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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145425/statistical-analysis-of-co-occurrence-patterns-in-microbial-presence-absence-datasets
#1
Kumar P Mainali, Sharon Bewick, Peter Thielen, Thomas Mehoke, Florian P Breitwieser, Shishir Paudel, Arjun Adhikari, Joshua Wolfe, Eric V Slud, David Karig, William F Fagan
Drawing on a long history in macroecology, correlation analysis of microbiome datasets is becoming a common practice for identifying relationships or shared ecological niches among bacterial taxa. However, many of the statistical issues that plague such analyses in macroscale communities remain unresolved for microbial communities. Here, we discuss problems in the analysis of microbial species correlations based on presence-absence data. We focus on presence-absence data because this information is more readily obtainable from sequencing studies, especially for whole-genome sequencing, where abundance estimation is still in its infancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145200/the-role-of-copy-number-variants-in-disorders-of-sex-development
#2
Brittany Croft, Thomas Ohnesorg, Andrew H Sinclair
Despite considerable research effort and significant advances in sequencing technologies, the majority of disorders of sex development (DSD) cases still lack a molecular genetic diagnosis. While coding variants have been discovered in known and candidate DSD genes, comparatively little is known about copy number variations (CNVs) affecting both coding and noncoding regions. Due to rapidly falling costs of whole genome sequencing, many more CNVs in individuals with DSD will be identified. These CNVs may explain a significant number of hitherto undiagnosed cases of DSD...
November 17, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145076/veterans-group-exercise-a-randomized-pilot-trial-of-an-integrative-exercise-program-for-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress
#3
Lizabeth A Goldstein, Wolf E Mehling, Thomas J Metzler, Beth E Cohen, Deborah E Barnes, Gerard J Choucroun, Aliza Silver, Lisa S Talbot, Shira Maguen, Jennifer A Hlavin, Margaret A Chesney, Thomas C Neylan
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent among military veterans and is associated with significant negative health outcomes. However, stigma and other barriers to care prevent many veterans from pursuing traditional mental health treatment. We developed a group-based Integrative Exercise (IE) program combining aerobic and resistance exercise, which is familiar to veterans, with mindfulness-based practices suited to veterans with PTSD. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of IE on PTSD symptom severity and quality of life, as well as assess the feasibility and acceptability of IE...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145036/liver-immunotolerance-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patho-physiological-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Gaël S Roth, Thomas Decaens
At the moment of the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 70% of patients have only access to palliative treatments, with very few therapeutic options. Liver immunology is very specific, and liver immunotolerance is particularly developed because of the constant and massive influx of antigens. Deregulation of hepatic immunotolerance is implicated in chronic liver diseases development and particularly in liver carcinogenesis. For these reasons, HCC may be an excellent candidate for anticancer immunotherapies such as immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting CTLA-4 and PD-L1/PD-1...
November 13, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144718/the-emerging-role-of-gammacore%C3%A2-in-the-management-of-cluster-headache-expert-panel-recommendations
#5
Stephen D Silberstein, Anne H Calhoun, Christina Treppendahl, David W Dodick, Alan M Rapoport, Avinash Mamidi, Peter Vargas, Thomas H Ebert, Stewart J Tepper
A panel of 9 experts, including neurologists, other headache specialists, and medical and pharmacy directors, from 4 health plans (1 integrated delivery network and 3 plans with commercial, Medicare, and Medicaid lines of business), convened to discuss cluster headache (CH). Topics covered included the current treatment landscape, treatment challenges, economic impact of disease, and gaps in care for patients with CH. One major challenge in the management of CH is that it is underrecognized and frequently misdiagnosed, leading to delays in and suboptimal treatment for patients who suffer from this painful and disabling condition...
