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Choroid plexus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099396/successful-treatment-of-refractory-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-of-the-choroid-plexus-in-a-child-with-pulse-dexamethasone-and-lenalidomide
#1
Ramya Uppuluri, Sreejith Ramachandrakurup, Ravikanth Balaji, Divya Subburaj, Atish Bakane, Revathi Raj
Refractory/relapsed Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has a difficult course with a guarded prognosis. Salvage treatments available are both expensive and highly toxic. On the basis of the pathophysiology of LCH, we used a novel protocol including pulse dexamethasone and lenalidomide in a child with refractory LCH involving the choroid plexus, which resulted in durable remission with minimal toxicity. The protocol was extrapolated from the FIRST trial for patients with multiple myeloma. We present the clinical course, treatment protocol, and outcome in this child, who is at present disease free and in remission 18 months posttreatment...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088658/exposure-to-chronic-early-life-stress-lastingly-alters-the-adipose-tissue-the-leptin-system-and-changes-the-vulnerability-to-western-style-diet-later-in-life-in-mice
#2
K Y Yam, E F G Naninck, M R Abbink, S E la Fleur, L Schipper, J C van den Beukel, A Grefhorst, A Oosting, E M van der Beek, P J Lucassen, A Korosi
Early-life stress (ES) increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline in adulthood. Interestingly, this is often comorbid with metabolic disorders, such as obesity. However, it is unclear whether ES leads to lasting metabolic changes and to what extent this is associated with the ES-induced cognitive impairments. Here, we used an established chronic ES mouse model (from postnatal day (P) 2 to P9) to investigate the short- and long-term effects of ES exposure on parameters of the adipose tissue and the leptin system (i...
December 23, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077397/relationships-between-flortaucipir-pet-tau-binding-and-amyloid-burden-clinical-diagnosis-age-and-cognition
#3
Michael J Pontecorvo, Michael D Devous, Michael Navitsky, Ming Lu, Stephen Salloway, Frederick W Schaerf, Danna Jennings, Anupa K Arora, Anne McGeehan, Nathaniel C Lim, Hui Xiong, Abhinay D Joshi, Andrew Siderowf, Mark A Mintun
The advent of tau-targeted positron emission tomography tracers such as flortaucipir ((18)F-AV-1451, also known as (18)F-T807) have made it possible to investigate the sequence of development of tau and amyloid-β in relationship to age, and to the development of cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease. In this study, flortaucipir tau and florbetapir amyloid positron emission tomography were obtained for 217 subjects including 16 young and 58 older cognitively normal subjects, 95 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination 24-30) and 48 subjects with clinically-defined possible or probable Alzheimer's disease (Mini-Mental State Examination >10)...
January 11, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074532/pathogenesis-of-developmental-anomalies-of-the-central-nervous-system-induced-by-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection
#4
REVIEW
Hideya Kawasaki, Isao Kosugi, Shiori Meguro, Toshihide Iwashita
In humans, the herpes virus family member cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most prevalent mediator of intrauterine infection-induced congenital defect. Central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction is a distinguishing symptom of CMV infection, and characterized by ventriculoencephalitis and microglial nodular encephalitis. Reports on the initial distribution of CMV particles and its receptors on the blood brain barrier (BBB) are rare. Nevertheless, several factors are suggested to affect CMV etiology. Viral particle size is the primary factor in determining the pattern of CNS infections, followed by the expression of integrin β1 in endothelial cells, pericytes, meninges, choroid plexus, and neural stem progenitor cells (NSPCs), which are the primary targets of CMV infection...
