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Choroid plexus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540133/lower-cranial-nerve-palsy-after-the-infrafloccular-approach-in-microvascular-decompression-for-hemifacial-spasm
#1
Kenichi Amagasaki, Nobuhiko Kurita, Saiko Watanabe, Naoyuki Shono, Atsushi Hosono, Kazuaki Naemura, Hiroshi Nakaguchi
BACKGROUND: The infrafloccular approach was introduced as a variation in microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm. However, the rate of postoperative lower cranial nerve (CN) palsy can be high. This study investigated the surgical factors in relation to the occurrence of postoperative lower CN palsy. METHODS: The case records of 103 patients who underwent MVD were reviewed. Dissection around the lower CNs to approach the root exit zone of CN VII was divided into two steps - incision of the rhomboid lip at the root of the lower CNs and separation of CN IX and flocculus/choroid plexus...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538262/parafoveal-microvascular-features-on-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-eyes-with-circumscribed-choroidal-hemangioma
#2
Kareem Sioufi, Emil A T Say, Sandor C Ferenczy, Carol L Shields
PURPOSE: To evaluate parafoveal microvasculature in eyes with circumscribed choroidal hemangioma using optical coherence tomography angiography. METHODS: Fourteen eyes with unilateral circumscribed choroidal hemangioma were imaged using OCT for central macular thickness and optical coherence tomography angiography for superficial and deep foveal avascular zone area, and superficial and deep capillary density (CD), comparing affected and paired fellow eyes. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 53 years, and mean visual acuity was 20/60 in the involved eye and 20/25 in the fellow eye...
May 19, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532450/lps-induced-systemic-inflammation-reveals-an-immunomodulatory-role-for-the-prion-protein-at-the-blood-brain-interface
#3
Ø Salvesen, M R Reiten, A Espenes, M K Bakkebø, M A Tranulis, C Ersdal
BACKGROUND: The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is an evolutionary conserved protein abundantly expressed not only in the central nervous system but also peripherally including the immune system. A line of Norwegian dairy goats naturally devoid of PrP(C) (PRNP (Ter/Ter)) provides a novel model for studying PrP(C) physiology. METHODS: In order to explore putative roles for PrP(C) in acute inflammatory responses, we performed a lipopolysaccharide (LPS, Escherichia coli O26:B6) challenge of 16 goats (8 PRNP (+/+) and 8 PRNP (Ter/Ter)) and included 10 saline-treated controls (5 of each PRNP genotype)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523762/a-retrospective-study-of-cytogenetic-results-from-amniotic-fluid-in-5328-fetuses-with-abnormal-obstetric-sonographic-findings
#4
Shuo Zhang, Caixia Lei, Junping Wu, Haiyan Sun, Yuezhou Yang, Yueping Zhang, Xiaoxi Sun
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of karyotype analysis of amniotic fluid for fetuses with abnormal sonographic findings and to determine the detection rates of abnormal karyotypes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 5328 fetuses with abnormal sonographic findings in the first or second trimester enrolled from October 1998 and September 2015. Cytogenetic results from amniotic fluid were obtained in all of these pregnancies...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523582/first-in-human-radiation-dosimetry-of-68-ga-nodaga-rgdyk
#5
Silvano Gnesin, Periklis Mitsakis, Francesco Cicone, Emmanuel Deshayes, Vincent Dunet, Augusto F Gallino, Marek Kosinski, Sébastien Baechler, Franz Buchegger, David Viertl, John O Prior
BACKGROUND: Integrin-targeting radiopharmaceuticals have potential broad applications, spanning from cancer theranostics to cardiovascular diseases. We have previously reported preclinical dosimetry results of (68)Ga-NODAGA-RGDyK in mice. This study presents the first human dosimetry of (68)Ga-NODAGA-RGDyK in the five consecutive patients included in a clinical imaging protocol of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Five male patients underwent whole-body time-of-flight (TOF) PET/CT scans 10, 60 and 120 min after tracer injection (200 MBq)...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512424/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-retinal-microvascular-changes-overlying-choroidal-nodules-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#6
Catherine Cassiman, Ingele Casteels, Peter Stalmans, Eric Legius, Julie Jacob
PURPOSE: To report 3 cases of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) with choroidal nodules associated with retinal microvascular changes imaged with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: Small case series in 3 NF1 patients. OCTA examinations were performed by a trained examiner (J.J.) after pupillary dilation. A standard scan, centered over the macula measuring 6 × 6 mm and 3 × 3 mm was obtained according to the findings on standard color photography...
January 2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502664/the-utility-of-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-to-evaluate-the-extent-of-iron-accumulation-in-the-choroid-plexus-of-patients-with-%C3%AE-thalassaemia-major
#7
Z I Hasiloglu, M Asik, E Ure, F Ertem, H Apak, S Albayram
AIM: To assess iron accumulation in the choroid plexus of β-thalassaemia patients using fast spin echo (FSE) T2-weighted, gradient echo (GRE) T2*-weighted, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) and compare the results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia and the control group underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. Signal intensities were separately evaluated using a "number of hypointensity in the choroid plexus" (NHICP) grading system on axial FSE T2-weighted, GRE T2*-weighted, and SWI images...
