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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792352/probing-the-settlement-signals-of-amphibalanus-amphitrite
#1
Mado Kotsiri, Maria Protopapa, Gesthimani-Myrto Roumelioti, Athena Economou-Amilli, Eleni K Efthimiadou, Skarlatos G Dedos
To achieve their reproductive potential, barnacles combine tactile exploration of surface structural properties and integration of cellular signals originating from their antennular sensory setae within a developmentally defined, temporally narrow window of settlement opportunity. Behavioural assays with cyprids coupled with biometric analysis of scanning electron microscopy-acquired images in the presence of specific chemical compounds were used to investigate how settlement on a substratum is altered in response to the presence of these compounds...
May 24, 2018: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792031/the-composition-in-the-interface-between-clay-mineral-surfaces-and-divalent-cation-electrolytes
#2
Stanislav Jelavić, A Rath Nielsen, S L S Stipp, N Bovet
The interfacial free energy of a solid, which determines its adsorption properties, depends on interactions between the surface and the fluid. A change in surface composition can completely change the behaviour of the solid. Decades of work have explored adsorption and its effects at solid-fluid interfaces from the macroscopic perspective and using molecular modelling so the concept of the electric double layer (EDL) is well established in the community. However, direct, molecular level, experimental observations of the composition within the interface region, and its change with time and conditions, is not abundant...
May 23, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786974/embryonic-exposure-to-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-a-brominated-flame-retardant-reduces-the-size-of-song-control-nuclei-in-a-songbird
#3
Margaret L Eng, Viktoria Winter, John E Elliott, Scott A MacDougall-Shackleton, Tony D Williams
Environmental contaminants have the potential to act as developmental stressors and impair development of song and the brain of songbirds, but they have been largely unstudied in this context. 2,2',4,4',5-Pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) is a brominated flame retardant congener that has demonstrated endocrine disrupting effects, and has pervaded the global environment. We assessed the effects of in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant levels of BDE-99 on the neuroanatomy of the song-control system in a model songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)...
May 22, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786470/direct-cortical-stimulation-of-inferior-frontal-cortex-disrupts-both-speech-and-music-production-in-highly-trained-musicians
#4
Matthew K Leonard, Maansi Desai, Dylan Hungate, Ruofan Cai, Nilika S Singhal, Robert C Knowlton, Edward F Chang
Music and speech are human-specific behaviours that share numerous properties, including the fine motor skills required to produce them. Given these similarities, previous work has suggested that music and speech may at least partially share neural substrates. To date, much of this work has focused on perception, and has not investigated the neural basis of production, particularly in trained musicians. Here, we report two rare cases of musicians undergoing neurosurgical procedures, where it was possible to directly stimulate the left hemisphere cortex during speech and piano/guitar music production tasks...
May 22, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775438/breakdown-of-water-super-permeation-in-electrically-insulating-graphene-oxide-films-role-of-dual-interlayer-spacing
#5
M K Kavitha, Tushar Sakorikar, Pramitha V, Manu Jaiswal
Conventional graphene oxide is characterized by low sp<sup>2</sup> content in a sp<sup>3</sup> rich matrix, which is responsible both for electrical insulation and water super-permeation. Upon reduction, electrical conduction is achieved at the expense of water permeation ability. Here, we demonstrate that charge conduction and water permeation can be simultaneously restricted in a functionalized form of graphene oxide. Gravimetric studies reveal that diffusion of water vapour through glassy polymer membranes is arrested by loading hydrophobic form of GO in the polymer matrix, even as such water inhibition cannot be realized by substantially increasing the thickness of the bare polymer...