January 10, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067754/moderate-renal-failure-accentuates-t1-signal-enhancement-in-the-deep-cerebellar-nuclei-of-gadodiamide-treated-rats
#5
Marlène Rasschaert, Jean-Marc Idée, Philippe Robert, Nathalie Fretellier, Véronique Vives, Xavier Violas, Sébastien Ballet, Claire Corot
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this preclinical study was to investigate whether moderate chronic kidney disease is a factor in potentiating gadolinium (Gd) uptake in the brain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comparative study was performed on renally impaired (subtotal nephrectomy) rats versus rats with normal renal function. The animals received 4 daily injections of 0.6 mmol Gd/kg a week for 5 weeks (cumulative dose of 12 mmol Gd/kg) of gadodiamide or saline solution. The MR signal enhancement in the deep cerebellar nuclei was monitored by weekly magnetic resonance imaging examinations...
November 28, 2016: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062214/in-utero-exposure-to-atypical-antipsychotic-drug-risperidone-effects-on-fetal-neurotoxicity-in-hippocampal-region-and-cognitive-impairment-in-rat-offspring
#6
K P Singh, Manoj Kr Singh
Clinical studies indicate that about one-third of pregnant women with psychotic symptoms are exposed to either typical or atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs). Reports on prenatal subject/model are lacking hence, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to risperidone (RIS) on the fetal hippocampus, and their related functional changes in young rat offspring. In this study, pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to equivalent therapeutic doses of RIS at 0.8mg/kg, 1.0mg/kg, and 2...
January 4, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053225/the-v-atpase-is-expressed-in-the-choroid-plexus-and-mediates-camp-induced-intracellular-ph-alterations
#7
Henriette L Christensen, Teodor G Păunescu, Vladimir Matchkov, Dagne Barbuskaite, Dennis Brown, Helle H Damkier, Jeppe Praetorius
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pH influences brain interstitial pH and, therefore, brain function. We hypothesized that the choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) expresses the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) as an acid extrusion mechanism in the luminal membrane to counteract detrimental elevations in CSF pH. The expression of mRNA corresponding to several V-ATPase subunits was demonstrated by RT-PCR analysis of CPE cells (CPECs) isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy localized the V-ATPase primarily in intracellular vesicles with only a minor fraction in the luminal microvillus area...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050719/sudden-benzodiazepine-induced-resolution-of-post-operative-pediatric-cerebellar-mutism-syndrome-a-clinical-spect-study
#8
Francesco Nicita, Milena Paiano, Mauro Liberatore, Alberto Spalice, Paola Papoff, Mariacristina Ullo, Manolo Piccirilli, Anna Clerico, Amalia Schiavetti
Post-operative pediatric cerebellar mutism syndrome (PPCMS) is a clinical syndrome arising from cerebellar injury and characterized by absence of speech and other possible symptoms and signs. Rare reports described some benefit after administration of dopamine agonist therapy, but no treatment has proven efficacy. In this paper, we report on the dramatic, sudden resolution of PPCMS induced by midazolam administration in a boy who underwent posterior fossa surgery for choroid plexus papilloma of the fourth ventricle...
January 3, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025236/otx2-defines-a-subgroup-of-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumors-with-close-relationship-to-choroid-plexus-tumors
#9
Anna Sophia Japp, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Dorota Denkhaus, Torsten Pietsch
Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) are highly malignant brain tumors of early childhood that have been regarded as a homogenous entity characterized by inactivation of the SMARCB1/INI1 or SMARCA4/BRG1 genes as the only characteristic alteration. Recent studies suggest that similar to other embryonal tumors ATRT can also be divided into subgroups based on their mRNA or methylation profiles. Using microarray-based expression analysis of 12 patient ATRT specimens we demonstrated the existence of 2 subgroups of ATRT...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025141/mafb-is-required-for-development-of-the-hindbrain-choroid-plexus
#10
Ryusuke Koshida, Hisashi Oishi, Michito Hamada, Yosuke Takei, Satoru Takahashi
The choroid plexus (ChP) is a non-neural epithelial tissue that produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The ChP differentiates from the roof plate, a dorsal midline structure of the neural tube. However, molecular mechanisms underlying ChP development are poorly understood compared to neural development. MafB is a bZip transcription factor that is known to be expressed in the roof plate. Here we investigated the role of MafB in embryonic development of the hindbrain ChP (hChP) using Mafb-deficient mice. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that MafB is expressed in the roof plate and early hChP epithelial cells but its expression disappears at a later embryonic stage...
