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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217828/photophysics-of-egfp-e222h-mutant-with-comparisons-to-model-chromophores-excited-state-pk-s-progressions-quenching-and-exciton-interaction
#1
William Kirk, Thomas Allen, Elena Atanasova, William Wessels, Janet Yao, Franklyn Prendergast
A novel version of the well-known and commercially successful Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) variant known as EGFP, with an introduced E222H mutation, was produced in this laboratory. Given the current state of hypotheses about the role of glutamate 222, and the observed dominance of the phenolate absorption with an E222H variant observed from earlier study, the new mutant was considered a natural choice to investigate more fully the acid-base behavior of the chromophore in absorption and fluorescence. The bulk of this investigation concerns fitting the excitation, emission and absorption spectra to vibrational progressions of a novel 'q-deformed' type at various values of pH, and protein concentration...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216103/a-clostridioides-difficile-bacteriophage-genome-encodes-functional-binary-toxin-associated-genes
#2
Thomas Riedel, Johannes Wittmann, Boyke Bunk, Isabel Schober, Cathrin Spröer, Sabine Gronow, Jörg Overmann
Pathogenic clostridia typically produce toxins as virulence factors which cause severe diseases in both humans and animals. Whereas many clostridia like e.g., Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum or Clostridium tetani were shown to contain toxin-encoding plasmids, only toxin genes located on the chromosome were detected in Clostridioides difficile so far. In this study, we determined, annotated, and analyzed the complete genome of the bacteriophage phiSemix9P1 using single-molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215573/molecular-and-morphometric-data-suggest-the-presence-of-a-neglected-species-in-the-marine-gastropod-family-conidae
#3
Alyssa J Lawler, Thomas F Duda
Knowledge concerning the taxonomic diversity of marine organisms is crucial for understanding processes associated with species diversification in geographic areas that are devoid of obvious barriers to dispersal. The marine gastropod family Conidae contains many species complexes due to lack of clear morphological distinctiveness and existence of morphological intergradations among described species. Conus flavidus Lamarck, 1810 and Conus frigidus Reeve, 1848 are currently recognized as distinct taxa, but are often difficult to distinguish by morphological characters and include several synonyms, including Conus peasei Brazier, 1877...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215384/enhance-%C3%A2-fitness-dissemination-and-implementation-2010-2015-a-scoping-review
#4
Miruna G Petrescu-Prahova, Thomas J Eagen, Sarah L Fishleder, Basia Belza
INTRODUCTION: Physical activity has many benefits for older adult physical and mental health. Enhance(®)Fitness (EF) is an evidence-based group exercise program delivered by community-based organizations. The purpose of this study was to review recent evidence on the dissemination and implementation of EF. METHODS: A scoping review of qualitative and quantitative studies with EF as main focus was conducted. CINAHL, PubMed, PubMed Central, SCOPUS, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar were searched between October and November 2015 for data-based studies on EF published in 2010-2015...
March 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215046/genome-resolved-metagenomics-of-a-bioremediation-system-for-degradation-of-thiocyanate-in-mine-water-containing-suspended-solid-tailings
#5
Sumayah F Rahman, Rose S Kantor, Robert Huddy, Brian C Thomas, Andries W van Zyl, Susan T L Harrison, Jillian F Banfield
Thiocyanate (SCN(-) ) is a toxic compound that forms when cyanide (CN(-) ), used to recover gold, reacts with sulfur species. SCN(-) -degrading microbial communities have been studied, using bioreactors fed synthetic wastewater. The inclusion of suspended solids in the form of mineral tailings, during the development of the acclimatized microbial consortium, led to the selection of an active planktonic microbial community. Preliminary analysis of the community composition revealed reduced microbial diversity relative to the laboratory-based reactors operated without suspended solids...
