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Disruptive behaviour

Gregory D M Potter, Debra J Skene, Josephine Arendt, Janet E Cade, Peter J Grant, Laura J Hardie
Circadian (∼ 24 hour) timing systems pervade all kingdoms of life, and temporally optimize behaviour and physiology in humans. Relatively recent changes to our environments, such as the introduction of artificial lighting, can disorganize the circadian system, from the level of the molecular clocks that regulate the timing of cellular activities to the level of synchronization between our daily cycles of behaviour and the solar day. Sleep/wake cycles are intertwined with the circadian system, and global trends indicate that these too are increasingly subject to disruption...
October 20, 2016: Endocrine Reviews
A E Hoban, R D Moloney, A V Golubeva, K A McVey Neufeld, O O'Sullivan, E Patterson, C Stanton, T G Dinan, G Clarke, J F Cryan
Gut microbiota colonization is a key event for host physiology that occurs early in life. Disruption of this process leads to altered brain development which ultimately manifests as changes in brain function and behaviour in adulthood. Studies using germ-free mice highlight the extreme impact on brain health that results from life without commensal microbes, however the impact of microbiota disturbances occurring in adulthood is less studied. To this end, we depleted the gut microbiota of 10-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats via chronic antibiotic treatment...
October 11, 2016: Neuroscience
Gongqing Wu, Yunhong Yi
The bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens produces a number of insecticidal proteins to kill its larval prey. In this study, we cloned the gene coding for a binary toxin PirA1B1 and purified the recombinant protein using affinity chromatography combined with desalination technology. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of the recombinant protein against the haemocytes of Galleria mellonella larvae was investigated. We found that the protein had haemocoel insecticidal activity against G. mellonella with an LD50 of 131...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yim Ling Mak, Jing Li, Chih-Ning Liu, Shuk Han Cheng, Paul K S Lam, Jinping Cheng, Leo L Chan
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are natural biotoxins produced by benthic dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus, which are bioaccumulated and biotransformed along food chains in coral ecosystems. They are neurotoxins that activate voltage-gated sodium channels and disrupt ion conductance in the excitable tissues. Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) is the most prevalent and potent CTX congener present in fishes from the Pacific Ocean. In this study, P-CTX-1 was administrated to larval marine medaka (2h post-hatch) via microinjection...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Oyinkan Sofola-Adesakin, Mobina Khericha, Inge Snoeren, Leo Tsuda, Linda Partridge
Several species of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) exist as a result of differential cleavage from amyloid precursor protein (APP) to yield various C-terminal Aβ peptides. Several N-terminal modified Aβ peptides have also been identified in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains, the most common of which is pyroglutamate-modified Aβ (AβpE3-42). AβpE3-42 peptide has an increased propensity to aggregate, appears to accumulate in the brain before the appearance of clinical symptoms of AD, and precedes Aβ1-42 deposition...
October 7, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Gill Terrett, Amanda Lyons, Julie D Henry, Clare Ryrie, Thomas Suddendorf, Peter G Rendell
RATIONALE: Episodic foresight is a fundamental human capacity. It refers to the ability to simulate future situations and organise current actions accordingly. While there is some evidence that opiate users have a reduced capacity to imagine themselves in future situations, no study to date has assessed whether opiate users show deficits in the ability to take steps in the present in anticipation of future needs. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we assessed whether this functional aspect of episodic foresight is impaired in chronic opiate users and the extent to which any deficits are associated with executive dysfunction...
October 6, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Sohini Chatterjee, Trevor Humby, William Davies
BACKGROUND: X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) is a rare dermatological condition arising from deficiency for the enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS). Preliminary evidence in boys with XLI, and animal model studies, suggests that individuals lacking STS are at increased risk of developmental disorders and associated traits. However, the behavioural profile of children with XLI is poorly-characterised, and the behavioural profile of adults with XLI has not yet been documented at all. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using an online survey, advertised worldwide, we collected detailed self- or parent-reported information on behaviour in adult (n = 58) and younger (≤18yrs, n = 24) males with XLI for comparison to data from their non-affected brothers, and age/gender-matched previously-published normative data...
