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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806420/perceptions-of-health-risks-of-cigarette-smoking-a-new-measure-reveals-widespread-misunderstanding
#1
Jon A Krosnick, Neil Malhotra, Cecilia Hyunjung Mo, Eduardo F Bruera, LinChiat Chang, Josh Pasek, Randall K Thomas
Most Americans recognize that smoking causes serious diseases, yet many Americans continue to smoke. One possible explanation for this paradox is that perhaps Americans do not accurately perceive the extent to which smoking increases the probability of adverse health outcomes. This paper examines the accuracy of Americans' perceptions of the absolute risk, attributable risk, and relative risk of lung cancer, and assesses which of these beliefs drive Americans' smoking behavior. Using data from three national surveys, statistical analyses were performed by comparing means, medians, and distributions, and by employing Generalized Additive Models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806413/reply-supply-efficient-crowdsourcing-when-workers-do-more-than-answer-questions
#2
Thomas C McAndrew, Elizaveta A Guseva, James P Bagrow
Crowdsourcing works by distributing many small tasks to large numbers of workers, yet the true potential of crowdsourcing lies in workers doing more than performing simple tasks-they can apply their experience and creativity to provide new and unexpected information to the crowdsourcer. One such case is when workers not only answer a crowdsourcer's questions but also contribute new questions for subsequent crowd analysis, leading to a growing set of questions. This growth creates an inherent bias for early questions since a question introduced earlier by a worker can be answered by more subsequent workers than a question introduced later...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803534/moving-rehabilitation-research-forward-developing-consensus-statements-for-rehabilitation-and-recovery-research
#3
Julie Bernhardt, Karen Borschmann, Lara Boyd, S Thomas Carmichael, Dale Corbett, Steven C Cramer, Tammy Hoffmann, Gert Kwakkel, Sean Savitz, Gustavo Saposnik, Marion Walker, Nick Ward
Stroke recovery is the next frontier in stroke medicine. While growth in rehabilitation and recovery research is exponential, a number of barriers hamper our ability to rapidly progress the field. Standardized terminology is absent in both animal and human research, methods are poorly described, recovery biomarkers are not well defined, and we lack consistent timeframes or measures to examine outcomes. Agreed methods and conventions for developing, monitoring, evaluating and reporting interventions directed at improving recovery are lacking, and current approaches are often not underpinned by biology...
August 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803034/variations-in-the-costs-of-radical-cystectomy-for-bladder-cancer-in-the-usa
#4
Jeffrey J Leow, Alexander P Cole, Thomas Seisen, Joaquim Bellmunt, Matthew Mossanen, Mani Menon, Mark A Preston, Toni K Choueiri, Adam S Kibel, Benjamin I Chung, Maxine Sun, Steven L Chang, Quoc-Dien Trinh
BACKGROUND: Radical cystectomy (RC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (BCa) has potential for serious complications, prolonged length of stay and readmissions-all of which may increase costs. Although variations in outcomes are well described, less is known about determinants driving variation in costs. OBJECTIVE: To assess surgeon- and hospital-level variations in costs and predictors of high- and low-cost RC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Cohort study of 23 173 patients who underwent RC for BCa in 208 hospitals in the USA from 2003 to 2015 in the Premier Healthcare Database...
August 9, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801931/immunomodulatory-effects-of-adipose-stromal-vascular-fraction-cells-promote-alternative-activation-macrophages-to-repair-tissue-damage
#5
Annie C Bowles, Rachel M Wise, Brittany Y Gerstein, Robert C Thomas, Roberto Ogelman, Isabella Febbo, Bruce A Bunnell
The pathogenesis of many diseases is driven by the interactions between helper T (TH ) cells and macrophages. The phenotypes of these cells are a functional dichotomy that are persuaded according to the surrounding milieu. In both multiple sclerosis (MS) and the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model, TH 1 and TH 17 cells propagate autoimmune signaling and inflammation in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. In turn, this pro-inflammatory repertoire promotes the classical activation, formerly the M1-type, macrophages...