November 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144203/suppression-or-activation-of-immune-responses-by-predicted-secreted-proteins-of-the-soybean-rust-pathogen-phakopsora-pachyrhizi
#6
Mingsheng Qi, James P Grayczyk, Janina M Seitz, Youngsill Lee, Tobias I Link, Doil Choi, Kerry F Pedley, Ralf T Voegele, Thomas J Baum, Steven A Whitham
Rust fungi, such as the soybean rust pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi, are major threats to crop production. They form specialized haustoria that are hyphal structures intimately associated with host-plant cell membranes. These haustoria have roles in acquiring nutrients and secreting effector proteins that manipulate host immune systems. Functional characterization of effector proteins of rust fungi is important for understanding mechanisms that underlie their virulence and pathogenicity. Hundreds of candidate effector proteins have been predicted for rust pathogens, but it is not clear how to prioritize these effector candidates for further characterization...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143637/impact-of-malaria-interventions-on-child-mortality-in-endemic-african-settings-comparison-and-alignment-between-list-and-spectrum-malaria-model
#7
Eline Korenromp, Matthew Hamilton, Rachel Sanders, Guy Mahiané, Olivier J T Briët, Thomas Smith, William Winfrey, Neff Walker, John Stover
BACKGROUND: In malaria-endemic countries, malaria prevention and treatment are critical for child health. In the context of intervention scale-up and rapid changes in endemicity, projections of intervention impact and optimized program scale-up strategies need to take into account the consequent dynamics of transmission and immunity. METHODS: The new Spectrum-Malaria program planning tool was used to project health impacts of Insecticide-Treated mosquito Nets (ITNs) and effective management of uncomplicated malaria cases (CMU), among other interventions, on malaria infection prevalence, case incidence and mortality in children 0-4 years, 5-14 years of age and adults...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143282/hypomethylating-agents-for-treatment-and-prevention-of-relapse-after-allogeneic-blood-stem-cell-transplantation
#8
REVIEW
Thomas Schroeder, Christina Rautenberg, Rainer Haas, Ulrich Germing, Guido Kobbe
Despite the curative potential of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), many patients will relapse. Until recently therapeutic options mainly consisted of palliative care, chemotherapy, donor lymphocyte infusions and second transplantation in selected cases. Still many patients either do not tolerate intensive therapies or do not achieve durable remissions and will finally succumb. Given this unmet medical need the hypomethylating agents (HMA), Azacitidine (Aza) and Decitabine (DAC) have been tested as salvage therapy in patients with myeloid malignancies relapsing after allo-SCT...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142299/the-immunomodulatory-drug-glatiramer-acetate-is-also-an-effective-antimicrobial-agent-that-kills-gram-negative-bacteria
#9
Stig Hill Christiansen, Ronan A Murphy, Kristian Juul-Madsen, Marlene Fredborg, Michael Lykke Hvam, Esben Axelgaard, Sandra M Skovdal, Rikke Louise Meyer, Uffe B Skov Sørensen, Arne Möller, Jens Randel Nyengaard, Niels Nørskov-Lauritsen, Mikala Wang, Mihaela Gadjeva, Kenneth A Howard, Jane C Davies, Eskild Petersen, Thomas Vorup-Jensen
Classic drug development strategies have failed to meet the urgent clinical needs in treating infections with Gram-negative bacteria. Repurposing drugs can lead to timely availability of new antibiotics, accelerated by existing safety profiles. Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a widely used and safe formulation for treatment of multiple sclerosis. It contains a large diversity of essentially isomeric polypeptides with the cationic and amphiphilic character of many antimicrobial peptides (AMP). Here, we report that GA is antibacterial, targeting Gram-negative organisms with higher activity towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa than the naturally-occurring AMP LL-37 in human plasma...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141923/src-family-kinase-inhibitors-blunt-the-pacap-induced-pac1-receptor-endocytosis-phosphorylation-of-erk-and-increase-in-cardiac-neuron-excitability
#10
John D Tompkins, Todd A Clason, Thomas R Buttolph, Beatrice M Girard, Anne K Linden, Jean C Hardwick, Laura A Merriam, Victor May, Rodney L Parsons
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP, Adcyap1) activation of PAC1 receptors (Adcyap1r1) significantly increases excitability of guinea pig cardiac neurons. This modulation of excitability is mediated in part by plasma membrane G protein-dependent activation of adenylyl cyclase and downstream signaling cascades. However, additional mechanisms responsible for the enhanced excitability are activated following internalization of the PAC1 receptor and endosomal signaling. Src family kinases play critical roles mediating endocytosis of many trophic factor and G-protein coupled receptors...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141560/growth-kinetics-and-oncologic-outcomes-for-small-renal-masses-managed-with-active-surveillance-a-review-of-the-literature
#11
Benjamin T Ristau, Thomas W Fuller, Ricardo Rios, Cristina Ho, Jeffrey J Tomaszewski
An increasing number of enhancing renal masses are being discovered incidentally on cross-sectional imaging. Many can be characterized as small renal masses (SRMs), the natural history of which is heterogeneous and poorly understood. Active surveillance has been proposed as an initial management strategy for these tumors, particularly in the old and infirmed patient population. Herein, a rigorous review of the literature is provided to explore the incidence and epidemiology of SRMs as well as the growth kinetics and oncologic outcomes of SRMs under observation...
November 13, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141427/tensor-structured-coupled-cluster-theory
#12
Roman Schutski, Jinmo Zhao, Thomas M Henderson, Gustavo E Scuseria
We derive and implement a new way of solving coupled cluster equations with lower computational scaling. Our method is based on the decomposition of both amplitudes and two electron integrals, using a combination of tensor hypercontraction and canonical polyadic decomposition. While the original theory scales as O(N(6)) with respect to the number of basis functions, we demonstrate numerically that we achieve sub-millihartree difference from the original theory with O(N(4)) scaling. This is accomplished by solving directly for the factors that decompose the cluster operator...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141240/host-microbe-interactions-malassezia-and-human-skin
#13
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Grice, Thomas L Dawson
The skin is our first line of defense, protecting us from invasion and evaporation. Its variable structure, changing geography, and complex immune repertoire provide a vast interface for our cutaneous microbial community. Skin is inhabited by many thousands of microbes, but this review focuses on the dominant eukaryote, Malassezia, and its host interaction. Malassezia compromises 17 species with variable niche specificities and differing pathogenic potential. It has been known as a skin inhabitant for over 100 years, and is now accepted to be on all warm-blooded animals...