February 19, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214732/persistent-rna-virus-infections-do-pamps-drive-chronic-disease
#6
REVIEW
Mary K McCarthy, Thomas E Morrison
Chronic disease associated with persistent RNA virus infections represents a key public health concern. While human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis C virus are perhaps the most well-known examples of persistent RNA viruses that cause chronic disease, evidence suggests that many other RNA viruses, including re-emerging viruses such as chikungunya virus, Ebola virus and Zika virus, establish persistent infections. The mechanisms by which RNA viruses drive chronic disease are poorly understood. Here, we discuss how the persistence of viral RNA may drive chronic disease manifestations via the activation of RNA sensing pathways...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214715/metal-bioaccumulation-and-detoxification-processes-in-cephalopods-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Virginie Penicaud, Thomas Lacoue-Labarthe, Paco Bustamante
In recent decades, cephalopods have been shown to have very high capacities to accumulate most trace elements, regardless of whether they are essential (e.g., Cu and Zn) or non-essential (e.g., Ag and Cd). Among the different pathways of exposure to trace elements, the trophic pathway appears to be the major route of assimilation for numerous metals, including Cd, Co, Hg and Zn. Once assimilated, trace elements are distributed in the organism, accumulating in storage organs. The digestive gland is the main organ in which many trace elements accumulate, whichever of the exposure pathway...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214593/jak-stat-pathway-directed-therapy-of-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma-inspired-by-functional-and-structural-genomics
#8
REVIEW
Thomas A Waldmann
Abnormal activation of the γc cytokine JAK/STAT signaling pathway assessed by STAT3 or STAT5b phosphorylation was present in a proportion of many T-cell malignancies. Activating mutations of STAT3/STAT5b and JAK1/3 were present in some but not in all cases with constitutive signaling pathway activation. Using shRNA analysis pSTAT malignant T-cell lines were addicted to JAKs/STATs whether they were mutated or not. Activating JAK/STAT mutations were not sufficient to support leukemic cell proliferation but only augmented upstream pathway signals...
February 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213367/antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-infective-endocarditis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Thomas J Cahill, James L Harrison, Paul Jewell, Igho Onakpoya, John B Chambers, Mark Dayer, Peter Lockhart, Nia Roberts, David Shanson, Martin Thornhill, Carl J Heneghan, Bernard D Prendergast
OBJECTIVE: The use of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) for prevention of infective endocarditis (IE) is controversial. In recent years, guidelines to cardiologists and dentists have advised restriction of AP to high-risk groups (in Europe and the USA) or against its use at all (in the UK). The objective of this systematic review was to appraise the evidence for use of AP for prevention of bacteraemia or IE in patients undergoing dental procedures. METHODS: We conducted electronic searches in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and ISI Web of Science...
February 17, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212685/factors-that-influence-children-s-gambling-attitudes-and-consumption-intentions-lessons-for-gambling-harm-prevention-research-policies-and-advocacy-strategies
#10
Hannah Pitt, Samantha L Thomas, Amy Bestman, Mike Daube, Jeffrey Derevensky
BACKGROUND: Harmful gambling is a public health issue that affects not only adults but also children. With the development of a range of new gambling products, and the marketing for these products, children are potentially exposed to gambling more than ever before. While there have been many calls to develop strategies which protect children from harmful gambling products, very little is known about the factors that may influence children's attitudes towards these products. This study aimed to explore children's gambling attitudes and consumption intentions and the range of consumer socialisation factors that may influence these attitudes and behaviours...
February 17, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212377/optimality-principles-reveal-a-complex-interplay-of-intermediate-toxicity-and-kinetic-efficiency-in-the-regulation-of-prokaryotic-metabolism
#11
Jan Ewald, Martin Bartl, Thomas Dandekar, Christoph Kaleta
A precise and rapid adjustment of fluxes through metabolic pathways is crucial for organisms to prevail in changing environmental conditions. Based on this reasoning, many guiding principles that govern the evolution of metabolic networks and their regulation have been uncovered. To this end, methods from dynamic optimization are ideally suited since they allow to uncover optimality principles behind the regulation of metabolic networks. We used dynamic optimization to investigate the influence of toxic intermediates in connection with the efficiency of enzymes on the regulation of a linear metabolic pathway...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212113/age-and-gender-dependency-of-physiological-networks-in-sleep
#12
Dagmar Krefting, Christoph Jansen, Thomas Penzel, Fang Han, Jan Kantelhardt
Recently, time delay stability analysis of biosignals has been successfully applied as a multivariate time series analysis method to assess the human physiological network in young adults. The degree of connectivity between different network nodes is described by the so-called link strength. Based on polysomnographic recordings (PSGs), it could be shown that the network changes with the sleep stage. Here, we apply the method to a large set of healthy controls spanning six decades of age. As it is well known, that the overall sleep architecture is dependent both on age and on gender, we particularly address the question, if these changes are also found in the network dynamics...