2016: PloS One
Rebecca F Slykerman, John Thompson, Karen E Waldie, Rinki Murphy, Clare Wall, Edwin A Mitchell
AIM: There may be a link between disruption to the gut microbiota in early life and later neurocognitive outcomes. We hypothesised that antibiotic use in early life is associated with a detrimental effect on later neurocognitive outcomes. METHODS: 871 European mothers and their children enrolled in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study at birth. Information on antibiotic use during the first year of life and between 12 months and 3.5 years of age was gathered via maternal interview...
October 4, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Peter N Lee, Marc W Fariss
We conducted a systematic literature review to identify and critically evaluate studies of serious adverse health effects (SAHEs) in humans using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products. Serious adverse health effects refer to adverse events, leading to substantial disruption of the ability to conduct normal life functions. Strength of evidence evaluations and conclusions were also determined for the identified SAHEs. We evaluated 34 epidemiological studies and clinical trials, relating NRT use to cancer, reproduction/development, CVD, stroke and/or other SAHEs in patients, and four meta-analyses on effects in healthy populations...
October 3, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Alejandro Tsai Cabal, Horea-Ioan Ioanas, Erich Seifritz, Bechara J Saab
Amotivation is a major symptom of several psychiatric disorders. However, which specific motivations are most affected in various illnesses is not well understood. In major depressive disorder (MDD), anecdotal evidence suggests the motivation to explore may be especially affected, but direct evidence from either patients or animal models is lacking. To investigate the potential for, and nature of, exploratory drive deficits in MDD, we subjected mice to a chronic social defeat (CSD) manipulation that gives rise to a MDD-like behavioural ensemble, and performed a behavioural battery to examine bodyweight homeostasis, ambulation, anxiety, exploratory behaviour motivated by either novelty or fear, and short-term memory...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Bryan D Devan, Elizabeth L Tobin, Emily N Dunn, Christopher Magalis
This study investigated sex differences on the competitive place version of the Morris water maze task to determine whether potential strategy differences would emerge during any phase of the study but in particular on the competitive place phase. Previous findings indicate that this version of the task is highly sensitive to measures that disrupt NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity within the hippocampus during memory consolidation (McDonald et al., 2005). The present findings revealed significant sex differences during all phases of the study, including Phase I with standard place training to located a hidden platform/goal, Phase II mass training to a new place with the platform/goal relocated to the diagonally opposite quadrant and Phase III, competitive place probe test with the platform removed to measure spatial behaviour directed at either location...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Processes
Xudong Zhao, Liting Wen, Min Dong, Xiaojie Lu
Nrf2-ARE pathway reportedly plays a protective role in several central nervous system diseases. No study has explored the role of the Nrf2-ARE pathway in cerebral vasospasm(CVS) after subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the activation of the cerebral vascular Nrf2-ARE pathway and to determine the potential role of this pathway in the development of CVS following SAH. We investigated whether the administration of sulforaphane (SFN, a specific Nrf2 activator) modulated vascular caliber, Nrf2-ARE pathway activity, proinflammatory cytokine expression, and clinical behaviour in a rat model of SAH...
September 27, 2016: Brain Research
Rebecca Dumbell, Alexei Leliavski, Olga Matveeva, Christopher Blaum, Anthony H Tsang, Henrik Oster
The circadian rhythm of glucocorticoids affects diverse physiological systems, including stress responses and the coordination of rhythmic functions in peripheral and central tissues. Circadian clocks are considered to be important coordinators of glucocorticoid release and loss of the core clock component BMAL1 leads to ablation of behavioural and physiological rhythms, hypocortisolism, impaired ACTH and behavioural stress responses. Transplantation and conditional clock gene knock-down studies in mice suggest an important role of local adrenocortical clock function in this context...
