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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087266/assessment-of-sex-differences-in-body-composition-among-adolescents-with-anorexia-nervosa
#1
Jason M Nagata, Neville H Golden, Rebecka Peebles, Jin Long, Stuart B Murray, Mary B Leonard, Jennifer L Carlson
PURPOSE: To compare deficits in fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LM) among male and female adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) and to identify other covariates associated with body composition. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records of all subjects aged 9-20 years with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition diagnosis of AN and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans after initial evaluation at Stanford between March 1997 and February 2011...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077009/cognitive-decline-body-mass-index-and-waist-circumference-in-community-dwelling-elderly-participants
#2
Jorge Mario Rodríguez-Fernández, Emily Danies, José Martínez-Ortega, William C Chen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the association of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and BMI and WC changes over time with cognitive decline in a nationally representative sample. METHODS: A total of 5239 participants (≥65 years) were followed for 3 years as part of the National Health and Aging Trends Study. Cox proportional hazard regression was applied to model the risk of cognitive decline. RESULTS: BMI, after adjusting for WC and main confounders, was associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline (hazard ratio [HR] 0...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060826/association-of-hip-bone-mineral-density-and-body-composition-in-a-rural-indian-population-the-andhra-pradesh-children-and-parents-study-apcaps
#3
Mika Matsuzaki, Bharati Kulkarni, Hannah Kuper, Jonathan C Wells, George B Ploubidis, Poornima Prabhakaran, Vipin Gupta, Gagandeep Kaur Walia, Aastha Aggarwal, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, George Davey Smith, Kankipati Vijaya Radhakrishna, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Sanjay Kinra
BACKGROUND: Fat mass is variably associated with bone mass, possibly due to differential mechanical and biological effects of fat mass. We examined the association of fat mass with bone mass in a lean population. OBJECTIVE: To investigate association between hip bone mineral density and fat and lean mass in a cross-sectional study from southern India. DESIGN: The Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study is a prospective cohort study in Hyderabad, India...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056891/addressing-health-inequities-in-ontario-canada-what-solutions-do-the-public-support
#4
Maritt Kirst, Ketan Shankardass, Sonica Singhal, Aisha Lofters, Carles Muntaner, Carlos Quiñonez
BACKGROUND: As public opinion is an important part of the health equity policy agenda, it is important to assess public opinion around potential policy interventions to address health inequities. We report on public opinion in Ontario about health equity interventions that address the social determinants of health. We also examine Ontarians' support and predictors for targeted health equity interventions versus universal interventions. METHODS: We surveyed 2,006 adult Ontarians through a telephone survey using random digit dialing...
January 5, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052980/metabolites-associated-with-lean-mass-and-adiposity-in-older-black-men
#5
Rachel A Murphy, Steven C Moore, Mary Playdon, Osorio Meirelles, Anne B Newman, Iva Milijkovic, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Ann Schwartz, Bret H Goodpaster, Joshua Sampson, Peggy Cawthon, Eleanor M Simonsick, Robert E Gerszten, Clary B Clish, Tamara B Harris
To identify biomarkers of body mass index, body fat, trunk fat, and appendicular lean mass, nontargeted metabolomics was performed in plasma from 319 black men in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study (median age 72 years, median body mass index 26.8 kg/m(2)). Body mass index was calculated from measured height and weight; percent fat, percent trunk fat, and appendicular lean mass were measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Pearson partial correlations between body composition measures and metabolites were adjusted for age, study site, and smoking...
January 3, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027925/impact-of-prebiotics-on-metabolic-and-behavioral-alterations-in-a-mouse-model-of-metabolic-syndrome
#6
Lourdes Fernández de Cossío, Célia Fourrier, Julie Sauvant, Amandine Everard, Lucile Capuron, Patrice D Cani, Sophie Layé, Nathalie Castanon
Mounting evidence shows that the gut microbiota, an important player within the gut-brain communication axis, can affect metabolism, inflammation, brain function and behavior. Interestingly, gut microbiota composition is known to be altered in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), who also often display neuropsychiatric symptoms. The use of prebiotics, which beneficially alters the microbiota, may therefore be a promising way to potentially improve physical and mental health in MetS patients. This hypothesis was tested in a mouse model of MetS, namely the obese and type-2 diabetic db/db mice, which display emotional and cognitive alterations associated with changes in gut microbiota composition and hippocampal inflammation compared to their lean db/+ littermates...