February 17, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209224/systematic-evaluation-of-pleiotropy-identifies-6-further-loci-associated-with%C3%A2-coronary-artery%C3%A2-disease
#13
Thomas R Webb, Jeanette Erdmann, Kathleen E Stirrups, Nathan O Stitziel, Nicholas G D Masca, Henning Jansen, Stavroula Kanoni, Christopher P Nelson, Paola G Ferrario, Inke R König, John D Eicher, Andrew D Johnson, Stephen E Hamby, Christer Betsholtz, Arno Ruusalepp, Oscar Franzén, Eric E Schadt, Johan L M Björkegren, Peter E Weeke, Paul L Auer, Ursula M Schick, Yingchang Lu, He Zhang, Marie-Pierre Dube, Anuj Goel, Martin Farrall, Gina M Peloso, Hong-Hee Won, Ron Do, Erik van Iperen, Jochen Kruppa, Anubha Mahajan, Robert A Scott, Christina Willenborg, Peter S Braund, Julian C van Capelleveen, Alex S F Doney, Louise A Donnelly, Rosanna Asselta, Pier A Merlini, Stefano Duga, Nicola Marziliano, Josh C Denny, Christian Shaffer, Nour Eddine El-Mokhtari, Andre Franke, Stefanie Heilmann, Christian Hengstenberg, Per Hoffmann, Oddgeir L Holmen, Kristian Hveem, Jan-Håkan Jansson, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Thorsten Kessler, Jennifer Kriebel, Karl L Laugwitz, Eirini Marouli, Nicola Martinelli, Mark I McCarthy, Natalie R Van Zuydam, Christa Meisinger, Tõnu Esko, Evelin Mihailov, Stefan A Escher, Maris Alver, Susanne Moebus, Andrew D Morris, Jarma Virtamo, Majid Nikpay, Oliviero Olivieri, Sylvie Provost, Alaa AlQarawi, Neil R Robertson, Karen O Akinsansya, Dermot F Reilly, Thomas F Vogt, Wu Yin, Folkert W Asselbergs, Charles Kooperberg, Rebecca D Jackson, Eli Stahl, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Konstantin Strauch, Tibor V Varga, Melanie Waldenberger, Lingyao Zeng, Rajiv Chowdhury, Veikko Salomaa, Ian Ford, J Wouter Jukema, Philippe Amouyel, Jukka Kontto, Børge G Nordestgaard, Jean Ferrières, Danish Saleheen, Naveed Sattar, Praveen Surendran, Aline Wagner, Robin Young, Joanna M M Howson, Adam S Butterworth, John Danesh, Diego Ardissino, Erwin P Bottinger, Raimund Erbel, Paul W Franks, Domenico Girelli, Alistair S Hall, G Kees Hovingh, Adnan Kastrati, Wolfgang Lieb, Thomas Meitinger, William E Kraus, Svati H Shah, Ruth McPherson, Marju Orho-Melander, Olle Melander, Andres Metspalu, Colin N A Palmer, Annette Peters, Daniel J Rader, Muredach P Reilly, Ruth J F Loos, Alex P Reiner, Dan M Roden, Jean-Claude Tardif, John R Thompson, Nicholas J Wareham, Hugh Watkins, Cristen J Willer, Nilesh J Samani, Heribert Schunkert, Panos Deloukas, Sekar Kathiresan
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have so far identified 56 loci associated with risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Many CAD loci show pleiotropy; that is, they are also associated with other diseases or traits. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to systematically test if genetic variants identified for non-CAD diseases/traits also associate with CAD and to undertake a comprehensive analysis of the extent of pleiotropy of all CAD loci. METHODS: In discovery analyses involving 42,335 CAD cases and 78,240 control subjects we tested the association of 29,383 common (minor allele frequency >5%) single nucleotide polymorphisms available on the exome array, which included a substantial proportion of known or suspected single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with common diseases or traits as of 2011...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209120/factors-influencing-utilisation-of-maternal-health-services-by-adolescent-mothers-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#14
Oluwasola Eniola Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi Oluwabusayo Banke-Thomas, Charles Anawo Ameh
BACKGROUND: Adolescent mothers aged 15-19 years are known to have greater risks of maternal morbidity and mortality compared with women aged 20-24 years, mostly due to their unique biological, sociological and economic status. Nowhere Is the burden of disease greater than in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). Understanding factors that influence adolescent utilisation of essential maternal health services (MHS) would be critical in improving their outcomes. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the literature for articles published until December 2015 to understand how adolescent MHS utilisation has been assessed in LMICs and factors affecting service utilisation by adolescent mothers...
