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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344931/relationship-between-body-mass-lean-mass-fat-mass-and-limb-bone-cross-sectional-geometry-implications-for-estimating-body-mass-and-physique-from-the-skeleton
#1
Emma Pomeroy, Alison Macintosh, Jonathan C K Wells, Tim J Cole, Jay T Stock
OBJECTIVES: Estimating body mass from skeletal dimensions is widely practiced, but methods for estimating its components (lean and fat mass) are poorly developed. The ability to estimate these characteristics would offer new insights into the evolution of body composition and its variation relative to past and present health. This study investigates the potential of long bone cross-sectional properties as predictors of body, lean, and fat mass. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Humerus, femur and tibia midshaft cross-sectional properties were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography in sample of young adult women (n = 105) characterized by a range of activity levels...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312822/effect-of-dark-sweet-cherry-powder-consumption-on-the-gut-microbiota-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-biomarkers-of-gut-health-in-obese-db-db-mice
#2
Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, Nara N Lage, Susanne Mertens-Talcott, Stephen Talcott, Boon Chew, Scot E Dowd, Jorge R Kawas, Giuliana D Noratto
Cherries are fruits containing fiber and bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenolics) with the potential of helping patients with diabetes and weight disorders, a phenomenon likely related to changes in the complex host-microbiota milieu. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cherry supplementation on the gut bacterial composition, concentrations of caecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and biomarkers of gut health using an in vivo model of obesity. Obese diabetic (db/db) mice received a supplemented diet with 10% cherry powder (supplemented mice, n = 12) for 12 weeks; obese (n = 10) and lean (n = 10) mice served as controls and received a standard diet without cherry...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306087/a-model-of-gallbladder-motility
#3
M Żulpo, J Balbus, P Kuropka, K Kubica
Impaired gallbladder motility leads to some clinical manifestations associated with its muscle contraction and/or the rate of filling with bile. To gain a better understanding of the possible reasons for different filling/emptying patterns we developed a mathematical model of the gallbladder that takes into account the kinetics of its filling and emptying and changes in the concentration of the accumulated bile. The model is based on four parameters responsible for the maximum speed of bile evacuation (Mg), pulsation of contractions (ω), the kinetic filling rate (kg) and the maximum bile mass accumulated in the gallbladder (mtotal)...
December 26, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277040/associations-of-components-of-sarcopenic-obesity-with-bone-health-and-balance-in-older-adults
#4
David Scott, Catherine Shore-Lorenti, Lachlan McMillan, Jakub Mesinovic, Ross A Clark, Alan Hayes, Kerrie M Sanders, Gustavo Duque, Peter R Ebeling
OBJECTIVES: To determine characteristics of sarcopenic obesity that are independently associated with bone health and balance in older adults. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 168 community-dwelling older adults (mean age 67.7 ± 8.4 years; 55% women). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Appendicular lean mass (ALM), whole-body areal BMD (aBMD) and body fat percentage were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography assessed muscle density and cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD), area, thickness, and strength-strain index (SSI) at 66% tibial length...
December 16, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238037/the-association-of-sarcopenia-telomere-length-and-mortality-data-from-the-nhanes-1999-2002
#5
Peter L Rippberger, Rebecca T Emeny, Todd A Mackenzie, Stephen J Bartels, John A Batsis
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sarcopenia is defined as the loss of muscle mass or function with aging and is associated with adverse outcomes. Telomere shortening is associated with mortality, yet its relationship with sarcopenia is unknown. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Adults ≥60 years from the 1999-2002 NHANES with body composition measures were identified. Sarcopenia was defined using the two Foundation for the National Institute of Health definitions: appendicular lean mass (ALM) (men <19...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220408/comparison-of-goto-kakizaki-rats-and-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats-are-they-reliable-models-to-study-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Wilson Mitsuo Tatagiba Kuwabara, Ana Carolina Panveloski-Costa, Caroline Naomi Fukusawa Yokota, Joice Naiara Bertaglia Pereira, Jorge Mancini Filho, Rosangela Pavan Torres, Sandro Massao Hirabara, Rui Curi, Tatiana Carolina Alba-Loureiro
Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an evident growing disease that affects different cultures throughout the world. T2DM occurs under the influence of three main factors: the genetic background, environmental and behavioral components. Obesity is strongly associated to the development of T2DM in the occident, while in the orient most of the diabetic patients are considered lean. Genetics may be a key factor in the development of T2DM in societies where obesity is not a recurrent public health problem. Herein, two different models of rats were used to understand their differences and reliability as experimental models to study the pathophysiology of T2DM, in two different approaches: the genetic (GK rats) and the environmental (HFD-induced obese rats) influences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212579/time-course-of-vitamin-d-depletion-and-repletion-in-reproductive-age-female-c57bl-6-mice
#7
Anthony M Belenchia, Sarah A Johnson, Alyssa C Kieschnick, Cheryl S Rosenfeld, Catherine A Peterson