December 23, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005676/en-face-optical-coherence-tomography-and-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-multiple-evanescent-white-dot-syndrome-new-insights-into-pathogenesis
#11
Francesco Pichi, Sunil K Srvivastava, Saradha Chexal, Andrea Lembo, Luiz H Lima, Piergiorgio Neri, Andrea Saitta, Jay Chhablani, Thomas A Albini, Paolo Nucci, K Bailey Freund, Hyewon Chung, Careen Y Lowder, David Sarraf
PURPOSE: To localize the various levels of abnormalities in multiple evanescent white dot syndrome by comparing "en face" optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography with various conventional imaging modalities. METHODS: In this retrospective case series, multimodal imaging was performed in 9 retinal centers on 36 patients with multiple evanescent white dot syndrome and included widefield fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography (FA), and indocyanine green angiography, and B-scan and "en face" C-scan enhanced depth imaging and spectral domain OCT...
December 2016: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005425/a-hidden-epithelial-barrier-in-the-brain-with-a-central-role-in-regulating-brain-homeostasis-implications-for-aging
#12
Roosmarijn E Vandenbroucke
Despite increasing interest the last years, the choroid plexus still is a relatively understudied tissue in neuroscience. The choroid plexus contains fenestrated capillaries surrounded by tightly connected choroid plexus epithelial cells that form the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. The choroid plexus is the main source of cerebrospinal fluid production, assures removal of toxic waste products, and acts as gatekeeper of the brain by the presence of resident inflammatory cells. Increasing evidence shows that choroid plexus' dysfunction, via altered secretory, transport, immune, and barrier function, plays a central role in a very diverse set of clinical conditions such as aging and the age-associated Alzheimer's disease...
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002814/the-global-rise-of-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-with-choroid-plexus-cauterization-in-pediatric-hydrocephalus
#13
Michael C Dewan, Robert P Naftel
In the quest to identify the optimal means of cerebrospinal fluid diversion free of shunt dependency, endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) with choroid plexus cauterization (CPC) has been proposed as a promising procedure in select children. Supplementing traditional ETV with obliteration of the choroid plexus has been shown to decrease the likelihood of ultimate shunt dependency by roughly 20%. Originally devised to treat hydrocephalus in infants in sub-Saharan Africa, ETV/CPC has gained eager attention and cautious support in the developed world...
December 22, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998697/the-choroid-plexus-as-a-sex-hormone-target-functional-implications
#14
REVIEW
Cecília R A Santos, Ana Catarina Duarte, Telma Quintela, Joana Tomás, Tânia Albuquerque, Fernanda Marques, Joana Almeida Palha, Isabel Gonçalves
The choroid plexuses (CPs) are highly vascularized branched structures that protrude into the ventricles of the brain, and form a unique interface between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In recent years, novel functions have been attributed to this tissue such as in immune and chemical surveillance of the central nervous system, brain development, adult neurogenesis and circadian rhythm regulation. Sex hormones (SH) are widely recognized as modulators in several neurodegenerative diseases, and there is evidence that estrogens and androgens regulate several fundamental biological functions in the CPs...
December 18, 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990492/the-orphan-c2orf40-gene-is-a-neuroimmune-factor-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Sonia Podvin, Miles C Miller, Ryan Rossi, Jasmine Chukwueke, John E Donahue, Conrad E Johanson, Andrew Baird, Edward G Stopa
Expression of the orphan C2orf40 gene is associated with the aggregation of the neurofibrillary tangle-protein tau in transgenic mice, tumor suppression, the induction of senescence in CNS, and the activation of microglia and peripheral mononuclear leukocytes. This gene also encodes several secreted pro- and anti-inflammatory neuropeptide-like cytokines, suggesting they might be implicated in the inflammatory component(s) of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accordingly, we evaluated human AD and control brains for expression changes by RT-qPCR, Western blot, and histological changes by immunolabeling...