October 3, 2016: Endocrinology
Tarita N Collins, Joshua B Avondoglio, Linda M Terry
Mentally ill patients are entering the criminal justice system at alarming rates, representing a significant percentage of those incarcerated. Correctional facilities are mandated to provide mental health treatment to inmates. The increasing number of inmate patients has made psychiatry an important part of institutional operations. Psychiatrists are called to provide psychopharmacological interventions to aid in the safe operation of institutions and provide effective treatment to those with mental illness...
September 27, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Annika Thomson, Jari Tiihonen, Jouko Miettunen, Matti Virkkunen, Nina Lindberg
BACKGROUND: Aggressive and disruptive behaviours often precede the onset of serious mental illnesses. Fire-setting is a type of crime that is associated with psychotic disorders. AIM: The aim of this prospective follow-up study was to investigate if fire-setting performed in adolescence or early adulthood was associated with future diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. METHODS: The consecutive sample consisted of 111 Finnish 15-25-year old males with fire-setting crimes, decreed to a pre-trial forensic psychiatric examination in 1973-1998, and showing no past nor current psychosis at the time of examination...
September 27, 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
David A Gonzalez, Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo
The contribution of binocular vision to the performance of reaching and grasping movements has been examined previously using single reach-to-grasp movements. However, most of our daily activities consist of more complex action sequences, which require precise temporal linking between the gaze behaviour and manual action phases. Many previous studies found a stereotypical hand-eye coordination pattern, such that the eyes move prior to the reach initiation. Moving the eyes to the target object provides information about its features and location, which can facilitate the predictive control of reaching and grasping...
September 26, 2016: Vision Research
Shahrouz Taranejoo, Mohsen Janmaleki, Mohammad Pachenari, Seyed Morteza Seyedpour, Ramya Chandrasekaran, Wenlong Cheng, Kerry Hourigan
A recent approach to colon cancer therapy is to employ selective drugs with specific extra/intracellular sites of action. Alteration of cytoskeletal protein reorganization and, subsequently, to cellular biomechanical behaviour during cancer progression highly affects the cancer cell progress. Hence, cytoskeleton targeted drugs are an important class of cancer therapy agents. We have studied viscoelastic alteration of the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, SW48, after treatment with a drug delivery system comprising chitosan as the carrier and albendazole as the microtubule-targeting agent (MTA)...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Tao Li, James D Blande, Jarmo K Holopainen
Plant-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in plant-insect interactions. Atmospheric pollutants such as ozone (O3) can react with VOCs and affect the dynamics and fidelity of these interactions. However, the effects of atmospheric degradation of plant VOCs on plant-insect interactions remains understudied. We used a system comprising Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata (cabbage) and the specialist herbivore Plutella xylostella to test whether O3-triggered VOC degradation disturbs larval host orientation, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms...
2016: Scientific Reports
Francisco S Chung, Jayson S Santiago, Miguel Francisco M De Jesus, Camille V Trinidad, Melvin Floyd E See
P-glycoprotein is one of the most well-studied drug transporters, significant for its role in cancer multiple drug resistance. However, using P-gp inhibitors with the aim of enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of anti-cancer drugs has led to disappointing outcomes. Furthermore, several lead compounds suggested by in vitro and pre-clinical studies have shown variable pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacies when applied in the clinical setting. This review will highlight the need to revisit a sound approach to better design and apply P-gp inhibitors in light of safety and efficacy...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
M Vuori, I Autti-Rämö, N Junttila, M Vauras, A Tuulio-Henriksson
BACKGROUND: The present study examines discrepancies between self- and adult-perceptions of social competence in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and possible co-morbid disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD). METHOD: Self-reported questionnaires were collected from multiple informants at the baseline of a multi-systemic family intervention programme for children (aged 5-12) with ADHD, ASD and possible co-morbid DBD...
September 19, 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
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