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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103071/bridging-the-response-to-mass-shootings-and-urban-violence-exposure-to-violence-in-new-haven-connecticut
#1
Alycia Santilli, Kathleen O'Connor Duffany, Amy Carroll-Scott, Jordan Thomas, Ann Greene, Anita Arora, Alicia Agnoli, Geliang Gan, Jeannette Ickovics
We have described self-reported exposure to gun violence in an urban community of color to inform the movement toward a public health approach to gun violence prevention. The Community Alliance for Research and Engagement at Yale School of Public Health conducted community health needs assessments to document chronic disease prevalence and risk, including exposure to gun violence. We conducted surveys with residents in six low-income neighborhoods in New Haven, Connecticut, using a neighborhood-stratified, population-based sample (n = 1189; weighted sample to represent the neighborhoods, n = 29 675)...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102226/chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia
#2
Thomas J Kipps, Freda K Stevenson, Catherine J Wu, Carlo M Croce, Graham Packham, William G Wierda, Susan O'Brien, John Gribben, Kanti Rai
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a malignancy of CD5(+) B cells that is characterized by the accumulation of small, mature-appearing lymphocytes in the blood, marrow and lymphoid tissues. Signalling via surface immunoglobulin, which constitutes the major part of the B cell receptor, and several genetic alterations play a part in CLL pathogenesis, in addition to interactions between CLL cells and other cell types, such as stromal cells, T cells and nurse-like cells in the lymph nodes. The clinical progression of CLL is heterogeneous and ranges from patients who require treatment soon after diagnosis to others who do not require therapy for many years, if at all...
January 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101605/surviving-sepsis-campaign-international-guidelines-for-management-of-sepsis-and-septic-shock-2016
#3
Andrew Rhodes, Laura E Evans, Waleed Alhazzani, Mitchell M Levy, Massimo Antonelli, Ricard Ferrer, Anand Kumar, Jonathan E Sevransky, Charles L Sprung, Mark E Nunnally, Bram Rochwerg, Gordon D Rubenfeld, Derek C Angus, Djillali Annane, Richard J Beale, Geoffrey J Bellinghan, Gordon R Bernard, Jean-Daniel Chiche, Craig Coopersmith, Daniel P De Backer, Craig J French, Seitaro Fujishima, Herwig Gerlach, Jorge Luis Hidalgo, Steven M Hollenberg, Alan E Jones, Dilip R Karnad, Ruth M Kleinpell, Younsuk Koh, Thiago Costa Lisboa, Flavia R Machado, John J Marini, John C Marshall, John E Mazuski, Lauralyn A McIntyre, Anthony S McLean, Sangeeta Mehta, Rui P Moreno, John Myburgh, Paolo Navalesi, Osamu Nishida, Tiffany M Osborn, Anders Perner, Colleen M Plunkett, Marco Ranieri, Christa A Schorr, Maureen A Seckel, Christopher W Seymour, Lisa Shieh, Khalid A Shukri, Steven Q Simpson, Mervyn Singer, B Taylor Thompson, Sean R Townsend, Thomas Van der Poll, Jean-Louis Vincent, W Joost Wiersinga, Janice L Zimmerman, R Phillip Dellinger
OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015...
January 18, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099507/correlations-of-behavioral-deficits-with-brain-pathology-assessed-through-longitudinal-mri-and-histopathology-in-the-hdhq150-q150-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#4
Ivan Rattray, Edward J Smith, William R Crum, Thomas A Walker, Richard Gale, Gillian P Bates, Michel Modo
A variety of mouse models have been developed that express mutant huntingtin (mHTT) leading to aggregates and inclusions that model the molecular pathology observed in Huntington's disease. Here we show that although homozygous HdhQ150 knock-in mice developed motor impairments (rotarod, locomotor activity, grip strength) by 36 weeks of age, cognitive dysfunction (swimming T maze, fear conditioning, odor discrimination, social interaction) was not evident by 94 weeks. Concomitant to behavioral assessments, T2-weighted MRI volume measurements indicated a slower striatal growth with a significant difference between wild type (WT) and HdhQ150 mice being present even at 15 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099136/alexithymia-and-automatic-processing-of-emotional-stimuli-a-systematic-review
#5
Uta-Susan Donges, Thomas Suslow
Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and the utilization of a cognitive style that is oriented toward external events, rather than intrapsychic experiences. Alexithymia is considered a vulnerability factor influencing onset and course of many psychiatric disorders. Even though emotions are, in general, elicited involuntarily and emerge without conscious effort, it is surprising that little attention in etiological considerations concerning alexithymia has been given to deficits in automatic emotion processing and their neurobiological bases...