May 18, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774962/maternal-regulation-of-the-infant-s-hpa-axis-stress-response-seymour-gig-levine-s-legacy-to-neuroendocrinology
#6
REVIEW
Deborah Suchecki
Thirty years ago, Seymour 'Gig' Levine published a serendipitous, yet, seminal finding on the regulatory role of maternal presence on the corticosterone stress response of neonatal rats, during the developmental period know as stress hyporesponsive period. At the same time, his group of students also studied the stress response of infant monkeys to maternal separation, as a means to understand the stressful nature of disruptions of attachment to the primary caregiver. Gig and his group of students and collaborators, mainly in the USA and the Netherlands, investigated how initial social relationships buffer the stress response of non-human primate and rodent infants...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773843/loss-of-live-coral-compromises-predator-avoidance-behaviour-in-coral-reef-damselfish
#7
Lisa Boström-Einarsson, Mary C Bonin, Philip L Munday, Geoffrey P Jones
Tropical reefs have experienced an unprecedented loss of live coral in the past few decades and the biodiversity of coral-dependent species is under threat. Many reef fish species decline in abundance as coral cover is lost, yet the mechanisms responsible for these losses are largely unknown. A commonly hypothesised cause of fish decline is the loss of shelter space between branches as dead corals become overgrown by algae. Here we tested this hypothesis by quantifying changes in predator-avoidance behaviour of a common damselfish, Pomacentrus moluccensis, before and after the death of their coral colony...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765660/behavioural-responses-of-spinner-dolphins-to-human-interactions
#8
Maddalena Fumagalli, Amina Cesario, Marina Costa, John Harraway, Giuseppe Notarbartolo di Sciara, Elisabeth Slooten
There is increasing evidence that whale and dolphin watching activities have detrimental effects on targeted cetacean populations. In Egypt, spinner dolphins regularly occur in the resting areas of Samadai, Satayah and Qubbat'Isa reefs. In-water human interactions with dolphins are regulated with a time-area closure system at Samadai, unregulated at Satayah and non-existent at Qubbat'Isa. This provided an ideal experimental setting to advance our understanding of the effects of tourism on a species highly sensitive to disturbances...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764270/drunk-decisions-alcohol-shifts-choice-from-habitual-towards-goal-directed-control-in-adolescent-intermediate-risk-drinkers
#9
Elisabeth Obst, Daniel J Schad, Quentin Jm Huys, Miriam Sebold, Stephan Nebe, Christian Sommer, Michael N Smolka, Ulrich S Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: Studies in humans and animals suggest a shift from goal-directed to habitual decision-making in addiction. We therefore tested whether acute alcohol administration reduces goal-directed and promotes habitual decision-making, and whether these effects are moderated by self-reported drinking problems. METHODS: Fifty-three socially drinking males completed the two-step task in a randomised crossover design while receiving an intravenous infusion of ethanol (blood alcohol level=80 mg%), or placebo...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750978/syntactic-processing-in-music-and-language-effects-of-interrupting-auditory-streams-with-alternating-timbres
#10
Anna Fiveash, William F Thompson, Nicholas A Badcock, Genevieve McArthur
Both music and language rely on the processing of spectral (pitch, timbre) and temporal (rhythm) information to create structure and meaning from incoming auditory streams. Previous behavioural results have shown that interrupting a melodic stream with unexpected changes in timbre leads to reduced syntactic processing. Such findings suggest that syntactic processing is conditional on successful streaming of incoming sequential information. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether (1) the effect of alternating timbres on syntactic processing is reflected in a reduced brain response to syntactic violations, and (2) the phenomenon is similar for music and language...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747703/dark-matters-effects-of-light-at-night-on-metabolism
#11
Randy J Nelson, Souhad Chbeir
Life on earth has evolved during the past several billion years under relatively bright days and dark night conditions. The wide-spread adoption of electric lights during the past century exposed animals, both human and non-human, to significant light at night for the first time in their evolutionary history. Endogenous circadian clocks depend on light to entrain to the external daily environment and seasonal rhythms depend on clear nightly melatonin signals to assess time of year. Thus, light at night can derange temporal adaptations...
May 11, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744870/circadian-nutritional-behaviours-and-cancer-risk-new-insights-from-the-nutrinet-sant%C3%A3-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Bernard Srour, Sabine Plancoulaine, Valentina A Andreeva, Philippine Fassier, Chantal Julia, Pilar Galan, Serge Hercberg, Mélanie Deschasaux, Paule Latino-Martel, Mathilde Touvier
Circadian disruption has been classified as probably carcinogenic to humans by the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer. The circadian clock is subject to environmental factors, particularly light exposure and food intake rhythms. However, the association between nutritional circadian behaviours and cancer is not well understood. We investigated the longitudinal associations between number of eating episodes, night-time fasting duration, time of first and last eating episodes, as well as nutritional quality of last eating episode, respectively, with breast and prostate cancer risks, the two main cancer locations in women and men respectively...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743679/control-of-cardiac-jelly-dynamics-by-notch1-and-nrg1-defines-the-building-plan-for-trabeculation
#13
Gonzalo Del Monte-Nieto, Mirana Ramialison, Arne A S Adam, Bingruo Wu, Alla Aharonov, Gabriele D'Uva, Lauren M Bourke, Mara E Pitulescu, Hanying Chen, José Luis de la Pompa, Weinian Shou, Ralf H Adams, Sarah K Harten, Eldad Tzahor, Bin Zhou, Richard P Harvey
In vertebrate hearts, the ventricular trabecular myocardium develops as a sponge-like network of cardiomyocytes that is critical for contraction and conduction, ventricular septation, papillary muscle formation and wall thickening through the process of compaction 1 . Defective trabeculation leads to embryonic lethality2-4 or non-compaction cardiomyopathy (NCC) 5 . There are divergent views on when and how trabeculation is initiated in different species. In zebrafish, trabecular cardiomyocytes extrude from compact myocardium 6 , whereas in chicks, chamber wall thickening occurs before overt trabeculation 7 ...
