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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091127/amino-modified-polystyrene-nanoparticles-affect-signalling-pathways-of-the-sea-urchin-paracentrotus-lividus-embryos
#1
Annalisa Pinsino, Elisa Bergami, Camilla Della Torre, Maria Luisa Vannuccini, Piero Addis, Marco Secci, Kenneth A Dawson, Valeria Matranga, Ilaria Corsi
Polystyrene nanoparticles have been shown to pose serious risk to marine organisms including sea urchin embryos based on their surface properties and consequently behaviour in natural sea water. The aim of this study is to investigate the toxicity pathways of amino polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NH2, 50 nm) in Paracentrotus lividus embryos in terms of development and signalling at both protein and gene levels. Two sub-lethal concentrations of 3 and 4 µg/mL of PS-NH2 were used to expose sea urchin embryos in natural sea water (PS-NH2 as aggregates of 143 ± 5 nm)...
January 16, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090084/limiting-parental-feedback-disrupts-vocal-development-in-marmoset-monkeys
#2
Yasemin B Gultekin, Steffen R Hage
Vocalizations of human infants undergo dramatic changes across the first year by becoming increasingly mature and speech-like. Human vocal development is partially dependent on learning by imitation through social feedback between infants and caregivers. Recent studies revealed similar developmental processes being influenced by parental feedback in marmoset monkeys for apparently innate vocalizations. Marmosets produce infant-specific vocalizations that disappear after the first postnatal months. However, it is yet unclear whether parental feedback is an obligate requirement for proper vocal development...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087560/disruptive-behaviour-may-hinder-the-acquisition-of-daily-living-skills-for-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Elizabeth A Laugeson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077765/acute-embryonic-anoxia-exposure-favours-the-development-of-a-dominant-and-aggressive-phenotype-in-adult-zebrafish
#4
Catherine M Ivy, Cayleih E Robertson, Nicholas J Bernier
Eutrophication and climate change are increasing the incidence of severe hypoxia in fish nursery habitats, yet the programming effects of hypoxia on stress responsiveness in later life are poorly understood. In this study, to investigate whether early hypoxia alters the developmental trajectory of the stress response, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 4 h of anoxia at 36 h post-fertilization and reared to adults when the responses to secondary stressors were assessed. While embryonic anoxia did not affect basal cortisol levels or the cortisol response to hypoxia in later life, it had a marked effect on the responses to a social stressor...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073366/oral-treatment-with-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-attenuates-behavioural-deficits-and-immune-changes-in-chronic-social-stress
#5
Aadil Bharwani, M Firoz Mian, Michael G Surette, John Bienenstock, Paul Forsythe
BACKGROUND: Stress-related disorders involve systemic alterations, including disruption of the intestinal microbial community. Given the putative connections between the microbiota, immunity, neural function, and behaviour, we investigated the potential for microbe-induced gut-to-brain signalling to modulate the impact of stress on host behaviour and immunoregulation. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice treated orally over 28 days with either Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) ™ or vehicle were subjected to chronic social defeat and assessed for alterations in behaviour and immune cell phenotype...
January 11, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068428/a-network-model-of-local-field-potential-activity-in-essential-tremor-and-the-impact-of-deep-brain-stimulation
#6
Nada Yousif, Michael Mace, Nicola Pavese, Roman Borisyuk, Dipankar Nandi, Peter Bain
Essential tremor (ET), a movement disorder characterised by an uncontrollable shaking of the affected body part, is often professed to be the most common movement disorder, affecting up to one percent of adults over 40 years of age. The precise cause of ET is unknown, however pathological oscillations of a network of a number of brain regions are implicated in leading to the disorder. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a clinical therapy used to alleviate the symptoms of a number of movement disorders. DBS involves the surgical implantation of electrodes into specific nuclei in the brain...
