromise-develops-following-nerve-fiber-layer-damage-in-normal-tension-glaucoma-without-choroidal-vasculature-involvement
#12
Eun Jung Lee, Sibum Kim, Sungsoon Hwang, Jong Chul Han, Changwon Kee
PURPOSE: To investigate capillary densities in patients with unilateral normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and normal controls using optical coherence tomography-angiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 13 patients with unilateral NTG and 13 healthy controls. Optical coherence tomography-angiography was performed and pure peripapillary retinal capillary density was calculated after manually excluding large vessels and the optic disc. Paired comparison of capillary densities was performed among 3 categories of eye: NTG eye, fellow eye, and normal eye...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864367/phaseic-acid-an-endogenous-and-reversible-inhibitor-of-glutamate-receptors-in-mouse-brain
#13
Sheng T Hou, Susan X Jiang, L Irina Zaharia, Xiumei Han, Chantel L Benson, Jacqueline Slinn, Suzanne R Abrams
Phaseic acid (PA) is a phytohormone regulating important physiological functions in higher plants. Here, we show the presence of naturally occurring (-)-PA in mouse and rat brains. (-)-PA is exclusively present in the choroid plexus and the cerebral vascular endothelial cells. Purified (-)-PA has no toxicity and protects cultured cortical neurons against glutamate toxicity through reversible inhibition of glutamate receptors. Focal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) elicited a significant induction in (-)-PA expression in the CSF, but not in the peripheral blood...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857919/multiple-intracranial-high-density-foci-after-brain-parenchymal-catheterization
#14
Tae-Min Choi, Kyu Yong Cho, Byung Chan Lim, Jun Seob Lim, Rae-Seop Lee
OBJECTIVE: To report an observational investigation of small high attenuated foci in computed tomography (CT) scan followed by brain parenchymal catheterization. METHODS: From January 2011 to March 2015, we retrospectively reviewed the 381 patients who had undergone brain catheterization in our clinic and enrolled the patients who had newly developed high attenuation foci in the postoperative CT scans. The brain CT scans were reviewed about the lesion location, Hounsfield Unit (HU) and the time of appearance...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857811/primary-choroid-plexus-papilloma-of-cerebellopontine-angle-an-unusual-entity-in-infancy
#15
Ankur Kapoor, Ashish Aggarwal, Chirag K Ahuja, Pravin Salunke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857787/a-study-of-neurosonogram-abnormalities-clinical-correlation-with-neurosonogram-findings-and-immediate-outcome-of-high-risk-neonates-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#16
Niranjan Nagaraj, Pramod Kumar Berwal, Anusha Srinivas, Ramnarayan Sehra, Sarika Swami, Prathyusha Jeevaji, Gotam Swami, Lokesh Choudary, Ayush Berwal
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sonography of the brain is now an essential part of newborn care, particularly in high risk and unstable premature infants. Cranial ultrasound is the most available and easily repeatable imaging technique for the neonatal brain showing brain development and the most frequently occurring forms of cerebral injury in the preterm and terms. This study aims to assess the importance of cranial ultrasound as an investigatory modality for high-risk neonates and to find out the morphology of various cerebral lesions and correlate clinically...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857727/cell-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-and-choroid-plexus-epithelial-cells
#17
REVIEW
Chizuka Ide, Norihiko Nakano, Kenji Kanekiyo
Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) enhanced the outgrowth of regenerating axons and promoted locomotor improvements of rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). BMSCs did not survive long-term, disappearing from the spinal cord within 2-3 weeks after transplantation. Astrocyte-devoid areas, in which no astrocytes or oligodendrocytes were found, formed at the epicenter of the lesion. It was remarkable that numerous regenerating axons extended through such astrocyte-devoid areas. Regenerating axons were associated with Schwann cells embedded in extracellular matrices...
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856437/quantifying-intracranial-plaque-permeability-with-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-a-pilot-study
#18
P Vakil, A H Elmokadem, F H Syed, C G Cantrell, F H Dehkordi, T J Carroll, S A Ansari
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracranial atherosclerotic disease plaque hyperintensity and/or gadolinium contrast enhancement have been studied as imaging biomarkers of acutely symptomatic ischemic presentations using single static MR imaging measurements. However, the value in modeling the dynamics of intracranial plaque permeability has yet to be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to use dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging to quantify the contrast permeability of intracranial atherosclerotic disease plaques in symptomatic patients and to compare these parameters against existing markers of plaque volatility using black-blood MR imaging pulse sequences...
November 17, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820754/en-face-optical-coherence-tomography-of-multiple-evanescent-white-dot-syndrome
#19
Daniel Su, David Xu, Nopasak Phasukkijwatana, David Sarraf
PURPOSE: To report novel en face imaging findings of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome. METHODS: A 25-year-old woman presented with photopsia and vision loss affecting the left eye. Ophthalmic examination, color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus autofluorescence, en face OCT, and OCT angiography were performed. RESULTS: The diagnosis of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome was made based on clinical examination and multimodal imaging findings...
November 3, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818355/glucose-transporter-8-immunoreactivity-in-astrocytic-and-microglial-cells-in-subependymal-areas-of-human-brains
#20
Masato Mashima, Yoichi Chiba, Ryuta Murakami, Naoya Uemura, Koichi Matsumoto, Machi Kawauchi, Kenji Kanenishi, Toshiyuki Hata, Masaki Ueno
Glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8), a glucose/fructose transporter, has been shown to be expressed in neuronal cells in several brain areas. A recent immunohistochemical study has shown the presence of GLUT8 in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of the choroid plexus and ependymal cells. In this study, localization of GLUT8 in glial cells was investigated using immunohistochemical methods. Immunoreactivity for GLUT8 was observed in cells showing astrocytic or microglial structural features located around the lateral ventricles...
January 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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