January 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098591/surviving-sepsis-campaign-international-guidelines-for-management-of-sepsis-and-septic-shock-2016
#6
Andrew Rhodes, Laura E Evans, Waleed Alhazzani, Mitchell M Levy, Massimo Antonelli, Ricard Ferrer, Anand Kumar, Jonathan E Sevransky, Charles L Sprung, Mark E Nunnally, Bram Rochwerg, Gordon D Rubenfeld, Derek C Angus, Djillali Annane, Richard J Beale, Geoffrey J Bellinghan, Gordon R Bernard, Jean-Daniel Chiche, Craig Coopersmith, Daniel P De Backer, Craig J French, Seitaro Fujishima, Herwig Gerlach, Jorge Luis Hidalgo, Steven M Hollenberg, Alan E Jones, Dilip R Karnad, Ruth M Kleinpell, Younsuk Koh, Thiago Costa Lisboa, Flavia R Machado, John J Marini, John C Marshall, John E Mazuski, Lauralyn A McIntyre, Anthony S McLean, Sangeeta Mehta, Rui P Moreno, John Myburgh, Paolo Navalesi, Osamu Nishida, Tiffany M Osborn, Anders Perner, Colleen M Plunkett, Marco Ranieri, Christa A Schorr, Maureen A Seckel, Christopher W Seymour, Lisa Shieh, Khalid A Shukri, Steven Q Simpson, Mervyn Singer, B Taylor Thompson, Sean R Townsend, Thomas Van der Poll, Jean-Louis Vincent, W Joost Wiersinga, Janice L Zimmerman, R Phillip Dellinger
OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012." DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015...
January 17, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097634/schizophrenia-impact-on-family-dynamics
#7
REVIEW
Alejandra Caqueo-Urízar, Mar Rus-Calafell, Thomas K J Craig, Matias Irarrazaval, Alfonso Urzúa, Laurent Boyer, David R Williams
In many societies, family members are now the primary caregivers of mental health patients, taking on responsibilities traditionally under the purview of hospitals and medical professionals. The impact of this shift on the family is high, having both an emotional and economic toll. The aim of this paper is to review the main changes that occur in family dynamics for patients with schizophrenia. The article addresses three central themes: (i) changes in the family at the onset of the disorder, (ii) consequences for family members because of their caregiver role, and (iii) family interventions aimed at improving the complex dynamics within the family...
January 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096582/comparison-of-different-regimens-of-intravenous-dexmedetomidine-on-duration-of-subarachnoid-block
#8
Anil Thomas, M V S Satyaprakash, Lenin Babu Elakkumanan, Prasanna Udupi Bidkar, Sandeep Kumar Mishra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Many studies have studied the effect of intravenous dexmedetomidine on the prolongation of the duration of the subarachnoid block (SAB). These studies had administered dexmedetomidine using different regimens. This study was designed to find out the suitable regimen with maximum advantages and minimum disadvantages. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-three ASA 1 and 2 patients scheduled to undergo surgeries under SAB were randomly allocated into three groups namely B, M, and BM...