May 9, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741614/loss-of-cerebellar-glutamate-transporters-eaat4-and-glast-differentially-affects-the-spontaneous-firing-pattern-and-survival-of-purkinje-cells
#14
Emma M Perkins, Yvonne L Clarkson, Daumante Suminaite, Alastair R Lyndon, Kohichi Tanaka, Jeffrey D Rothstein, Paul Skehel, David J A Wyllie, Mandy Jackson
Loss of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) has been implicated in a number of human diseases including spinocerebellar ataxias, Alzhiemer's disease and motor neuron disease. EAAT4 and GLAST/EAAT1 are the two predominant EAATs responsible for maintaining low extracellular glutamate levels and preventing neurotoxicity in the cerebellum, the brain region essential for motor control. Here using genetically modified mice we identify new critical roles for EAAT4 and GLAST/EAAT1 as modulators of Purkinje cell (PC) spontaneous firing patterns...
May 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741469/cognitive-impairments-in-inherited-metabolic-diseases-promises-and-challenges
#15
Cristina Romani
This is an introduction to the special issue on cognitive impairments in inherited metabolic diseases (IMD). It provides an overview of the studies included, focusing on the possibility of selective impairments which could provide unique evidence on the specificity of neural circuitries mediating cognitive functions. It will suggest that these circuitries have different metabolic properties which make them especially apt to carry out certain functions, but also particularly susceptible to certain forms of metabolic disruption...
May 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740648/using-neutrons-x-rays-and-nuclear-magnetism-to-determine-the-role-of-transition-metal-oxide-inclusions-on-both-glass-structure-and-stability-in-automotive-glass-enamels
#16
Daniel T Bowron, Jonathan Booth, Nathan S Barrow, Patricia Sutton, Simon R Johnson
Low levels of transition metal oxides in alkali borosilicate glass systems can drastically influence crystallisation and phase separation properties. We investigated the non-monotonic effect of manganese doping on suppressing crystallisation, and the influence on optical properties by iron oxide doping, in terms of local atomic structure. Structural models based on empirical potential structure refinement were generated from neutron and X-ray scattering data, and compared against multinuclear solid-state NMR...
May 9, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740356/behavioural-pharmacokinetic-metabolic-and-hyperthermic-profile-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-in-the-wistar-rat
#17
Rachel R Horsley, Eva Lhotkova, Katerina Hajkova, Barbara Feriancikova, Michal Himl, Martin Kuchar, Tomas Páleníček
3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a potent pyrovalerone cathinone that is substituted for amphetamines by recreational users. We report a comprehensive and detailed description of the effects of subcutaneous MDPV (1-4 mg/kg) on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and metabolism, acute effects on thermoregulation under isolated and aggregated conditions, locomotion (open field) and sensory gating (prepulse inhibition, PPI). All studies used male Wistar rats. Pharmacokinetics after single dose of 2 mg/kg MDPV was measured over 6 h in serum, brain and lungs...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740029/random-feedback-makes-listeners-tone-deaf
#18
Dominique T Vuvan, Benjamin Rich Zendel, Isabelle Peretz
The mental representation of pitch structure (tonal knowledge) is a core component of musical experience and is learned implicitly through exposure to music. One theory of congenital amusia (tone deafness) posits that conscious access to tonal knowledge is disrupted, leading to a severe deficit of music cognition. We tested this idea by providing random performance feedback to neurotypical listeners while they listened to melodies for tonal incongruities and had their electrical brain activity monitored. The introduction of random feedback was associated with a reduction of accuracy and confidence, and a suppression of the late positive brain response usually elicited by conscious detection of a tonal violation...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738796/how-do-hypothalamic-nonapeptides-shape-youth-s-sociality-a-systematic-review-on-oxytocin-vasopressin-and-human-socio-emotional-development
#19
REVIEW
Nuno Torres, Daniel Martins, António J Santos, Diana Prata, Maria Veríssimo
The hypothalamic nonapeptides oxytocin and vasopressin are important modulators of socio-affective behaviours in a wide variety of animal species, including humans. Nevertheless, there is little research addressing their possible roles on socio-affective dimensions of human behaviour across development, during which considerable behavioural and physiological change occurs. Questions still remain about the extent to which findings from adults may directly apply to earlier phases of human development. In this article, we systematically summarize and discuss all existing studies investigating the developmental association of endogenous levels of hypothalamic neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin with human social behaviour or on its disruption in paediatric populations...
May 5, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738437/study-of-fluorinated-quantum-dots-protein-interactions-at-the-oil-water-interface-by-interfacial-surface-tension-changes
#20
Carolina Carrillo-Carrión, Marta Gallego, Wolfgang J Parak, Mónica Carril
Understanding the interaction of nanoparticles with proteins and how this interaction modifies the nanoparticles’ surface is crucial before their use for biomedical applications. Since fluorinated materials are emerging as potential imaging probes and delivery vehicles, their interaction with proteins of biological interest must be studied in order to be able to predict their performance in real scenarios. It is known that fluorinated planar surfaces may repel the unspecific adsorption of proteins but little is known regarding the same process on fluorinated nanoparticles due to the scarce examples in the literature...
May 8, 2018: Materials
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