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Disruptive behaviour

Brandon P Vasquez, Jennifer C Tomaszczyk, Bhanu Sharma, Brenda Colella, Robin E A Green
BACKGROUND: Executive control deficits are deleterious and enduring consequences of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) that disrupt everyday functioning. Clinically, such impairments can manifest as behavioural inconsistency, measurable experimentally by the degree of variability across trials of a reaction time (RT) task (also known as intraindividual variability [IIV]). Growing research on cognition after TBI points to cognitive deterioration in the chronic stages postinjury...
March 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Stephanie Wong, Muireann Irish, Michael Hornberger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Melanie Bannister-Tyrrell, Nguyen Xuan Xa, Johanna Helena Kattenberg, Nguyen Van Van, Vu Khac Anh Dung, Truong Minh Hieu, Nguyen Van Hong, Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, Nguyen Thanh Thao, Tran Thanh Duong, Anna Rosanas-Urgell, Koen Peeters Grietens, Annette Erhart
BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, malaria persists in remote forested regions where infections are spatially heterogeneous, mostly asymptomatic and with low parasite density. Previous studies in Vietnam have investigated broad behavioural concepts such as 'engaging in forest activities' as risk factors for malaria infection, which may not explain heterogeneity in malaria risk, especially in malaria elimination settings. METHODS: A mixed methods study combining ethnographic research and a cross-sectional survey was embedded in a 1-year malariometric cohort study in three ethnic minority villages in South Tra My district, Quang Nam Province in Central Vietnam...
March 19, 2018: Malaria Journal
Connor M Pettem, Jennifer M Briens, David M Janz, Lynn P Weber
Selenium (Se) is considered an essential trace element, involved in important physiological and metabolic functions for all vertebrate species. Fish require dietary concentrations of 0.1-0.5 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.) to maintain normal physiological and selenoprotein function, however concentrations exceeding 3 μg/g d.m. have been shown to cause toxicity. As Se is reported to have a narrow margin between essentiality and toxicity, there is growing concern surrounding the adverse effects of elevated Se exposure caused by anthropogenic activities...
March 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
N M Hashem, K M El-Azrak, A N M Nour El-Din, S M Sallam, T A Taha, M H Salem
Phytoestrogens are classified as naturally occurring endocrine disrupting chemicals that may affect reproductive performance of farm animals. To investigate the effects of Berseem clover phytoestrogens on reproductive performance of seasonal anoestrus ewes, twenty four late pregnant Rahmani ewes were fed either Berseem clover or maize silage (n = 12/treatment). Treatment started 2 months prepartum and continued until oestrous induction (week 8 postpartum), using the CIDR-eCG based protocol, and early pregnancy...
March 8, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Eli T Newcomb, Louis P Hagopian
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID) present with problem behaviour at rates disproportionately higher than their typically-developing peers. Problem behaviour, such as self-injury, aggression, pica, disruption, and elopement result in a diminished quality-of-life for the individual and family. Applied behaviour analysis has a well-established research base, detailing a number of assessment and treatment methods designed to address behaviour problems in children with ASD and ID...
March 14, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Marzieh Akbarzadeh, Sima Kiani Rad, Marzieh Moattari, Najaf Zare
Postpartum blues is a major risk factor for the incidence of postpartum depression and disruption of breastfeeding. This semi-experimental study investigated the effect of breastfeeding training based on the BASNEF model on severity of postpartum blues in 2012. Four educational sessions based on the BASNEF model were held separately for pregnant women and their mothers, mothers-in-law and spouses. The control group received routine care at the clinic. After delivery, women's knowledge of and attitude towards postpartum blues were evaluated using the Zung Self- Rating Depression Scale...
March 5, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Lídia Cantacorps, Héctor González-Pardo, Jorge L Arias, Olga Valverde, Nélida M Conejo
Prenatal and perinatal alcohol exposure caused by maternal alcohol intake during gestation and lactation periods can have long-lasting detrimental effects on the brain development and behaviour of offspring. Children diagnosed with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) display a wide range of cognitive, emotional and motor deficits, together with characteristic morphological abnormalities. Maternal alcohol binge drinking is particularly harmful for foetal and early postnatal brain development, as it involves exposure to high levels of alcohol over short periods of time...
March 8, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Benjamin M Hunter
In many contexts there are a range of individuals and organisations offering healthcare services that differ widely in cost, quality and outcomes. This complexity is exacerbated by processes of healthcare commercialisation. Yet reliable information on healthcare provision is often limited, and progress to and through the healthcare system may depend on knowledge drawn from prior experiences, social networks and the providers themselves. It is in these contexts that healthcare brokerage emerges and third-party actors facilitate access to healthcare...
March 2, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Ishan Gupta, Andrew M J Young
The non-competitive glutamate antagonist, phencyclidine is used in rodents to model behavioural deficits see in schizophrenia. Importantly, these deficits endure long after the cessation of short-term chronic treatment (sub-chronic), indicating that the drug treatment causes long-term changes in the physiology and/or chemistry of the brain. There is evidence that this may occur through glutamatergic modulation of mesolimbic dopamine release, perhaps involving metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). This study sought to investigate the effect of sub-chronic phencyclidine pretreatment on modulation of dopamine neurotransmission by metabotropic glutamate receptors 2 and 5 (mGluR2 and mGluR5) in the nucleus accumbens shell in vitro, with the hypothesis that phencyclidine pretreatment would disrupt the mGluR-mediated modulation of dopamine release...
