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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134506/the-risk-of-eating-disorders-and-bone-health-in-young-adults-the-mediating-role-of-body-composition-and-fitness
#1
Miriam Garrido-Miguel, Ana Torres-Costoso, María Martínez-Andrés, Blanca Notario-Pacheco, Ana Díez-Fernández, Celia Álvarez-Bueno, Jorge Cañete García-Prieto, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno
PURPOSE: To analyze the independent relationship between the risk of eating disorders and bone health and to examine whether this relationship is mediated by body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, bone-related variables, lean mass, fat mass (by DXA), risk of eating disorders (SCOFF questionnaire), height, weight, waist circumference and CRF were measured in 487 university students aged 18-30 years from the University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain...
November 13, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121215/trabecular-bone-morphology-correlates-with-skeletal-maturity-and-body-composition-in-healthy-adolescent-girls
#2
Deborah M Mitchell, Signe Caksa, Amy Yuan, Mary L Bouxsein, Madhusmita Misra, Sherri-Ann M Burnett-Bowie
Context: Growth in healthy children is associated with changes in bone density and microarchitecture. Trabecular morphology is an additional important determinant of bone strength, but little is currently known about trabecular morphology in healthy young people. Objective: To investigate associations of trabecular morphology with increasing maturity and with body composition in healthy girls. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Academic research center...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110742/development-and-validation-of-anthropometric-prediction-equations-for-lean-body-mass-fat-mass-and-percent-fat-in-adults-using-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes-1999-2006
#3
Dong Hoon Lee, NaNa Keum, Frank B Hu, E John Orav, Eric B Rimm, Qi Sun, Walter C Willett, Edward L Giovannucci
Quantification of lean body mass and fat mass can provide important insight into epidemiological research. However, there is no consensus on generalisable anthropometric prediction equations to validly estimate body composition. We aimed to develop and validate practical anthropometric prediction equations for lean body mass, fat mass and percent fat in adults (men, n 7531; women, n 6534) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006. Using a prediction sample, we predicted each of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured lean body mass, fat mass and percent fat based on different combinations of anthropometric measures...
November 7, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048212/living-too-long-exploring-attitudes-toward-reaching-100-years-old
#4
Oscar Ribeiro, Sofia Canedo, Margarida Cerqueira, Ana Nascimento, Laetitia Teixeira
Objective This study analyses the relationship between pro- and anti-longevity attitudes, attitudes toward centenarians, and the wish to reach 100 years of age in a sample of community dwelling older adults. Methods Participants ( N = 137) completed a questionnaire on attitudes toward life-extension and an aging semantic differential using centenarians as an attitudinal target. Sociodemographic information, perceived health status, and information on knowing a centenarian were also obtained. A cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups (leaning anti-longevity group vs...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034327/high-fat-diet-changes-fungal-microbiomes-and-interkingdom-relationships-in-the-murine-gut
#5
Timothy Heisel, Emmanuel Montassier, Abigail Johnson, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Yi-Wei Lin, Li-Na Wei, Dan Knights, Cheryl A Gale
Dietary fat intake and shifts in gut bacterial community composition are associated with the development of obesity. To date, characterization of microbiota in lean versus obese subjects has been dominated by studies of gut bacteria. Fungi, recently shown to affect gut inflammation, have received little study for their role in obesity. We sought to determine the effects of high-fat diet on fungal and bacterial community structures in a mouse model using the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of fungal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the 16S rRNA genes of bacteria...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028919/physical-activity-producing-low-but-not-medium-or-higher-vertical-impacts-is-inversely-related-to-bmi-in-older-adults-findings-from-a-multi-cohort-study
#6
Ahmed Elhakeem, Kimberly Hannam, Kevin C Deere, April Hartley, Emma M Clark, Charlotte Moss, Mark H Edwards, Elaine Dennison, Tim Gaysin, Diana Kuh, Andrew Wong, Cyrus Cooper, Rachel Cooper, Jon H Tobias
Background: High impact physical activity (PA) is thought to improve skeletal health but its relation to other health outcomes are unclear. We investigated associations between PA impact magnitude and body mass index (BMI) in older adults. Methods: Data were from the Cohort for Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon (COSHIBA), Hertfordshire Cohort Study and MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Vertical accelerations peaks from seven-day hip-worn accelerometer recordings were used to classify PA as low (0...
September 19, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992469/consumption-of-fish-and-vascular-risk-factors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-intervention-studies
#7
Abeer Alhassan, Julie Young, Michael E J Lean, Jose Lara
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epidemiological evidence of the beneficial health effects of fish consumption is strong, but the evidence from intervention trials is less documented. Our aim was to evaluate the state of the evidence on the potential effects of fish consumption on vascular risk factors arising from intervention trials. METHODS: A systematic literature search was undertaken in OVID MEDLINE, Scopus, and EMBASE, which were searched from inception to June 2017...