December 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026203/sexual-dimorphism-in-bone-muscle-relationship-in-young-adults
#7
Vera Zymbal, Kathleen F Janz, Fátima Baptista
The purpose of this study was to analyse associations between lean soft tissue (LST), a surrogate of skeletal muscle mass and key fracture-related geometric characteristics of the proximal femur. Moreover, we examined the role that muscle played on the proximal femur geometry in response to physical activity (PA). Participants were 83 young adults. Leg LST (exposure) was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Proximal femur geometry was derived from a left hip DXA scan. Geometric variables (outcomes) included the femoral neck axis length (FNAL), the femoral neck width (FNW), the neck-shaft angle and FNW|FNAL (an index of robustness)...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025860/musculoskeletal-decline-and-mortality-prospective-data-from-the-geelong-osteoporosis-study
#8
Julie A Pasco, Mohammadreza Mohebbi, Kara L Holloway, Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, Natalie K Hyde, Mark A Kotowicz
BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal deterioration and all-cause mortality in a cohort of women studied prospectively over a decade. METHODS: A cohort of 750 women aged 50-94 years was followed for a decade after femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) and appendicular lean mass (ALM) were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, in conjunction with comorbidities, health behaviour data, and other clinical measures. The outcome was all-cause mortality identified from the Australian National Deaths Index...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024092/agreement-and-predictive-validity-using-less-conservative-foundation-for-the-national-institutes-of-health-sarcopenia-project-weakness-cutpoints
#9
Nancy Chiles Shaffer, Luigi Ferrucci, Michelle Shardell, Eleanor M Simonsick, Stephanie Studenski
OBJECTIVES: To derive lean mass cutpoints based on a less-conservative Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) Sarcopenia Project Weakness cutpoint for grip strength (WeakI ) and to assess their agreement with European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) and prediction of incident slow walking and mortality. DESIGN: Longitudinal analysis. SETTING: Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older (287 men, 258 women) with 2 to 10 years of follow-up...
December 26, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012303/relationship-between-body-composition-and-vertical-ground-reaction-forces-in-obese-children-when-walking
#10
Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Pilar Serra-Añó, Alberto Pardo-Ibáñez, Luis-Millán Gonzalez, Xavier García-Massó
BACKGROUND: Obesity is now a serious worldwide challenge, especially in children. This condition can cause a number of different health problems, including musculoskeletal disorders, some of which are due to mechanical stress caused by excess body weight. The aim of this study was to determine the association between body composition and the vertical ground reaction force produced during walking in obese children. METHODS: Sixteen children participated in the study, six females and ten males [11...
December 15, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012302/is-the-yoga-bod-the-new-skinny-a-comparative-content-analysis-of-mainstream-yoga-lifestyle-magazine-covers
#11
Jennifer B Webb, Erin R Vinoski, Jan Warren-Findlow, Meagan P Padro, Elizabeth N Burris, Elizabeth M Suddreth
As yoga has gained popularity in Western culture, concerns have been raised about its increased commercialization and assimilation into the predominantly appearance-focused exercise and fitness culture. In this context, the present study examined the physical appearance-related characteristics (e.g., race/ethnicity, body size, shape, objectifying apparel) of 142 female models and the media frames of 567 captions (e.g., commercialism, body competence, health, weight/physical appearance) featured on the covers of three Westernized yoga lifestyle magazines published between 2010-2015...
December 22, 2016: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999857/association-of-dynamics-in-lean-and-fat-mass-measures-with-mortality-in-frail-older-women
#12
O Zaslavsky, E Rillamas-Sun, W Li, S Going, M Datta, L Snetselaar, S Zelber-Sagi
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between body composition and mortality in frail older people is unclear. We used dual-x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data to examine the association between dynamics in whole-body composition and appendicular (4 limbs) and central (trunk) compartments and all-cause mortality in frail older women. DESIGN: Prospective study with up to 19 years of follow up. SETTING: Community dwelling older (≥65) women. PARTICIPANTS: 876 frail older participants of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study with a single measure of body composition and 581 participants with two measures...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986760/concurrent-aerobic-plus-resistance-exercise-versus-aerobic-exercise-alone-to-improve-health-outcomes-in-paediatric-obesity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Antonio García-Hermoso, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Mark D Peterson, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno
OBJECTIVE: To determine if the combination of aerobic and resistance exercise is superior to aerobic exercise alone for the health of obese children and adolescents. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Computerised search of 3 databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Studies that compared the effect of supervised concurrent exercise versus aerobic exercise interventions, with anthropometric and metabolic outcomes in paediatric obesity (6-18 years old)...