January 9, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063712/the-psychoactive-pollutant-fluoxetine-compromises-antipredator-behaviour-in-fish
#7
Jake M Martin, Minna Saaristo, Michael G Bertram, Phoebe J Lewis, Timothy L Coggan, Bradley O Clarke, Bob B M Wong
Pharmaceuticals are increasingly being detected in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Particularly concerning are pharmaceutical pollutants that can adversely impact exposed wildlife, even at extremely low concentrations. One such contaminant is the widely prescribed antidepressant fluoxetine, which can disrupt neurotransmission and behavioural pathways in wildlife. Despite this, relatively limited research has addressed the behavioural impacts of fluoxetine at ecologically realistic exposure concentrations. Here, we show that 28-day fluoxetine exposure at two ecologically relevant dosages-one representing low surface water concentrations and another representing high effluent flow concentrations-alters antipredator behaviour in Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054641/quorum-quenching-limits-quorum-sensing-exploitation-by-signal-negative-invaders
#8
Mélanie Tannières, Julien Lang, Claudie Barnier, Jacqui A Shykoff, Denis Faure
Some bacteria produce and perceive quorum-sensing (QS) signals that coordinate several behaviours, including the costly processes that are exoenzyme production and plasmid transfer. In the case of plasmid transfer, the emergence of QS signal-altered invaders and their policing are poorly documented. In Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the virulence Ti-plasmid encodes both synthesis and sensing of QS-signals, which promote its transfer from a donor to a recipient cell. Here, we reported that QS-altered A. tumefaciens mutants arose during experimental evolution...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053365/integrated-biological-behavioural-surveillance-in-pandemic-threat-warning-systems
#9
Maureen Miller, Emily Hagan
Economically and politically disruptive disease outbreaks are a hallmark of the 21st century. Although pandemics are driven by human behaviours, current surveillance systems for identifying pandemic threats are largely reliant on the monitoring of disease outcomes in clinical settings. Standardized integrated biological-behavioural surveillance could, and should, be used in community settings to complement such clinical monitoring. The usefulness of such an approach has already been demonstrated in studies on human immunodeficiency virus, where integrated surveillance contributed to a biologically based and quantifiable understanding of the behavioural risk factors associated with the transmission dynamics of the virus...
January 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053279/prevalence-of-maternal-affective-disorders-in-chinese-mothers-of-preschool-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#10
Y W Yu, K H Chung, Y K Lee, W C Lam, M Gc Yiu
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of affective disorders and identify their associated factors among Chinese mothers of preschool children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Autism Spectrum Disorders Multidisciplinary Clinic of the United Christian Hospital from August 2012 to June 2013. All mothers of a consecutive series of preschool children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders at their first visit to the clinic were recruited...
December 2016: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039834/disruption-of-sex-hormone-levels-and-steroidogenic-related-gene-expression-on-mongolia-racerunner-eremias-argus-after-exposure-to-triadimefon-and-its-enantiomers
#11
Jitong Li, Jing Chang, Wei Li, Baoyuan Guo, Jianzhong Li, Huili Wang
Triadimefon (TF) is a widely used chiral fungicide with one chiral centre and two enantiomers (TF1 and TF2). However, little is reported about the ecological toxicity of reptiles on an enantioselective level. TF is a potential endocrine disruptor that may interfere with sex steroid hormones, such as testosterone (T) and 17beta-estradiol (E2). In our study, the lizards Mongolia Racerunner (Eremias argus) were orally exposed to TF and its enantiomers for 21 days. Plasma sex steroid hormones and steroidogenic-related genes, including 17-beta-hydroxysteroid (hsd17β), cytochrome P450 enzymes (cyp19 and cyp17), and steroid hormone receptors (erα and Ar) were evaluated...
December 22, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035238/manipulating-virulence-factor-availability-can-have-complex-consequences-for-infections
#12
Michael Weigert, Adin Ross-Gillespie, Anne Leinweber, Gabriella Pessi, Sam P Brown, Rolf Kümmerli
Given the rise of bacterial resistance against antibiotics, we urgently need alternative strategies to fight infections. Some propose we should disarm rather than kill bacteria, through targeted disruption of their virulence factors. It is assumed that this approach (i) induces weak selection for resistance because it should only minimally impact bacterial fitness, and (ii) is specific, only interfering with the virulence factor in question. Given that pathogenicity emerges from complex interactions between pathogens, hosts and their environment, such assumptions may be unrealistic...
January 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025577/impact-of-perinatal-exposure-to-high-fat-diet-and-stress-on-responses-to-nutritional-challenges-food-motivated-behaviour-and-mesolimbic-dopamine-function
#13
M Romaní-Pérez, A L Lépinay, L Alonso, M Rincel, L Xia, H Fanet, S Caillé, M Cador, S Layé, S Vancassel, M Darnaudéry
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Energy dense food exposure and stress during development have been suggested to contribute to obesity and metabolic disorders later in life. Although these factors are frequently associated, the effects of their combination have not yet been investigated. In this study, using an animal model, we examined the long term impact of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) and early-life stress (ELS) on energy homeostasis control and food motivation. METHODS: Body weight growth under HFD, adipose tissue, body weight control in response to fasting and refeeding, food-motivated behaviour and mesolimbic dopamine function were examined in adult male offspring exposed to maternal HFD (during gestation and lactation) and/or ELS (maternal separation 3 h per day from postnatal day 2 to 14)...
December 27, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013339/genetics-of-obesity-can-an-old-dog-teach-us-new-tricks
#14
REVIEW
Giles S H Yeo
At one level, obesity is clearly a problem of simple physics, a result of eating too much and not expending enough energy. The more complex question, however, is why do some people eat more than others? Studies of human and mouse genetics over the past two decades have uncovered a number of pathways within the brain that play a key role in the control of food intake. A prime example is the leptin-melanocortin pathway, which we now know greatly contributes to mammalian appetitive behaviour. However, genetic disruption of this pathway remains rare and does not represent the major burden of the disease that is carried by those of us with 'common obesity'...