November 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991040/associations-of-muscle-mass-and-strength-with-all-cause-mortality-among-us-older-adults
#8
Ran Li, Jin Xia, Xi Zhang, Wambui Grace Gathirua-Mwangi, Jianjun Guo, Yufeng Li, Steve McKenzie, Yiqing Song
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggested that muscle mass and muscle strength may independently or synergistically affect aging-related health outcomes in older adults; however, prospective data on mortality in the general population are sparse. METHODS: We aimed to prospectively examine individual and joint associations of low muscle mass and low muscle strength with all-cause mortality in a nationally representative sample. This study included 4,449 participants aged 50 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002 with public-use 2011 linked mortality files...
October 4, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969645/subjective-life-expectancy-is-a-risk-factor-for-perceived-health-status-and-mortality
#9
Jae-Hyun Kim, Jang-Mook Kim
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between subjective life expectancy (SLE) and self-rated health and further SLE will predict higher risk for mortality. METHODS: Data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) from 2006 to 2014 was assessed using longitudinal data analysis and 10,244 research subjects were included at baseline in 2006. Our modeling approach was based on generalized estimating equation (GEE) for self-rated health and Cox proportional hazards models for mortality...
October 2, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940395/delay-discounting-as-impaired-valuation-delayed-rewards-in-an-animal-obesity-model
#10
David P Jarmolowicz, Jennifer L Hudnall, Luanne Hale, Stephen C Fowler, Marco Bortolato, Shea M Lemley, Michael J Sofis
Obesity is a major public health problem, which, like many forms of addiction, is associated with an elevated tendency to choose smaller immediate rather than larger delayed rewards, a response pattern often referred to as excessive delay discounting. Although some accounts of delay discounting conceptualize this process as impulsivity (placing the emphasis on overvaluing the smaller immediate reward), others have conceptualized delay discounting as an executive function (placing the emphasis on delayed rewards failing to retain their value)...
September 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929858/partnering-to-develop-a-talent-pipeline-for-emerging-health-leaders-in-operations-research
#11
Alfred Ng, Carly Henshaw, Michael Carter
In initiating its first central office for Quality Improvement (QI), The Scarborough Hospital (TSH) sought to accelerate momentum towards achieving its "Quality and Sustainability" strategic priority by building internal capacity in the emerging QI specialty of operations research. The Scarborough Hospital reviewed existing models of talent management in conjunction with Lean and improvement philosophies. Through simple guiding principles and in collaboration with the University of Toronto's Centre for Healthcare Engineering, TSH developed a targeted approach to talent management for Operations Research (OR) in the Office of Innovation and Performance Improvement, reduced the time from staffing need to onboarding, accelerated the development of new staff in delivering QI and OR projects, and defined new structures and processes to retain and develop this group of new emerging health leaders...
May 2017: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928207/a-perfect-storm-increased-colonization-and-failure-of-vaccination-leads-to-severe-secondary-bacterial-infection-in-influenza-virus-infected-obese-mice
#12
Erik A Karlsson, Victoria A Meliopoulos, Nicholas C van de Velde, Lee-Ann van de Velde, Beth Mann, Geli Gao, Jason Rosch, Elaine Tuomanen, Jon McCullers, Peter Vogel, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Obesity is a risk factor for developing severe disease following influenza virus infection; however, the comorbidity of obesity and secondary bacterial infection, a serious complication of influenza virus infections, is unknown. To fill this gap in knowledge, lean and obese C57BL/6 mice were infected with a nonlethal dose of influenza virus followed by a nonlethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strikingly, not only did significantly enhanced death occur in obese coinfected mice compared to lean controls, but also high mortality was seen irrespective of influenza virus strain, bacterial strain, or timing of coinfection...
September 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927908/the-impact-of-the-standard-american-diet-in-rats-effects-on-behavior-physiology-and-recovery-from-inflammatory-injury
#13
Stacie K Totsch, Tammie L Quinn, Larissa J Strath, Laura J McMeekin, Rita M Cowell, Barbara A Gower, Robert E Sorge
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity is a significant health concern in the Western world and the presence of comorbid conditions suggests an interaction. The overlapping distributions of chronic pain populations and obesity suggests that an interaction may exist. Poor quality diet (high carbohydrates, saturated fats, omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids) can lead to increased adiposity which can activate immune cells independent of the activating effect of the diet components themselves. This dual action can contribute to chronic inflammation that may alter susceptibility to chronic pain and prolong recovery from injury...