August 12, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801571/crp-level-associated-polymorphism-rs1205-within-the-crp-gene-is-associated-with-2-hour-glucose-level-the-sapphire-study
#6
Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu, Wen-Chang Wang, Kwan-Dun Wu, Chih-Tsueng He, Chii-Min Hwu, Thomas Quertermous, Wan-Shan Hsieh, Wen-Jane Lee, Chih-Tai Ting, Yii-Der I Chen, Chao A Hsiung
C-reactive protein (CRP) encoded by CRP gene is a reflection of systemic inflammation. Many studies associated CRP level with diabetes and glucose levels, but the association of CRP gene with these traits is unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional study consisting of 945 siblings from 330 families collected by the Stanford Asian Pacific Program in Hypertension and Insulin Resistance (SAPPHIRe) to investigate associations between CRP polymorphisms, circulating CRP, diabetes, and glucose levels. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed: rs3093059, rs2794521, rs1417938, rs1800947, and rs1205...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801570/the-buckling-instability-of-aggregating-red-blood-cells
#7
Daniel Flormann, Othmane Aouane, Lars Kaestner, Christian Ruloff, Chaouqi Misbah, Thomas Podgorski, Christian Wagner
Plasma proteins such as fibrinogen induce the aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) into rouleaux, which are responsible for the pronounced shear thinning behavior of blood, control the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) - a common hematological test - and are involved in many situations of physiological relevance such as structuration of blood in the microcirculation or clot formation in pathological situations. Confocal microscopy is used to characterize the shape of RBCs within rouleaux at equilibrium as a function of macromolecular concentration, revealing the diversity of contact zone morphology...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801026/quadruple-immunotherapy-of-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-interferon-interleukin-2-and-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-as-salvage-therapy-for-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#8
Ryan L Steinberg, Kenneth G Nepple, Kyla N Velaer, Lewis J Thomas, Michael A O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most effective initial intravesical therapy for high-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, but many patients still fail. Combination intravesical BCG and interferon (IFN) will salvage some patients but results remain suboptimal. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that further immunostimulation with intravesical interleukin-2 and subcutaneous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor may improve response to intravesical BCG and IFN in patient with prior BCG failure(s)...
August 8, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800392/coarse-grained-directed-simulation
#9
Glen M Hocky, Thomas Dannenhoffer-Lafage, Gregory A Voth
Many free-energy sampling and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) computations on protein complexes have been performed where, by necessity, a single component is studied isolated in solution while its overall configuration is kept in the complex-like state by either rigid restraints or harmonic constraints. A drawback in these studies is that the system's native fluctuations are lost, both due to the change of environment and the imposition of the extra potential. Yet, we know that having both accurate structure and fluctuations is likely crucial to achieving correct simulation estimates for the subsystem within its native larger protein complex context...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800170/ischemic-stroke
#10
James F Meschia, Thomas Brott
There are about 25.7 million stroke survivors world-wide. Ischemic stroke remains the most common type of stroke. Numerous modifiable risk factors have been identified, including behaviors like cigarette smoking and sedentary lifestyle and treatable medical comorbidities like hypertension, hyperlipidemia and atrial fibrillation. Once considered irreversible, acute ischemic stroke is now amenable to acute medical and endovascular therapies to reduce infarct volume. Many advances are expected in the years to come, particularly in the areas of prevention and recovery...
August 11, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800167/a-functional-imaging-study-of-germinating-oilseed-rape-seed
#11
Eberhard Munz, Hardy Rolletschek, Steffen Oeltze-Jafra, Johannes Fuchs, André Guendel, Thomas Neuberger, Stefan Ortleb, Peter M Jakob, Ljudmilla Borisjuk
Germination, the process whereby a dry, quiescent seed springs to life, has been a focus of plant biologist for many years, yet the early events following water uptake, during which metabolism of the embryo is restarted, remain enigmatic. Here, the nature of the cues required for this restarting in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seed has been investigated. A holistic in vivo approach was designed to display the link between the entry and allocation of water, metabolic events and structural changes occurring during germination...
August 11, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799382/kinetics-of-spontaneous-filament-nucleation-via-oligomers-insights-from-theory-and-simulation
#12
Anđela Šarić, Thomas C T Michaels, Alessio Zaccone, Tuomas P J Knowles, Daan Frenkel
Nucleation processes are at the heart of a large number of phenomena, from cloud formation to protein crystallization. A recently emerging area where nucleation is highly relevant is the initiation of filamentous protein self-assembly, a process that has broad implications in many research areas ranging from medicine to nanotechnology. As such, spontaneous nucleation of protein fibrils has received much attention in recent years with many theoretical and experimental studies focussing on the underlying physical principles...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799369/a-physically-constrained-classical-description-of-the-homogeneous-nucleation-of-ice-in-water
#13
Thomas Koop, Benjamin J Murray
Liquid water can persist in a supercooled state to below 238 K in the Earth's atmosphere, a temperature range where homogeneous nucleation becomes increasingly probable. However, the rate of homogeneous ice nucleation in supercooled water is poorly constrained, in part, because supercooled water eludes experimental scrutiny in the region of the homogeneous nucleation regime where it can exist only fleetingly. Here we present a new parameterization of the rate of homogeneous ice nucleation based on classical nucleation theory...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799256/understanding-processes-at-the-origin-of-species-flocks-with-a-focus-on-the-marine-antarctic-fauna
#14
Anne Chenuil, Thomas Saucède, Lenaïg G Hemery, Marc Eléaume, Jean-Pierre Féral, Nadia Améziane, Bruno David, Guillaume Lecointre, Charlotte Havermans
Species flocks (SFs) fascinate evolutionary biologists who wonder whether such striking diversification can be driven by normal evolutionary processes. Multiple definitions of SFs have hindered the study of their origins. Previous studies identified a monophyletic taxon as a SF if it displays high speciosity in an area in which it is endemic (criterion 1), high ecological diversity among species (criterion 2), and if it dominates the habitat in terms of biomass (criterion 3); we used these criteria in our analyses...