May 11, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500065/loss-of-mpdz-impairs-ependymal-cell-integrity-leading-to-perinatal-onset-hydrocephalus-in-mice
#8
Anja Feldner, M Gordian Adam, Fabian Tetzlaff, Iris Moll, Dorde Komljenovic, Felix Sahm, Tobias Bäuerle, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Horst Schroten, Thomas Korff, Ilse Hofmann, Hartwig Wolburg, Andreas von Deimling, Andreas Fischer
Hydrocephalus is a common congenital anomaly. LCAM1 and MPDZ (MUPP1) are the only known human gene loci associated with non-syndromic hydrocephalus. To investigate functions of the tight junction-associated protein Mpdz, we generated mouse models. Global Mpdz gene deletion or conditional inactivation in Nestin-positive cells led to formation of supratentorial hydrocephalus in the early postnatal period. Blood vessels, epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, and cilia on ependymal cells, which line the ventricular system, remained morphologically intact in Mpdz-deficient brains...
May 12, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498091/letter-to-the-editor-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-with-choroid-plexus-cauterization
#9
Daniel H Fulkerson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496400/lrp1-modulates-app-intraneuronal-transport-and-processing-in-its-monomeric-and-dimeric-state
#10
Uta-Mareike Herr, Paul Strecker, Steffen E Storck, Carolin Thomas, Verena Rabiej, Anne Junker, Sandra Schilling, Nadine Schmidt, C Marie Dowds, Simone Eggert, Claus U Pietrzik, Stefan Kins
The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, LRP1, interacts with APP and affects its processing. This is assumed to be mostly caused by the impact of LRP1 on APP endocytosis. More recently, also an interaction of APP and LRP1 early in the secretory pathway was reported whereat retention of LRP1 in the ER leads to decreased APP cell surface levels and in turn, to reduced Aβ secretion. Here, we extended the biochemical and immunocytochemical analyses by showing via live cell imaging analyses in primary neurons that LRP1 and APP are transported only partly in common (one third) but to a higher degree in distinct fast axonal transport vesicles...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492181/coinfection-by-streptococcus-phocae-and-cetacean-morbillivirus-in-a-short-beaked-common-dolphin-delphinus-delphis
#11
J Díaz-Delgado, E Sierra, A I Vela, M Arbelo, D Zucca, K R Groch, A Fernández
We describe gross, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of Streptococcus phocae and cetacean morbillivirus coinfection in a short-beaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis. Major gross findings were cutaneous purulent nodules in the tail fluke, vegetative mitral valve endocarditis, and presumed postpartum pyometra. Histologic examination revealed bacterial septicemia characterized by widespread intravascular coccoid bacterial emboli. These were associated with fibrinonecrotizing to pyogranulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis, embolic pneumonia, neutrophilic and lymphoplasmacytic meningochoroiditis, random neutrophilic hepatitis, lymphoplasmacytic myocarditis and epicarditis, necrotizing adrenalitis, suppurative endometritis, and multicentric reactive lymphadenopathy...
May 11, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489610/invasive-and-noninvasive-means-of-measuring-intracranial-pressure-a-review
#12
Xuan Zhang, Joshua Medow, Bermans Iskandar, Fa Wang, Mehdi Shokoueinejad, Joyce Koueik, John Webster
Measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) can be invaluable in the management of critically ill patients. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced by the choroid plexus in the brain ventricles (a set of communicating chambers), after which it circulates through the different ventricles and exits into the subarachnoid space (SAS) around the brain, where it is reabsorbed into the venous system. If the fluid does not drain out of the brain or get reabsorbed, the ICP increases, which may lead to brain damage or death...
May 10, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478826/novel-aspects-of-defensins-involvement-in-virus-induced-autoimmunity-in-the-central-nervous-system
#13
Evangelos I Kazakos, Jannis Kountouras, Stergios A Polyzos, Georgia Deretzi
Recent research on re-circulation of interstitial fluid from the brain parenchyma to the periphery and its inferred importance in immune surveillance dysregulation are changing our conceptualization of the pathophysiology of virus-induced autoimmunity. In this context, it is necessary to reassess the immunomodulatory properties of human defensins that are variably expressed by cerebral microglia, astrocytes and choroid plexus epithelial cells and exhibit complex and often confounding roles in neuroinflammatory processes...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465249/the-application-of-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-uveitis-and-inflammatory-eye-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Francesco Pichi, David Sarraf, Sruthi Arepalli, Careen Y Lowder, Emmett T Cunningham, Piergiorgio Neri, Thomas A Albini, Vishali Gupta, Kimberly Baynes, Sunil K Srivastava
Since its introduction in the early 1990s, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has evolved in resolution and technological advances, and in recent years its initial application of assessing the morphology of a tissue has been implemented by the study of its functional blood flow, through optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). This novel technique details capillary networks by comparing the amount of light returned from static and moving targets without the need for intravenous dye administration. While this imaging modality has been used for various ocular conditions, the application OCTA to uveitis conditions remains sparse...