December 16, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957435/spd-based-logistics-management-model-of-medical-consumables-in-hospitals
#14
Tongzhu Liu, Aizong Shen, Xiaojian Hu, Guixian Tong, Wei Gu, Shanlin Yang
BACKGROUND: With the rapid development of health services, the progress of medical science and technology, and the improvement of materials research, the consumption of medical consumables (MCs) in medical activities has increased in recent years. However, owing to the lack of effective management methods and the complexity of MCs, there are several management problems including MC waste, low management efficiency, high management difficulty, and frequent medical accidents. Therefore, there is urgent need for an effective logistics management model to handle these problems and challenges in hospitals...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932054/changes-in-physical-activity-sedentary-time-and-risk-of-falling-the-women-s-health-initiative-observational-study
#15
Jennifer W Bea, Cynthia A Thomson, Robert B Wallace, Chunyuan Wu, Rebecca A Seguin, Scott B Going, Andrea LaCroix, Charles Eaton, Judith K Ockene, Michael J LaMonte, Rebecca Jackson, W Jerry Mysiw, Jean Wactawski-Wende
Falling significantly affects quality of life, morbidity, and mortality among older adults. We sought to evaluate the prospective association between sedentary time, physical activity, and falling among post-menopausal women aged 50-79years recruited to the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study between 1993 and 1998 from 40 clinical centers across the United States. Baseline (B) and change in each of the following were evaluated at year 3 (Y3) and year 6 (Y6; baseline n=93,676; Y3 n=76,598; Y6 n=75,428): recreational physical activity (MET-h/wk), sitting, sleeping (min/day), and lean body mass by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (subset N=6475)...
December 6, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916426/high-body-mass-index-in-infancy-may-predict-severe-obesity-in-early-childhood
#16
Allison Smego, Jessica G Woo, Jillian Klein, Christina Suh, Danesh Bansal, Sherri Bliss, Stephen R Daniels, Christopher Bolling, Nancy A Crimmins
OBJECTIVE: To characterize growth trajectories of children who develop severe obesity by age 6 years and identify clinical thresholds for detection of high-risk children before the onset of obesity. STUDY DESIGN: Two lean (body mass index [BMI] 5th to ≤75th percentile) and 2 severely obese (BMI ≥99th percentile) groups were selected from populations treated at pediatric referral and primary care clinics. A population-based cohort was used to validate the utility of identified risk thresholds...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914915/physical-activity-modifies-the-association-between-dietary-protein-and-lean-mass-of-postmenopausal-women
#17
Jessica A Martinez, Betsy C Wertheim, Cynthia A Thomson, Jennifer W Bea, Robert Wallace, Matthew Allison, Linda Snetselaar, Zhao Chen, Rami Nassir, Patricia A Thompson
BACKGROUND: Maintenance of lean muscle mass and related strength is associated with lower risk for numerous chronic diseases of aging in women. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate whether the association between dietary protein and lean mass differs by physical activity level, amino acid composition, and body mass index categories. DESIGN: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Participants were postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative with body composition measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (n=8,298)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902747/joint-profiling-of-mirnas-and-mrnas-reveals-mirna-mediated-gene-regulation-in-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig-obesity-model
#18
Caroline M Junker Mentzel, Ferhat Alkan, Helle Keinicke, Mette J Jacobsen, Jan Gorodkin, Merete Fredholm, Susanna Cirera
Obesity and its comorbidities are an increasing challenge for both affected individuals and health care systems, worldwide. In obese individuals, perturbation of expression of both protein-coding genes and microRNAs (miRNA) are seen in obesity-relevant tissues (i.e. adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle). miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which have important regulatory roles in a wide range of biological processes, including obesity. Rodents are widely used animal models for human diseases including obesity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879495/fish-consumption-and-prostate-cancer-risk-and-mortality-in-a-danish-cohort-study
#19
Malene Outzen, Anne Tjønneland, Jane Christensen, Anja Olsen
Within the Danish 'Diet, Cancer and Health' cohort, we aimed to investigate the association between prediagnostic fish intake (total, lean, fatty) and (a) incidence of total and high-grade prostate cancer and (b) the risk of all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality among men with prostate cancer. Among 27 178 men, 1690 prostate cancer cases were identified through 2012. Of these, 1042 had a Gleason score of 7 or above and 498 had a Gleason score of 8 or above at the time of diagnosis; 364 died (n=228 from prostate cancer) during follow-up through 2013...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813053/elevated-steroid-hormone-production-in-the-db-db-mouse-model-of-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#20
A Hofmann, M Peitzsch, C Brunssen, J Mittag, A Jannasch, A Frenzel, N F Brown, S M Weldon, G Eisenhofer, S R Bornstein, H Morawietz
Obesity and type 2 diabetes have become a major public health problem worldwide. Steroid hormone dysfunction appears to be linked to development of obesity and type 2 diabetes and correction of steroid abnormalities may offer new approaches to therapy. We therefore analyzed plasma steroids in 15-16 week old obese and diabetic db/db mice using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Lean db/+ served as controls. Db/db mice developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperleptinemia, and hyperlipidemia. Hepatic triglyceride storage was increased and adiponectin and pancreatic insulin were lowered...
November 3, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
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