November 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141012/effects-of-music-therapy-and-music-based-interventions-in-the-treatment-of-substance-use-disorders-a-systematic-review
#14
Louisa Hohmann, Joke Bradt, Thomas Stegemann, Stefan Koelsch
Music therapy (MT) and music-based interventions (MBIs) are increasingly used for the treatment of substance use disorders (SUD). Previous reviews on the efficacy of MT emphasized the dearth of research evidence for this topic, although various positive effects were identified. Therefore, we conducted a systematic search on published articles examining effects of music, MT and MBIs and found 34 quantitative and six qualitative studies. There was a clear increase in the number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) during the past few years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140644/evaluation-of-low-cost-hydrogen-sulfide-monitors-for-use-in-livestock-production
#15
Jessica M Beswick-Honn, Thomas M Peters, T Renée Anthony
Direct-reading gas monitors warn workers of the risk of potentially fatal hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exposures that may arise during manure handling. Low-cost, low-maintenance H2S monitors are available from many manufacturers, but differences in their features and performance make selection challenging for farmers. Moreover, little information is available on the practical maintenance and performance of these devices in agricultural environments. The objective of this study was to provide information to agricultural workers to aid in the selection, maintenance, and use of low-cost H2S monitors...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140185/thrombolysis-improving-door-to-needle-times-for-ischemic-stroke-treatment-a-narrative-review
#16
Noreen Kamal, Eric E Smith, Thomas Jeerakathil, Michael D Hill
Background The effectiveness of thrombolysis is highly time dependent. For this reason, short target times have been set to reduce time to treatment from hospital arrival, which is called door-to-needle time. Summary of review There has been considerable work done at single centers and across multiple hospitals to improve door-to-needle time. There have been reductions of 8 to 47 min when applying one or more improvement strategies at single centers, and there have been many multi-hospital initiatives. The delays to treatment have been attributed to both patient and hospital factors, and strategies to address these delays have been proven to reduce door-to-needle time...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139499/the-role-of-phase-separation-and-related-topography-in-the-exceptional-ice-nucleating-ability-of-alkali-feldspars
#17
Thomas F Whale, Mark A Holden, Alexander N Kulak, Yi-Yeoun Kim, Fiona C Meldrum, Hugo K Christenson, Benjamin J Murray
Our understanding of crystal nucleation is a limiting factor in many fields, not least in the atmospheric sciences. It was recently found that feldspar, a component of airborne desert dust, plays a dominant role in triggering ice formation in clouds, but the origin of this effect was unclear. By investigating the structure/property relationships of a wide range of feldspars, we demonstrate that alkali feldspars with certain microtextures, related to phase separation into Na and K-rich regions, show exceptional ice-nucleating abilities in supercooled water...
November 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139480/position-paper-the-potential-role-of-optical-biopsy-in-the-study-and-diagnosis-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction
#18
REVIEW
Alex J Thompson, Michael Hughes, Salzitsa Anastasova, Laurie S Conklin, Tudor Thomas, Cadman Leggett, William A Faubion, Thomas J Miller, Peter Delaney, François Lacombe, Sacha Loiseau, Alexander Meining, Rebecca Richards-Kortum, Guillermo J Tearney, Paul Kelly, Guang-Zhong Yang
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a disease of the small intestine affecting children and adults in low and middle income countries. Arising as a consequence of repeated infections, gut inflammation results in impaired intestinal absorptive and barrier function, leading to poor nutrient uptake and ultimately to stunting and other developmental limitations. Progress towards new biomarkers and interventions for EED is hampered by the practical and ethical difficulties of cross-validation with the gold standard of biopsy and histology...
November 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139364/advanced-management-of-severe-keloids
#19
REVIEW
Thomas Hagele, Hoka Nyanda, Nishit Patel, Nicole Russell, George Cohen, Christopher Nelson
Keloids negatively impact the health and quality of life of many affected dermatologic patients. Treating keloids is often difficult, and suboptimal responses are frequent. Fortunately, there are many treatment options available to the clinician that may lead to improved clinical outcomes. We present a review of currently available therapeutic options. Intralesional steroid injection remains the first-line treatment for keloids. Imiquimod, direct interferon therapy, or intralesional 5-flurouracil may alleviate the need for excessive corticosteroid therapy...
2017: Skinmed
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136556/industry-interests-in-gambling-research-lessons-learned-from-other-forms-of-hazardous-consumption
#20
S Cowlishaw, S L Thomas
Research indicates that the evidential bases for many harm reduction policies targeting hazardous consumptions (including tobacco, alcohol and gambling) have been distorted by commercial industries that derive revenue from such commodities. These distortions are best illustrated by research on tobacco and alcohol, which indicates similar tactics used by industries to determine favourable policy environments through engineering of evidence, among other approaches. Although there is concern that gambling research is similarly vulnerable to commercial interests, the relevant literature lags far behind other fields and the aim of this paper is to increase familiarity with tactics used by industries for influencing research...
November 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
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