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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530312/-the-second-victim-treating-the-health-care-providers
#1
REVIEW
Shimrit Shor, Orna Tal, Ron Maymon
During their professional careers, physicians and other health care providers are repeatedly exposed to emotional stress. This is usually secondary to coping with the results of a medical error or complicated medical event. Generally, in the above cases, the patient and his/her family are in the center of the medical system, being "the first victim" of such an event, while the involved caregiver, who provided the medical service, is categorized as the "second victim". "Second victims" may feel anxiety, fear, guilt or anger and experience social withdrawal, which may lead to troubling memories, depression and insomnia...
January 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526030/prenatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-and-dysregulation-of-infant-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-function-findings-from-the-apron-cohort-study
#2
Gerald F Giesbrecht, Maede Ejaredar, Jiaying Liu, Jenna Thomas, Nicole Letourneau, Tavis Campbell, Jonathan W Martin, Deborah Dewey
BACKGROUND: Animal models show that prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sexually dimorphic disruption of the neuroendocrine system in offspring, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) neuroendocrine system, but human data are lacking. In humans, prenatal BPA exposure is associated with sex-specific behavioural problems in children, and HPA axis dysregulation may be a biological mechanism. The objective of the current study was to examine sex differences in associations between prenatal maternal urinary BPA concentration and HPA axis function in 3 month old infants...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525836/arterial-spin-labelling-shows-functional-depression-of-non-lesion-tissue-in-chronic-wernicke-s-aphasia
#3
Holly Robson, Karsten Specht, Helen Beaumont, Laura M Parkes, Karen Sage, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Roland Zahn
Behavioural impairment post-stroke is a consequence of structural damage and altered functional network dynamics. Hypoperfusion of intact neural tissue is frequently observed in acute stroke, indicating reduced functional capacity of regions outside the lesion. However, cerebral blood flow (CBF) is rarely investigated in chronic stroke. This study investigated CBF in individuals with chronic Wernicke's aphasia (WA) and examined the relationship between lesion, CBF and neuropsychological impairment. Arterial spin labelling CBF imaging and structural MRIs were collected in 12 individuals with chronic WA and 13 age-matched control participants...
November 10, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514640/digital-disruption-syndromes
#4
Clair Sullivan, Andrew Staib
The digital transformation of hospitals in Australia is occurring rapidly in order to facilitate innovation and improve efficiency. Rapid transformation can cause temporary disruption of hospital workflows and staff as processes are adapted to the new digital workflows. The aim of this paper is to outline various types of digital disruption and some strategies for effective management. A large tertiary university hospital recently underwent a rapid, successful roll-out of an integrated electronic medical record (EMR)...
May 18, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506618/the-ptz-kindling-mouse-model-of-epilepsy-exhibits-exploratory-drive-deficits-and-aberrant-vta-dopamine-neuron-activity-in-both-familiar-and-novel-space
#5
Mahboubeh Ahmadi, Jean-Philippe Dufour, Erich Seifritz, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Bechara J Saab
Recurrent seizures that define epilepsy are often accompanied by psychosocial problems and cognitive deficits with incompletely understood aetiology. We therefore used the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling model of epilepsy in mice to examine potential seizure-associated neuropathologies, focusing on motivation, memory and novel-environment-induced activation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. In addition to recurrent seizures, we found that PTZ kindling led to a strong suppression of novelty-driven exploration while largely sparing fear-driven exploration...
May 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503020/circadian-rhythm-in-mrna-expression-of-the-glutathione-synthesis-gene-gclc-is-controlled-by-peripheral-glial-clocks-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Eileen S Chow, Dani M Long, Jadwiga M Giebultowicz
Circadian coordination of metabolism, physiology, and behaviour is found in all living kingdoms. Clock genes are transcriptional regulators, and their rhythmic activities generate daily rhythms in clock-controlled genes which result in cellular and organismal rhythms. Insects provide numerous examples of rhythms in behaviour and reproduction, but less is known about control of metabolic processes by circadian clocks in insects. Recent data suggest that several pathways involved in protecting cells from oxidative stress may be modulated by the circadian system, including genes involved in glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis...
December 2016: Physiological Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502262/effects-of-combined-iugr-and-prenatal-stress-on-the-development-of-the-hippocampus-in-a-fetal-guinea-pig-model
#7
A L Cumberland, H K Palliser, P Rani, D W Walker, J J Hirst
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and maternal stress during pregnancy are two compromises that negatively impact neurodevelopment and increase the risk of developing later life neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, depression and behavioural disorders. Neurosteroids, particularly allopregnanolone, are important in protecting the developing brain and promoting many essential neurodevelopmental processes. Individually, IUGR and prenatal stress (PS) reduce myelination and neurogenesis within affected fetal brains, however less information is available on the combined effects of these two disorders on the term fetal brain...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501632/high-levels-of-maternally-transferred-mercury-disrupt-magnetic-responses-of-snapping-turtle-hatchlings-chelydra-serpentina
#8
Lukas Landler, Michael S Painter, Brittney Hopkins Coe, Paul W Youmans, William A Hopkins, John B Phillips
The Earth's magnetic field is involved in spatial behaviours ranging from long-distance migration to non-goal directed behaviours, such as spontaneous magnetic alignment (SMA). Mercury is a harmful pollutant most often generated from anthropogenic sources that can bio-accumulate in animal tissue over a lifetime. We compared SMA of hatchling snapping turtles from mothers captured at reference (i.e., low mercury) and mercury contaminated sites. Reference turtles showed radio frequency-dependent SMA along the north-south axis, consistent with previous studies of SMA, while turtles with high levels of maternally inherited mercury failed to show consistent magnetic alignment...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495493/the-value-of-novelty-in-schizophrenia
#9
Cristina Martinelli, Francesco Rigoli, Bruno Averbeck, Sukhwinder S Shergill
Influential models of schizophrenia suggest that patients experience incoming stimuli as excessively novel and motivating, with important consequences for hallucinatory experience and delusional belief. However, whether schizophrenia patients exhibit excessive novelty value and whether this interferes with adaptive behaviour has not yet been formally tested. Here, we employed a three-armed bandit task to investigate this hypothesis. Schizophrenia patients and healthy controls were first familiarised with a group of images and then asked to repeatedly choose between familiar and unfamiliar images associated with different monetary reward probabilities...