December 24, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012191/neither-foolish-nor-finished-identity-control-among-older-adults-with-hiv-in-rural-malawi
#15
Emily Freeman
Prevalence of HIV after age 50 is considerable, especially in southern Africa. Negative social constructions of HIV in older age, and the health consequences of ageing with the virus, mean that having HIV presents a challenge for many people's roles and social memberships, threatening to disrupt their sense of self. Using constructivist grounded theory and qualitative data from rural Malawi, this paper describes how older men and women deal with these identity challenges. Drawing on a symbolic interactionist framework, it uses identity control theory to explore how the study's participants presented their post-diagnosis behaviours in ways that maintained their most significant pre-diagnosis identities as 'adults', a label they gave to the core identity of being a person who belongs in the social world...
December 24, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009726/the-emergence-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-insights-gained-from-studies-of-brain-and-behaviour-in-high-risk-infants
#16
Kandice J Varcin, Shafali S Jeste
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review studies of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), proposing that the earliest manifestations of disrupted brain development can shed light on prebehavioural markers of risk and mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of ASD. RECENT FINDINGS: Prospective, longitudinal studies of infants at risk for ASD have revealed that behavioural signs of ASD are generally not observed until the second year of life. The developmental signs within the first year are often subtle and rooted in processes outside the core diagnostic domains of ASD, such as motor and visual perceptual function...
December 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008360/disrupting-the-world-of-disability-the-next-generation-of-assistive-technologies-and-rehabilitation-practices
#17
Catherine Holloway, Helen Dawes
Designing, developing and deploying assistive technologies at a scale and cost which makes them accessible to people is challenging. Traditional models of manufacturing would appear to be insufficient at helping the world's 1 billion disabled people in accessing the technologies they require. In addition, many who receive assistive technologies simply abandon them as they do not meet their needs. In this study the authors explore the changing world of design for disability. A landscape which includes the rise of the maker movement, the role of ubiquitous sensing and the changing role of the 'user' to one of designer and maker...
December 2016: Healthcare Technology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004351/withania-somnifera-as-a-potential-anxiolytic-and-immunomodulatory-agent-in-acute-sleep-deprived-female-wistar-rats
#18
Taranjeet Kaur, Harpal Singh, Rachana Mishra, Shaffi Manchanda, Muskan Gupta, Vedangana Saini, Anuradha Sharma, Gurcharan Kaur
Sleep is a profound regulator of cellular immunity, and the curtailment of sleep in present day lifestyle leads to disruption of neuro-immune-endocrine interactions. No therapeutic remedy is yet known for the amelioration of detrimental effects caused by sleep deprivation (SD). The current study was aimed to elucidate the effects of acute SD on immune function and its modulation by water extract from leaves of Withania somnifera (ASH-WEX). Three groups of animals, i.e. Vehicle-Undisturbed sleep (VUD), Vehicle-Sleep deprived (VSD) and ASH-WEX fed sleep deprived (WSD) rats were tested for their anxiety-like behaviour and further used for the study of inflammatory and apoptotic markers expression in piriform cortex and hippocampus regions of the brain...
December 21, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003454/modulation-of-recognition-memory-performance-by-light-requires-both-melanopsin-and-classical-photoreceptors
#19
Shu K E Tam, Sibah Hasan, Steven Hughes, Mark W Hankins, Russell G Foster, David M Bannerman, Stuart N Peirson
Acute light exposure exerts various effects on physiology and behaviour. Although the effects of light on brain network activity in humans are well demonstrated, the effects of light on cognitive performance are inconclusive, with the size, as well as direction, of the effect depending on the nature of the task. Similarly, in nocturnal rodents, bright light can either facilitate or disrupt performance depending on the type of task employed. Crucially, it is unclear whether the effects of light on behavioural performance are mediated via the classical image-forming rods and cones or the melanopsin-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells...
December 28, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001431/the-relationship-between-family-functioning-and-caregiving-appraisal-of-dementia-family-caregivers-caregiving-self-efficacy-as-a-mediator
#20
Hsin-Yi Liu, Lian-Hua Huang
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore caregiving self-efficacy as a mediator for the association between family functioning and caregiving appraisal of dementia family caregivers in Taiwan. METHOD: This study adopted a cross-sectional correlational design. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 115 dyads of dementia patients and family caregivers from the outpatient neurological clinics of two hospitals in northern Taiwan. Data were gathered through interviews with a structured questionnaire, which included demographic characteristics for caregivers and patients, family functioning, caregiving self-efficacy, as well as positive and negative aspects of caregiving appraisal...
December 21, 2016: Aging & Mental Health
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