October 2016: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096490/comprehensive-essentiality-analysis-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-genome-via-saturating-transposon-mutagenesis
#9
Michael A DeJesus, Elias R Gerrick, Weizhen Xu, Sae Woong Park, Jarukit E Long, Cara C Boutte, Eric J Rubin, Dirk Schnappinger, Sabine Ehrt, Sarah M Fortune, Christopher M Sassetti, Thomas R Ioerger
: For decades, identifying the regions of a bacterial chromosome that are necessary for viability has relied on mapping integration sites in libraries of random transposon mutants to find loci that are unable to sustain insertion. To date, these studies have analyzed subsaturated libraries, necessitating the application of statistical methods to estimate the likelihood that a gap in transposon coverage is the result of biological selection and not the stochasticity of insertion. As a result, the essentiality of many genomic features, particularly small ones, could not be reliably assessed...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096430/testing-hypotheses-about-individual-variation-in-plasma-corticosterone-in-free-living-salamanders
#10
Jessica R Thomas, Andrew J Magyan, Peter E Freeman, Sarah K Woodley
In vertebrates, many responses to stress as well as homeostatic maintenance of basal metabolism are regulated by plasma glucocorticoid hormones (GCs). Despite having crucial functions, levels of GCs are typically variable among individuals. We examined the contribution of several physiological factors to individual variation in plasma corticosterone (CORT) and the number of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the magnocellular preoptic area of the brain in free-living Allegheny Mountain dusky salamanders...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096418/multi-institute-analysis-of-carbapenem-resistance-reveals-remarkable-diversity-unexplained-mechanisms-and-limited-clonal-outbreaks
#11
Gustavo C Cerqueira, Ashlee M Earl, Christoph M Ernst, Yonatan H Grad, John P Dekker, Michael Feldgarden, Sinéad B Chapman, João L Reis-Cunha, Terrance P Shea, Sarah Young, Qiandong Zeng, Mary L Delaney, Diane Kim, Ellena M Peterson, Thomas F O'Brien, Mary Jane Ferraro, David C Hooper, Susan S Huang, James E Kirby, Andrew B Onderdonk, Bruce W Birren, Deborah T Hung, Lisa A Cosimi, Jennifer R Wortman, Cheryl I Murphy, William P Hanage
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are among the most severe threats to the antibiotic era. Multiple different species can exhibit resistance due to many different mechanisms, and many different mobile elements are capable of transferring resistance between lineages. We prospectively sampled CRE from hospitalized patients from three Boston-area hospitals, together with a collection of CRE from a single California hospital, to define the frequency and characteristics of outbreaks and determine whether there is evidence for transfer of strains within and between hospitals and the frequency with which resistance is transferred between lineages or species...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096308/-re-building-a-kidney
#12
Leif Oxburgh, Thomas J Carroll, Ondine Cleaver, Daniel R Gossett, Deborah K Hoshizaki, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Benjamin D Humphreys, Sanjay Jain, Jan Jensen, David L Kaplan, Carl Kesselman, Christian J Ketchum, Melissa H Little, Andrew P McMahon, Stuart J Shankland, Jason R Spence, M Todd Valerius, Jason A Wertheim, Oliver Wessely, Ying Zheng, Iain A Drummond
(Re)Building a Kidney is a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases-led consortium to optimize approaches for the isolation, expansion, and differentiation of appropriate kidney cell types and the integration of these cells into complex structures that replicate human kidney function. The ultimate goals of the consortium are two-fold: to develop and implement strategies for in vitro engineering of replacement kidney tissue, and to devise strategies to stimulate regeneration of nephrons in situ to restore failing kidney function...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095533/neck-contouring-and-treatment-of-submental-adiposity
#13
W Walsh Thomas, Jason D Bloom