August 10, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797791/the-use-of-nemabiome-metabarcoding-to-explore-gastro-intestinal-nematode-species-diversity-and-anthelmintic-treatment-effectiveness-in-beef-calves
#15
Russell W Avramenko, Elizabeth M Redman, Roy Lewis, Murilo A Bichuette, Bruna M Palmeira, Thomas A Yazwinski, John S Gilleard
Next-generation deep amplicon sequencing, or metabarcoding, has revolutionized the study of microbial communities in humans, animals and the environment. However, such approaches have yet to be applied to parasitic helminth communities. We recently described the first example of such a method - nemabiome sequencing - based on deep-amplicon sequencing of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) rDNA, and validated its ability to quantitatively assess the species composition of cattle gastro-intestinal nematode (GIN) communities...
August 7, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797080/physician-perspectives-on-the-management-of-viral-hepatitis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-myanmar
#16
Yoona A Kim, Sam Trinh, Si Thura, Khin Pyone Kyi, Thomas Lee, Stan Sze, Adam Richards, Andrew Aronsohn, Grace L H Wong, Yasuhito Tanaka, Geoffrey Dusheiko, Mindie H Nguyen
BACKGROUND: In Myanmar, over five million people are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Hepatitis has been a recent focus with the development of a National Strategic Plan on Hepatitis and plans to subsidize HCV treatment. METHODS: During a two-day national liver disease symposium covering HCV, HBV, hepatocellular (HCC), and end-stage liver disease (ESLD), physician surveys were administered using the automated response system (ARS) to assess physician knowledge, perceptions of barriers to screening and treatment, and proposed solutions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796236/genetic-disruption-of-the-oncogenic-hmga2-plag1-igf2-pathway-causes-fetal-growth-restriction
#17
Walid Abi Habib, Frédéric Brioude, Thomas Edouard, James T Bennett, Anne Lienhardt-Roussie, Frédérique Tixier, Jennifer Salem, Tony Yuen, Salah Azzi, Yves Le Bouc, Madeleine D Harbison, Irène Netchine
PurposeFetal growth is a complex process involving maternal, placental and fetal factors. The etiology of fetal growth retardation remains unknown in many cases. The aim of this study is to identify novel human mutations and genes related to Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS), a syndromic form of fetal growth retardation, usually caused by epigenetic downregulation of the potent fetal growth factor IGF2.MethodsWhole-exome sequencing was carried out on members of an SRS familial case. The candidate gene from the familial case and two other genes were screened by targeted high-throughput sequencing in a large cohort of suspected SRS patients...
August 10, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796234/electron-microscopy-using-the-genetically-encoded-apex2-tag-in-cultured-mammalian-cells
#18
Jeffrey D Martell, Thomas J Deerinck, Stephanie S Lam, Mark H Ellisman, Alice Y Ting
Electron microscopy (EM) is the premiere technique for high-resolution imaging of cellular ultrastructure. Unambiguous identification of specific proteins or cellular compartments in electron micrographs, however, remains challenging because of difficulties in delivering electron-dense contrast agents to specific subcellular targets within intact cells. We recently reported enhanced ascorbate peroxidase 2 (APEX2) as a broadly applicable genetic tag that generates EM contrast on a specific protein or subcellular compartment of interest...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796164/enzymatic-synthesis-of-n-acetyllactosamine-lacnac-type-1-oligomers-and-characterization-as-multivalent-galectin-ligands
#19
Thomas Fischöder, Dominic Laaf, Carina Dey, Lothar Elling
Repeats of the disaccharide unit N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) occur as type 1 (Galβ1, 3GlcNAc) and type 2 (Galβ1, 4GlcNAc) glycosylation motifs on glycoproteins and glycolipids. The LacNAc motif acts as binding ligand for lectins and is involved in many biological recognition events. To the best of our knowledge, we present, for the first time, the synthesis of LacNAc type 1 oligomers using recombinant β1,3-galactosyltransferase from Escherichia coli and β1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltranferase from Helicobacter pylori...
August 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795259/comparison-of-outcomes-using-balloon-expandable-versus-self-expanding-transcatheter-prostheses-according-to-the-extent-of-aortic-valve-calcification
#20
Won-Keun Kim, Johannes Blumenstein, Christoph Liebetrau, Andreas Rolf, Luise Gaede, Arnaud Van Linden, Mani Arsalan, Mirko Doss, Jan G P Tijssen, Christian W Hamm, Thomas Walther, Helge Möllmann
BACKGROUND: Device landing zone (DLZ) calcification is an important determinant of procedural success in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of DLZ calcification on procedural outcome with different types of transcatheter heart valves (THVs). METHODS: Aortic valve calcium density (AVCdens) was determined by non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography in 1232 patients undergoing transfemoral TAVI...
August 9, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
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