September 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877618/a-value-based-taxonomy-of-improvement-approaches-in-healthcare
#14
Christian Colldén, Ida Gremyr, Andreas Hellström, Daniella Sporraeus
Purpose The concept of value is becoming increasingly fashionable in healthcare and various improvement approaches (IAs) have been introduced with the aim of increasing value. The purpose of this paper is to construct a taxonomy that supports the management of parallel IAs in healthcare. Design/methodology/approach Based on previous research, this paper proposes a taxonomy that includes the dimensions of view on value and organizational focus; three contemporary IAs - lean, value-based healthcare, and patient-centered care - are related to the taxonomy...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873220/patterns-and-predictors-of-frailty-transitions-in-older-men-the-osteoporotic-fractures-in-men-study
#15
Lauren R Pollack, Stephanie Litwack-Harrison, Peggy M Cawthon, Kristine Ensrud, Nancy E Lane, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Thuy-Tien Dam
OBJECTIVES: To describe the natural history of frailty transitions in a large cohort of community-dwelling older men and identify predictors associated with progression to or improvement from states of greater frailty. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Six U.S. sites. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling men aged 65 and older (N = 5,086). MEASUREMENTS: Frailty was measured at baseline and an average of 4...
November 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845459/moderate-exercise-has-limited-but-distinguishable-effects-on-the-mouse-microbiome
#16
Emily V Lamoureux, Scott A Grandy, Morgan G I Langille
The gut microbiome is known to have a complex yet vital relationship with host health. While both exercise and the gut microbiome have been shown to impact human health independently, the direct effects of moderate exercise on the intestinal microbiota remain unclear. In this study, we compared gut microbial diversity and changes in inflammatory markers associated with exercise over an 8-week period in mice that performed either voluntary exercise (VE) (n = 10) or moderate forced exercise (FE) (n = 11) and mice that did not perform any exercise (n = 21)...
July 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838320/does-value-stream-mapping-affect-the-structure-process-and-outcome-quality-in-care-facilities-a-systematic-review
#17
Marina Nowak, Holger Pfaff, Ute Karbach
BACKGROUND: Quality improvement within health and social care facilities is needed and has to be evidence-based and patient-centered. Value Stream Mapping, a method of Lean management, aims to increase the patients' value and quality of care by a visualization and quantification of the care process. The aim of this research is to examine the effectiveness of Value Stream Mapping on structure, process, and outcome quality in care facilities. METHODS: A systematic review is conducted...
August 24, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768569/tissue-cell-stress-response-to-obesity-and-its-interaction-with-late-gestation-diet
#18
Vivek Saroha, Neele S Dellschaft, Duane H Keisler, David S Gardner, Helen Budge, Sylvain P Sebert, Michael E Symonds
Intrauterine growth restriction in late pregnancy can contribute to adverse long-term metabolic health in the offspring. In the present study we used an animal (sheep) model of maternal dietary manipulation in late pregnancy, combined with exposure of the offspring to a low-activity, obesogenic environment after weaning, to characterise the effects on glucose homeostasis. Dizygotic twin-pregnant sheep were either fed to 60% of requirements (nutrient restriction (R)) or fed ad libitum (~140% of requirements (A)) from 110 days gestation until term (~147 days)...
August 3, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757187/gout-and-risk-of-knee-replacement-for-severe-knee-osteoarthritis-in-the-singapore-chinese-health-study
#19
G G Teng, Y Y Leung, L-W Ang, J-M Yuan, W-P Koh
OBJECTIVE: While cross-sectional and retrospective case-control studies suggest that gout is associated with knee osteoarthritis (KOA), no prospective study has evaluated the risk of total knee replacement (TKR) for KOA in association with gout. We prospectively evaluated the association between gout and the risk of TKR due to severe KOA. DESIGN: We used data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS), a prospective cohort with 63,257 Chinese adults aged 45-74 years at recruitment (1993-1998)...
July 27, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753963/the-combined-intervention-with-germinated-vigna-radiata-and-aerobic-interval-training-protocol-is-an-effective-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-and-other-alterations-related-to-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-zucker-rats
#20
Garyfallia Kapravelou, Rosario Martínez, Elena Nebot, María López-Jurado, Pilar Aranda, Francisco Arrebola, Samuel Cantarero, Milagros Galisteo, Jesus M Porres
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of related metabolic alterations that increase the risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several lifestyle interventions based on dietary treatment with functional ingredients and physical activity are being studied as alternative or reinforcement treatments to the pharmacological ones actually in use. In the present experiment, the combined treatment with mung bean (Vigna radiata), a widely used legume with promising nutritional and health benefits that was included in the experimental diet as raw or 4 day-germinated seed flour, and aerobic interval training protocol (65-85% VO₂ max) has been tested in lean and obese Zucker rats following a 2 × 2 × 2 (2 phenotypes, 2 dietary interventions, 2 lifestyles) factorial ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) statistical analysis...
July 19, 2017: Nutrients
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