There have been many recent and significant innovations to the cosmetic physician's repertoire for addressing excess submental fat and improving patients' neck contour. These new techniques include submental cryolipolysis, injectable chemical lipolysis, percutaneous radiofrequency, laser techniques, and liposuction with or without laser or power assistance. These modalities range from completely non-invasive to surgical procedures. Each technique has its own unique advantages, and limitations and as such, aesthetic practitioners should be familiar with the various indications to use each technique...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095436/arraypitope-automated-analysis-of-amino-acid-substitutions-for-peptide-microarray-based-antibody-epitope-mapping
#14
Christian Skjødt Hansen, Thomas Østerbye, Paolo Marcatili, Ole Lund, Søren Buus, Morten Nielsen
Identification of epitopes targeted by antibodies (B cell epitopes) is of critical importance for the development of many diagnostic and therapeutic tools. For clinical usage, such epitopes must be extensively characterized in order to validate specificity and to document potential cross-reactivity. B cell epitopes are typically classified as either linear epitopes, i.e. short consecutive segments from the protein sequence or conformational epitopes adapted through native protein folding. Recent advances in high-density peptide microarrays enable high-throughput, high-resolution identification and characterization of linear B cell epitopes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095146/phase-i-first-in-human-study-of-venetoclax-in-patients-with-relapsed-or-refractory-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#15
Matthew S Davids, Andrew W Roberts, John F Seymour, John M Pagel, Brad S Kahl, William G Wierda, Soham Puvvada, Thomas J Kipps, Mary Ann Anderson, Ahmed Hamed Salem, Martin Dunbar, Ming Zhu, Franklin Peale, Jeremy A Ross, Lori Gressick, Monali Desai, Su Young Kim, Maria Verdugo, Rod A Humerickhouse, Gary B Gordon, John F Gerecitano
Purpose B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) overexpression is common in many non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes. A phase I trial in patients with NHL was conducted to determine safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of venetoclax, a selective, potent, orally bioavailable BCL-2 inhibitor. Patients and Methods A total of 106 patients with relapsed or refractory NHL received venetoclax once daily until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity at target doses from 200 to 1,200 mg in dose-escalation and safety expansion cohorts...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094794/diversity-and-carbon-storage-across-the-tropical-forest-biome
#16
Martin J P Sullivan, Joey Talbot, Simon L Lewis, Oliver L Phillips, Lan Qie, Serge K Begne, Jerôme Chave, Aida Cuni-Sanchez, Wannes Hubau, Gabriela Lopez-Gonzalez, Lera Miles, Abel Monteagudo-Mendoza, Bonaventure Sonké, Terry Sunderland, Hans Ter Steege, Lee J T White, Kofi Affum-Baffoe, Shin-Ichiro Aiba, Everton Cristo de Almeida, Edmar Almeida de Oliveira, Patricia Alvarez-Loayza, Esteban Álvarez Dávila, Ana Andrade, Luiz E O C Aragão, Peter Ashton, Gerardo A Aymard C, Timothy R Baker, Michael Balinga, Lindsay F Banin, Christopher Baraloto, Jean-Francois Bastin, Nicholas Berry, Jan Bogaert, Damien Bonal, Frans Bongers, Roel Brienen, José Luís C Camargo, Carlos Cerón, Victor Chama Moscoso, Eric Chezeaux, Connie J Clark, Álvaro Cogollo Pacheco, James A Comiskey, Fernando Cornejo Valverde, Eurídice N Honorio Coronado, Greta Dargie, Stuart J Davies, Charles De Canniere, Marie Noel Djuikouo K, Jean-Louis Doucet, Terry L Erwin, Javier Silva Espejo, Corneille E N Ewango, Sophie Fauset, Ted R Feldpausch, Rafael Herrera, Martin Gilpin, Emanuel Gloor, Jefferson S Hall, David J Harris, Terese B Hart, Kuswata Kartawinata, Lip Khoon Kho, Kanehiro Kitayama, Susan G W Laurance, William F Laurance, Miguel E Leal, Thomas Lovejoy, Jon C Lovett, Faustin Mpanya Lukasu, Jean-Remy Makana, Yadvinder Malhi, Leandro Maracahipes, Beatriz S Marimon, Ben Hur Marimon Junior, Andrew R Marshall, Paulo S Morandi, John Tshibamba Mukendi, Jaques Mukinzi, Reuben Nilus, Percy Núñez Vargas, Nadir C Pallqui Camacho, Guido Pardo, Marielos Peña-Claros, Pascal Pétronelli, Georgia C Pickavance, Axel Dalberg Poulsen, John R Poulsen, Richard B Primack, Hari Priyadi, Carlos A Quesada, Jan Reitsma, Maxime Réjou-Méchain, Zorayda Restrepo, Ervan Rutishauser, Kamariah Abu Salim, Rafael P Salomão, Ismayadi Samsoedin, Douglas Sheil, Rodrigo Sierra, Marcos Silveira, J W Ferry Slik, Lisa Steel, Hermann Taedoumg, Sylvester Tan, John W Terborgh, Sean C Thomas, Marisol Toledo, Peter M Umunay, Luis Valenzuela Gamarra, Ima Célia Guimarães Vieira, Vincent A Vos, Ophelia Wang, Simon Willcock, Lise Zemagho