February 16, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209006/a-comparative-evaluation-of-serum-magnesium-in-diabetes-mellitus-type-2-patients-with-and-without-periodontitis-a-clinico-biochemical-study
#15
Akshatha Shetty, Rahul Bhandary, Biju Thomas, Amitha Ramesh
INTRODUCTION: Magnesium is an essential cation playing a crucial role in many physiological functions and its imbalance is associated with greater number of pathological situations. Oxidative stress is usually increased due to decreased essential nutrients. Hence, any imbalance of essential nutrients like serum magnesium can significantly play a role in the pathobiology of periodontitis in the presence of diabetes, as diabetes and chronic periodontitis are two chronic diseases that have been biologically linked...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207792/partnering-for-impact-integrated-transmission-assessment-surveys-for-lymphatic-filariasis-soil-transmitted-helminths-and-malaria-in-haiti
#16
Alaine Kathryn Knipes, Jean Frantz Lemoine, Franck Monestime, Carl R Fayette, Abdel N Direny, Luccene Desir, Valery E Beau de Rochars, Thomas G Streit, Kristen Renneker, Brian K Chu, Michelle A Chang, Kimberly E Mace, Kimberly Y Won, Patrick J Lammie
BACKGROUND: Since 2001, Haiti's National Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (NPELF) has worked to reduce the transmission of LF through annual mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. The NPELF reached full national coverage with MDA for LF in 2012, and by 2014, a total of 14 evaluation units (48 communes) had met WHO eligibility criteria to conduct LF transmission assessment surveys (TAS) to determine whether prevalence had been reduced to below a threshold, such that transmission is assumed to be no longer sustainable...
February 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205313/genetic-analyses-unravel-the-crucial-role-of-a-horizontally-acquired-alginate-lyase-for-brown-algal-biomass-degradation-by-zobellia-galactanivorans
#17
Yongtao Zhu, François Thomas, Robert Larocque, Nan Li, Delphine Duffieux, Lionel Cladière, Florent Souchaud, Gurvan Michel, Mark J McBride
Comprehension of the degradation of macroalgal polysaccharides suffers from the lack of genetic tools for model marine bacteria, despite their importance for coastal ecosystem functions. We developed such tools for Zobellia galactanivorans, an algae-associated flavobacterium that digests many polysaccharides, including alginate. These tools were used to investigate the biological role of AlyA1, the only Z. galactanivorans alginate lyase known to be secreted in soluble form and to have a recognizable carbohydrate-binding domain...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202600/neoteny-prolongation-of-youth-from-naked-mole-rats-to-naked-apes-humans
#18
REVIEW
Vladimir P Skulachev, Susanne Holtze, Mikhail Y Vyssokikh, Lora E Bakeeva, Maxim V Skulachev, Alexander V Markov, Thomas B Hildebrandt, Viktor A Sadovnichii
It has been suggested that highly social mammals, such as naked mole rats and humans, are long-lived due to neoteny (the prolongation of youth). In both species, aging cannot operate as a mechanism facilitating natural selection because the pressure of this selection is strongly reduced due to 1) a specific social structure where only the "queen" and her "husband(s)" are involved in reproduction (naked mole rats) or 2) substituting fast technological progress for slow biological evolution (humans). Lists of numerous traits of youth that do not disappear with age in naked mole rats and humans are presented and discussed...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202428/patient-use-of-electronic-prescription-refill-and-secure-messaging-and-its-association-with-undetectable-hiv-viral-load-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
D Keith McInnes, Stephanie L Shimada, Amanda M Midboe, Kim M Nazi, Shibei Zhao, Justina Wu, Casey M Garvey, Thomas K Houston
BACKGROUND: Electronic personal health records (PHRs) can support patient self-management of chronic conditions. Managing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load, through taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial to long term survival of persons with HIV. Many persons with HIV have difficulty adhering to their ART over long periods of time. PHRs contribute to chronic disease self-care and may help persons with HIV remain adherent to ART. Proportionally veterans with HIV are among the most active users of the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) PHR, called My HealtheVet...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199403/comparison-of-microbiological-diagnosis-of-urinary-tract-infection-in-young-children-by-routine-health-service-laboratories-and-a-research-laboratory-diagnostic-cohort-study
#20
Kate Birnie, Alastair D Hay, Mandy Wootton, Robin Howe, Alasdair MacGowan, Penny Whiting, Michael Lawton, Brendan Delaney, Harriet Downing, Jan Dudley, William Hollingworth, Catherine Lisles, Paul Little, Kathryn O'Brien, Timothy Pickles, Kate Rumsby, Emma Thomas-Jones, Judith Van der Voort, Cherry-Ann Waldron, Kim Harman, Kerenza Hood, Christopher C Butler, Jonathan A C Sterne
OBJECTIVES: To compare the validity of diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) through urine culture between samples processed in routine health service laboratories and those processed in a research laboratory. POPULATION AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective diagnostic cohort study in 4808 acutely ill children aged <5 years attending UK primary health care. UTI, defined as pure/predominant growth ≥105 CFU/mL of a uropathogen (the reference standard), was diagnosed at routine health service laboratories and a central research laboratory by culture of urine samples...
2017: PloS One
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