The use of animal models in vitamin D deficiency (VDD) research, particularly in regard to maternal deficits, has increased dramatically, yet these studies may be confounded due to ill-conceived experimental timelines. We conducted 2 experiments to (1) characterize the time course of VDD induction and repletion and (2) explore the long-term consequences of VDD on calcium homeostasis and body composition in reproductive-age female mice. Eight-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were randomized to receive either a vitamin D sufficient (VDS) or VDD diet; serum was collected weekly...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211904/associations-between-genetic-variants-associated-with-body-mass-index-and-trajectories-of-body-fatness-across-the-life-course-a-longitudinal-analysis
#8
Mingyang Song, Yan Zheng, Lu Qi, Frank B Hu, Andrew T Chan, Edward L Giovannucci
Background: The genetic associations with trajectories of body fatness over the life course remain unknown. Methods: We used a group-based modelling approach to identify trajectories of body fatness from age 5 years up to 65 for 7277 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 4645 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We created a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 97 variants associated with adulthood body mass index (BMI) and estimated its association with trajectories using logistic regression...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206988/group-based-trajectory-of-body-shape-from-ages-5-to-55-years-and-cardiometabolic-disease-risk-in-2-us-cohorts
#9
Yan Zheng, Mingyang Song, JoAnn E Manson, Edward L Giovannucci, Frank B Hu
The association of adiposity across the life span with cardiometabolic risk is not completely delineated. We used a group-based modeling approach to identify distinct trajectories of body shape from ages 5 years to 55 years among 84,792 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1976-2010) and 37,706 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010) and assessed the associations between these trajectories and incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) during a 17-year follow-up period...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205290/clinical-impact-of-sedentary-behaviors-in-adult-survivors-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-a-report-from-the-st-jude-lifetime-cohort-study
#10
Carrie R Howell, Carmen L Wilson, Matthew J Ehrhardt, Robyn E Partin, Sue C Kaste, Jennifer Q Lanctot, Ching-Hon Pui, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Kirsten K Ness
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviors are associated with poor health outcomes in the general population, but their clinical impact on adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has not been characterized to date. In the current study, we described the prevalence of sedentary behaviors in survivors of ALL and examined associations between time spent sedentary and body composition and onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. METHODS: Participants' self-reported screen time (eg, television, computer) and activity as measured by accelerometer were used to determine activity time (sedentary, light activity, and moderate or vigorous physical activity)...
December 4, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187082/lean-leadership-attributes-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#11
Kjeld Harald Aij, Maurits Teunissen
Purpose Emphasis on quality and reducing costs has led many health-care organizations to reconfigure their management, process, and quality control infrastructures. Many are lean, a management philosophy with roots in manufacturing industries that emphasizes elimination of waste. Successful lean implementation requires systemic change and strong leadership. Despite the importance of leadership to successful lean implementation, few researchers have probed the question of ideal leadership attributes to achieve lean thinking in health care...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186804/neonatal-nutrition-predicts-energy-balance-in-young-adults-born-preterm-at-very-low-birth-weight
#12
(no author information available yet)
Epidemiological studies and animal models suggest that early postnatal nutrition and growth can influence adult health. However, few human studies have objective recordings of early nutrient intake. We studied whether nutrient intake and growth during the first 9 weeks after preterm birth with very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g) predict total energy intake, resting energy expenditure (REE), physical activity and food preferences in young adulthood. We collected daily nutritional intakes and weights during the initial hospital stay from hospital records for 127 unimpaired VLBW participants...
November 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182712/sarcopenia-is-negatively-related-to-high-gravitational-impacts-achieved-from-day-to-day-physical-activity
#13
April Hartley, Celia L Gregson, Kimberly Hannam, Kevin C Deere, Emma M Clark, Jon H Tobias
Background: Sarcopenia has been associated with reduced physical activity (PA). We aimed to determine if sarcopenia, and specific components of muscle size, function and physical performance, are associated with high impacts achieved during habitual PA, as these are related to bone strength in community-dwelling older women. Methods: Participants were older women from the Cohort of Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon. We defined sarcopenia using the EWGSOP criteria...
November 22, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178359/elevated-luteinizing-hormone-despite-normal-testosterone-levels-in-older-men-natural-history-risk-factors-and-clinical-features
#14
Robert J A H Eendebak, Tomas Ahern, Agnieszka Swiecicka, Stephen R Pye, Terence W O'Neill, Gyorgy Bartfai, Felipe F Casanueva, Mario Maggi, Gianni Forti, Aleksander Giwercman, Thang S Han, Jolanta Słowikowska-Hilczer, Michael E J Lean, Margus Punab, Neil Pendleton, Brian G Keevil, Dirk Vanderschueren, Martin K Rutter, Gindo Tampubolon, Royston Goodacre, Ilpo T Huhtaniemi, Frederick C W Wu
OBJECTIVE: Elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) with normal testosterone (T) suggests compensated dysregulation of the gonadal axis. We describe the natural history, risk factors and clinical parameters associated with the development of high LH (HLH, LH >9.4 U/L) in ageing men with normal T (T ≥ 10.5 nmol/L). DESIGN, PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a 4.3-year prospective observational study of 3369 community-dwelling European men aged 40-79 years...