Tropical forests are global centres of biodiversity and carbon storage. Many tropical countries aspire to protect forest to fulfil biodiversity and climate mitigation policy targets, but the conservation strategies needed to achieve these two functions depend critically on the tropical forest tree diversity-carbon storage relationship. Assessing this relationship is challenging due to the scarcity of inventories where carbon stocks in aboveground biomass and species identifications have been simultaneously and robustly quantified...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094017/predictive-markers-guide-differentiation-to-improve-graft-outcome-in-clinical-translation-of-hesc-based-therapy-for-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Agnete Kirkeby, Sara Nolbrant, Katarina Tiklova, Andreas Heuer, Nigel Kee, Tiago Cardoso, Daniella Rylander Ottosson, Mariah J Lelos, Pedro Rifes, Stephen B Dunnett, Shane Grealish, Thomas Perlmann, Malin Parmar
Stem cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases are expected to reach clinical trials soon. Most of the approaches currently under development involve transplantation of immature progenitors that subsequently undergo phenotypic and functional maturation in vivo, and predicting the long-term graft outcome already at the progenitor stage remains a challenge. Here, we took an unbiased approach to identify predictive markers expressed in dopamine neuron progenitors that correlate with graft outcome in an animal model of Parkinson's disease through gene expression analysis of >30 batches of grafted human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived progenitors...
January 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093042/chloramphenicol-stereoisomers-need-to-be-distinguished-consequences-observed-from-a-proficiency-test
#18
Mark Sykes, Tobias Czymai, Thomas Hektor, Matthew Sharman, Michael Knaggs
Although the use of chloramphenicol (CAP) as a veterinary drug is banned in the European Union and many other countries, monitoring for CAP residues in food is routine. Positive detections are few, but taken extremely seriously. European Union laboratories analysing for CAP should validate methods according to European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, must be accredited to ISO 17025, and will generally participate in proficiency testing (PT) schemes, such as those offered by the Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS®)...
January 17, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092661/interactions-between-the-microbiota-immune-and-nervous-systems-in-health-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Thomas C Fung, Christine A Olson, Elaine Y Hsiao
The diverse collection of microorganisms that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract, collectively called the gut microbiota, profoundly influences many aspects of host physiology, including nutrient metabolism, resistance to infection and immune system development. Studies investigating the gut-brain axis demonstrate a critical role for the gut microbiota in orchestrating brain development and behavior, and the immune system is emerging as an important regulator of these interactions. Intestinal microbes modulate the maturation and function of tissue-resident immune cells in the CNS...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092658/mutation-effects-predicted-from-sequence-co-variation
#20
Thomas A Hopf, John B Ingraham, Frank J Poelwijk, Charlotta P I Schärfe, Michael Springer, Chris Sander, Debora S Marks
Many high-throughput experimental technologies have been developed to assess the effects of large numbers of mutations (variation) on phenotypes. However, designing functional assays for these methods is challenging, and systematic testing of all combinations is impossible, so robust methods to predict the effects of genetic variation are needed. Most prediction methods exploit evolutionary sequence conservation but do not consider the interdependencies of residues or bases. We present EVmutation, an unsupervised statistical method for predicting the effects of mutations that explicitly captures residue dependencies between positions...
January 16, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
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