2016: JSM Alzheimers Dis Relat Dement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978530/aquaporin-water-channels-and-hydrocephalus
#16
Alan S Verkman, Lukmanee Tradtrantip, Alex J Smith, Xiaoming Yao
The aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of water-transporting proteins that are broadly expressed in mammalian cells. Two AQPs in the central nervous system, AQP1 and AQP4, might play a role in hydrocephalus and are thus potential drug targets. AQP1 is expressed in the ventricular-facing membrane of choroid plexus epithelial cells, where it facilitates the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). AQP4 is expressed in astrocyte foot processes and ependymal cells lining ventricles, where it appears to facilitate the transport of excess water out of the brain...
December 16, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978508/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-of-pediatric-neuro-oncology-patients-improves-diagnosis-identifies-pathogenic-germline-mutations-and-directs-targeted-therapy
#17
Cassie N Kline, Nancy M Joseph, James P Grenert, Jessica van Ziffle, Eric Talevich, Courtney Onodera, Mariam Aboian, Soonmee Cha, David R Raleigh, Steve Braunstein, Joseph Torkildson, David Samuel, Michelle Bloomer, Alejandra G de Alba Campomanes, Anuradha Banerjee, Nicholas Butowski, Corey Raffel, Tarik Tihan, Andrew W Bollen, Joanna J Phillips, W Michael Korn, Iwei Yeh, Boris C Bastian, Nalin Gupta, Sabine Mueller, Arie Perry, Theodore Nicolaides, David A Solomon
BACKGROUND: Molecular profiling is revolutionizing cancer diagnostics and leading to personalized therapeutic approaches. Herein we describe our clinical experience performing targeted sequencing for 31 pediatric neuro-oncology patients. METHODS: We sequenced 510 cancer-associated genes from tumor and peripheral blood to identify germline and somatic mutations, structural variants, and copy number changes. RESULTS: Genomic profiling was performed on 31 patients with tumors including 11 high-grade gliomas, 8 medulloblastomas, 6 low-grade gliomas, 1 embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes, 1 pineoblastoma, 1 uveal ganglioneuroma, 1 choroid plexus carcinoma, 1 chordoma, and 1 high-grade neuroepithelial tumor...
November 14, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973067/the-structure-and-vascularization-of-choroid-plexus-of-brain-in-children-aged-from-0-3-years-old
#18
T Byambasuren, A Amgalanbaatar, A Dorjkhuu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955673/immunohistochemical-and-in-situ-hybridization-study-of-urate-transporters-glut9-uratv1-abcg2-and-urat1-in-the-murine-brain
#19
Naoko H Tomioka, Yoshifuru Tamura, Tappei Takada, Shigeru Shibata, Hiroshi Suzuki, Shunya Uchida, Makoto Hosoyamada
BACKGROUND: Uric acid (UA) is known to exert neuroprotective effects in the brain. However, the mechanism of UA regulation in the brain is not well characterized. In our previous study, we described that the mouse urate transporter URAT1 is localized to the cilia and apical surface of ventricular ependymal cells. To further strengthen the hypothesis that UA is transported transcellularly at the ependymal cells, we aimed to assess the distribution of other UA transporters in the murine brain...
December 12, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943232/distinct-presence-of-the-tight-junction-protein-claudin-3-in-olfactory-bulb-and-fila-olfactoria-of-the-mouse
#20
Elisabeth Eppler, Magdalena Müller-Gerbl, I Piotr Maly
The tight junction protein claudin-3 is overexpressed in diverse epithelial tumours and is associated with increased survival, progression and motility of tumour cells. Claudin-3 expression profiles are being increasingly used for diagnostic and prognostic tumour classification. Claudin-3 has been identified as a receptor for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, which is under consideration for selective lysis of claudin-3-expressing tumours, particularly brain metastases, and other translational medicine uses...
December 12, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
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