November 27, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173816/the-prediction-of-body-composition-in-african-americans-from-spine-and-hip-dual-energy-absorptiometry
#15
Rajesh K Jain, Tamara Vokes
Body composition, the makeup of the body's fat and lean tissue, is associated with important health outcomes and provides useful clinical information. Although body composition can be measured with total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), this is rarely performed. As an alternative to total body DXA measurement, methods for estimation of body composition have been developed. These methods use soft tissue measures from spine and hip DXA to predict body composition and include prediction equations previously published by Leslie and proprietary equations within General Electric densitometry software...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167317/rodent-vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-alters-maternal-immune-health-and-feto-placental-development
#16
Redin A Spann, Wiiliam J Lawson, Gene L Bidwell, C Austin Zamarripa, Rodrigo O Maranon, Sibali Bandyopadhyay, Erin R Taylor, Jane F Reckelhoff, Michael R Garrett, Bernadette E Grayson
Bariatric surgery is increasingly employed to improve fertility and reduce obesity related co-morbidities in obese women. Surgical weight loss not only improves the chance of conception but reduces the risk of pregnancy complications including pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, and macrosomia. However, bariatric procedures increase the incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), fetal demise, thromboembolism and other gestational disorders. Using our rodent model of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), we tested the hypothesis that VSG in diet-induced, obese dams would cause immune and placental structural abnormalities that may be responsible for fetal demise during pregnancy...
November 22, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151452/development-of-a-new-diet-induced-obesity-dio-model-using-wistar-lean-rats
#17
Yoriko Kimura, Atsushi Yamada, Yoko Takabayashi, Tsunehiko Tsubota, Hisao Kasuga
Obesity is an increasingly severe socioeconomic health issue worldwide. Rodents with diet-induced obesity (DIO) are widely used as models of obesity. The main aim of this study was to establish a DIO model using Wistar lean (+/+ or +/-) rats by feeding a high-fat diet (45 kcal% fat) to dams during the latter term of gestation and the lactation period. A second aim was to examine the effect of post-weaning nutrition independently of maternal nutrition. Some pups (group D) were fed the same high-fat diet after weaning, while others (group C) were fed a chow diet after weaning...
November 17, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134506/the-risk-of-eating-disorders-and-bone-health-in-young-adults-the-mediating-role-of-body-composition-and-fitness
#18
Miriam Garrido-Miguel, Ana Torres-Costoso, María Martínez-Andrés, Blanca Notario-Pacheco, Ana Díez-Fernández, Celia Álvarez-Bueno, Jorge Cañete García-Prieto, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno
PURPOSE: To analyze the independent relationship between the risk of eating disorders and bone health and to examine whether this relationship is mediated by body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, bone-related variables, lean mass, fat mass (by DXA), risk of eating disorders (SCOFF questionnaire), height, weight, waist circumference and CRF were measured in 487 university students aged 18-30 years from the University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain...
November 13, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121215/trabecular-bone-morphology-correlates-with-skeletal-maturity-and-body-composition-in-healthy-adolescent-girls
#19
Deborah M Mitchell, Signe Caksa, Amy Yuan, Mary L Bouxsein, Madhusmita Misra, Sherri-Ann M Burnett-Bowie
Context: Growth in healthy children is associated with changes in bone density and microarchitecture. Trabecular morphology is an additional important determinant of bone strength, but little is currently known about trabecular morphology in healthy young people. Objective: To investigate associations of trabecular morphology with increasing maturity and with body composition in healthy girls. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Academic research center...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110742/development-and-validation-of-anthropometric-prediction-equations-for-lean-body-mass-fat-mass-and-percent-fat-in-adults-using-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes-1999-2006
#20
Dong Hoon Lee, NaNa Keum, Frank B Hu, E John Orav, Eric B Rimm, Qi Sun, Walter C Willett, Edward L Giovannucci
Quantification of lean body mass and fat mass can provide important insight into epidemiological research. However, there is no consensus on generalisable anthropometric prediction equations to validly estimate body composition. We aimed to develop and validate practical anthropometric prediction equations for lean body mass, fat mass and percent fat in adults (men, n 7531; women, n 6534) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006. Using a prediction sample, we predicted each of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured lean body mass, fat mass and percent fat based on different combinations of anthropometric measures...
November 7, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
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