March 7, 2018: Brain Research
Peter J Steenbergen
BACKGROUND: Zebrafish larvae have a high potential as model system to replace rodents, especially in screening and drug discovery applications. However, an experimental setup to deliver mild electrical stimuli with simultaneous high throughput behavioural tracking has not yet been described. NEW METHOD: A new tool was designed, making the delivery of electrical stimuli in a 96-well plate format possible. Using custom made electrode clips that can be slid over the walls of a square 96-well plate, 80 larvae could be tested simultaneously and behavioural responses recorded...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Philippa Fibert, Clare Relton, Tessa Peasgood, David Daley
Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and growing problem and a leading cause of child referrals to Child and Adult Mental Health Services (CAMHS). It is a drain on resources across nationally funded support agencies and associated with negative outcomes such as early criminality, school disruption and antisocial behaviour. Mainstream interventions (pharmacological and behavioural) demonstrate effectiveness whilst implemented, but are costly, often have unwanted side effects and do not appear to be affecting long-term outcomes...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Paula Cabral Eterovick, Izabela Santos Mendes, Jéssica Stephanie Kloh, Luan Tavares Pinheiro, Amadeus Bicalho Horta Portela Václav, Thiago Santos, Ana Sofia Buza Gontijo
The ability to respond to background colour is an important feature of species that might benefit from background matching camouflage. Tadpole colour patterns vary and could be associated with several functions, including defense. Because tadpoles are exposed to a wide array of visually oriented predators, they represent good models to study defensive colouration and associated behaviours. We tested whether a potentially disruptively camouflaged tadpole with a dark body crossed by yellow bars (Ololygon machadoi) is able to respond differently to matching light and dark natural background colours and an artificial blue contrasting background...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mukesh Kumar, Shilpi Modi, Poonam Rana, Pawan Kumar, Ratnesh Kanwar, Tarun Sekhri, Maria D'souza, Subash Khushu
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is characterized by mild elevation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (range 5-10 μIU/ml) and normal free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4). The cognitive function impairment is well known in thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, but little is known about deficits in brain functions in SCH subjects. Also, whether hormone-replacement treatment is necessary or not in SCH subjects is still debatable. In order to have an insight into the cognition of SCH subjects, intrinsic and extrinsic functional connectivity (FC) of the resting state networks (RSNs) was studied...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Claire M Curry, Paulson G Des Brisay, Patricia Rosa, Nicola Koper
Anthropogenic noise is a pervasive pollutant altering behaviour of wildlife that communicates acoustically. Some species adjust vocalisations to compensate for noise. However, we know little about whether signal adjustments improve communication in noise, the extent to which effectiveness of adjustments varies with noise source, or how individual variation in physiology varies with response capacity. We played noise-adjusted and unadjusted songs to wild Passerculus sandwichensis (Savannah Sparrows) after measurements of adrenocortical responsiveness of individuals...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nicholas C Wu, Rebecca L Cramp, Craig E Franklin
Sloughing maintains the skins integrity and critical functionality in amphibians. Given the behavioural, morphological and osmoregulatory changes that accompany sloughing, this process is likely to be physiologically costly. Chytridiomycosis, a cutaneous disease of amphibians caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), disrupts skin function and increases sloughing rates. Moreover, mortality rates from chytridiomycosis are significantly higher in juveniles and so we hypothesised that smaller individuals maybe more susceptible to chytridiomycosis because of allometric scaling effects on the energetic and osmoregulatory costs of sloughing...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alice Charach, Stacey Ageranioti Bélanger, John D McLennan, Mary Kay Nixon
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/pch/pxx128.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/pch/pxx128.].
February 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
E Kokubu, T Inoue, K Ishihara
OBJECTIVE: In the gingival crevice, the interaction between epithelial cells and periodontopathic bacteria is important for the development of periodontitis. Treponema denticola is a major pathogen of chronic periodontitis and possesses several virulence factors, such as major surface protein (Msp) and prolyl-phenylalanine-specific protease (dentilisin). Here, we investigated the behaviours of epithelial cells infected with T. denticola by measuring the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, β defensin 2 (BD-2) and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70)...
March 2018: Oral Diseases
Emilia Tarland, Jan Brosda
The olfactory system participates in many sensory processes, and olfactory endophenotypes appear in a variety of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, depression and schizophrenia. Social withdrawal is a core negative symptom of schizophrenia and animal models have proven to be invaluable for studying the neurobiological mechanisms and cognitive processes behind the formation of social relationships. The subchronic phencyclidine (PCP) rat model is a validated model for negative symptoms of schizophrenia, such as impaired sociability...
February 24, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Linda P Spear
Per occasion, alcohol consumption is higher in adolescents than in adults in both humans and laboratory animals, with changes in the adolescent brain probably contributing to this elevated drinking. This Review examines the contributors to and consequences of the use of alcohol in adolescents. Human adolescents with a history of alcohol use differ neurally and cognitively from other adolescents; some of these differences predate the commencement of alcohol consumption and serve as potential risk factors for later alcohol use, whereas others emerge from its use...
February 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
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