April 29, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460636/hydrocephalus-due-to-multiple-ependymal-malformations-is-caused-by-mutations-in-the-mpdz-gene
#15
Pascale Saugier-Veber, Florent Marguet, François Lecoquierre, Homa Adle-Biassette, Fabien Guimiot, Sara Cipriani, Sophie Patrier, Marie Brasseur-Daudruy, Alice Goldenberg, Valérie Layet, Yline Capri, Marion Gérard, Thierry Frébourg, Annie Laquerrière
Congenital hydrocephalus is considered as either acquired due to haemorrhage, infection or neoplasia or as of developmental nature and is divided into two subgroups, communicating and obstructive. Congenital hydrocephalus is either syndromic or non-syndromic, and in the latter no cause is found in more than half of the patients. In patients with isolated hydrocephalus, L1CAM mutations represent the most common aetiology. More recently, a founder mutation has also been reported in the MPDZ gene in foetuses presenting massive hydrocephalus, but the neuropathology remains unknown...
May 1, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460341/a-rare-case-of-choroid-plexus-carcinoma-that-led-to-the-diagnosis-of-lynch-syndrome-hereditary-nonpolyposis-colorectal-cancer
#16
Viola W Zhu, Sanjay Hinduja, Stevan R Knezevich, William R Silveira, Celia D DeLozier
Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a significant risk of colorectal and endometrial cancers. A variety of other epithelial cancers may be associated with this syndrome. Brian tumors are infrequent, but have been reported in series. Here, we report a case of a 34-year-old Caucasian woman with WHO grade III choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC). Comprehensive genomic profiling of the patient's resected brain tumor revealed mutations in six genes: PTEN, VHL, MSH6, NOTCH1, RB1, and TP53...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456718/role-of-choroid-plexus-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-hydrodynamics
#17
REVIEW
Darko Orešković, Milan Radoš, Marijan Klarica
The classic hypothesis presents the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as the "third circulation," which flows from the brain ventricles through the entire CSF system to the cortical subarachnoid space to eventually be passively absorbed into the superior sagittal sinus through arachnoid granulations. The choroid plexus (CP) represents a key organ in the classic CSF physiology and a powerful biological pump, which exclusively secretes CSF. Thereby, the CP is considered to be responsible for CSF pressure regulation and hydrocephalus development...
April 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454280/imaging-findings-of-extraventricular-choroid-plexus-papillomas-a-study-of-10-cases
#18
Yuzhen Shi, Xiaoshuang Li, Xiao Chen, Yiming Xu, Genji Bo, Hao Zhou, Yongkang Liu, Guoxing Zhou, Zhongqiu Wang
Extraventricular choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) are rare. In this study, we reveal the imaging findings of CPPs located in extraventricular sites. The imaging findings of 11 masses [10 masses on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and one mass on computed tomography (CT)] of extraventricular CPP in 10 patients were retrospectively observed. The mass site, size, contour, signal intensity, cystic or solid appearance, calcification, capsules, degree and pattern of enhancement, and hydrocephalus were evaluated based on CT or MRI...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453743/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-of-pediatric-neuro-oncology-patients-improves-diagnosis-identifies-pathogenic-germline-mutations-and-directs-targeted-therapy
#19
Cassie N Kline, Nancy M Joseph, James P Grenert, Jessica van Ziffle, Eric Talevich, Courtney Onodera, Mariam Aboian, Soonmee Cha, David R Raleigh, Steve Braunstein, Joseph Torkildson, David Samuel, Michelle Bloomer, Alejandra G de Alba Campomanes, Anuradha Banerjee, Nicholas Butowski, Corey Raffel, Tarik Tihan, Andrew W Bollen, Joanna J Phillips, W Michael Korn, Iwei Yeh, Boris C Bastian, Nalin Gupta, Sabine Mueller, Arie Perry, Theodore Nicolaides, David A Solomon
Background.: Molecular profiling is revolutionizing cancer diagnostics and leading to personalized therapeutic approaches. Herein we describe our clinical experience performing targeted sequencing for 31 pediatric neuro-oncology patients. Methods.: We sequenced 510 cancer-associated genes from tumor and peripheral blood to identify germline and somatic mutations, structural variants, and copy number changes. Results.: Genomic profiling was performed on 31 patients with tumors including 11 high-grade gliomas, 8 medulloblastomas, 6 low-grade gliomas, 1 embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes, 1 pineoblastoma, 1 uveal ganglioneuroma, 1 choroid plexus carcinoma, 1 chordoma, and 1 high-grade neuroepithelial tumor...
May 1, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450902/role-of-neural-barriers-in-the-pathogenesis-and-outcome-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-meningitis
#20
Ofer Prager, Alon Friedman, Yaffa Mizrachi Nebenzahl
Bacterial meningitis is an inflammatory disease of the meninges of the central nervous system (CNS). Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae are the major bacterial pathogens causing meningitis with S. pneumoniae being responsible for two thirds of meningitis cases in the developed world. To reach the CNS following nasopharyngeal colonization and bacteraemia, the bacteria traverse from the circulation across the blood brain barrier (BBB) and choroid plexus...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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