May 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491898/a-cross-sectional-population-based-investigation-into-behavioral-change-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-subphenotypes-staging-cognitive-predictors-and-survival
#10
Tom Burke, Marta Pinto-Grau, Katie Lonergan, Peter Bede, Meabhdh O'Sullivan, Mark Heverin, Alice Vajda, Russell L McLaughlin, Niall Pender, Orla Hardiman
OBJECTIVE: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment. The primary aim of this study was to identify behavioral subphenotypes in ALS using a custom designed behavioral assessment tool (Beaumont Behavioural Inventory, BBI). Secondary aims were to (1) investigate the predictive nature of cognitive assessment on behavioral change, (2) report the behavioral profile associated with the C9orf72 expansion, (3) categorize behavioral change through disease staging, and (4) to investigate the relationship between cross-sectional behavioral classification and survival...
May 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491459/on-your-feet-to-earn-your-seat-pilot-rct-of-a-theory-based-sedentary-behaviour-reduction-intervention-for-older-adults
#11
Isabelle White, Lee Smith, Daniel Aggio, Sahana Shankar, Saima Begum, Raluca Matei, Kenneth R Fox, Mark Hamer, Steve Iliffe, Barbara J Jefferis, Nick Tyler, Benjamin Gardner
BACKGROUND: Of all age groups, older adults spend most of the time sitting and are least physically active. This sequential, mixed-methods feasibility study used a randomised controlled trial design to assess methods for trialling a habit-based intervention to displace older adults' sedentary behaviour with light activity and explore impact on behavioural outcomes. METHODS: Eligibility criteria were age 60-74 years, retired, and ≥6 h/day leisure sitting. Data were collected across four sites in England...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490755/thigmotaxis-mediates-trail-odour-disruption
#12
Lloyd D Stringer, Joshua E Corn, Hyun Sik Roh, Alfredo Jiménez-Pérez, Lee-Anne M Manning, Aimee R Harper, David M Suckling
Disruption of foraging using oversupply of ant trail pheromones is a novel pest management application under investigation. It presents an opportunity to investigate the interaction of sensory modalities by removal of one of the modes. Superficially similar to sex pheromone-based mating disruption in moths, ant trail pheromone disruption lacks an equivalent mechanistic understanding of how the ants respond to an oversupply of their trail pheromone. Since significant compromise of one sensory modality essential for trail following (chemotaxis) has been demonstrated, we hypothesised that other sensory modalities such as thigmotaxis could act to reduce the impact on olfactory disruption of foraging behaviour...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483870/how-birds-cope-physiologically-and-behaviourally-with-extreme-climatic-events
#13
REVIEW
John C Wingfield, Jonathan H Pérez, Jesse S Krause, Karen R Word, Paulina L González-Gómez, Simeon Lisovski, Helen E Chmura
As global climate change progresses, the occurrence of potentially disruptive climatic events such as storms are increasing in frequency, duration and intensity resulting in higher mortality and reduced reproductive success. What constitutes an extreme climatic event? First we point out that extreme climatic events in biological contexts can occur in any environment. Focusing on field and laboratory data on wild birds we propose a mechanistic approach to defining and investigating what extreme climatic events are and how animals cope with them at physiological and behavioural levels...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482275/contextualising-renal-patient-routines-everyday-space-time-contexts-health-service-access-and-wellbeing
#14
Julia McQuoid, Tanisha Jowsey, Girish Talaulikar
Stable routines are key to successful illness self-management for the growing number of people living with chronic illness around the world. Yet, the influence of chronically ill individuals' everyday contexts in supporting routines is poorly understood. This paper takes a space-time geographical approach to explore the everyday space-time contexts and routines of individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We ask: what is the relationship between renal patients' space-time contexts and their ability to establish and maintain stable routines, and, what role does health service access play in this regard? We draw from a qualitative case study of 26 individuals with CKD in Australia...
June 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476590/automating-mouse-weighing-in-group-homecages-with-raspberry-pi-micro-computers
#15
Omid Noorshams, Jamie D Boyd, Timothy H Murphy
BACKGROUND: Operant training systems make use of water or food restriction and make it necessary to weigh animals to ensure compliance with experimental endpoints. In other applications periodic weighing is necessary to assess drug side-effects, or as an endpoint in feeding experiments. Periodic weighing while essential can disrupt animal circadian rhythms and social structure. NEW METHOD: Automatic weighing system within paired mouse homecages. Up to 10 mice freely move between two cages (28×18×9cm) which were connected by a weighing chamber mounted on a load cell...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475260/a-focus-on-reward-in-anorexia-nervosa-through-the-lens-of-the-activity-based-anorexia-aba-rodent-model
#16
REVIEW
Claire J Foldi, Laura K Milton, Brian J Oldfield
Patients suffering anorexia nervosa (AN) become anhedonic, unable or unwilling to derive normal pleasures and tend to avoid rewarding outcomes, most profoundly in food intake. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) model recapitulates many of the pathophysiological and behavioural hallmarks of the human condition, including a reduction in food intake, excessive exercise, dramatic weight loss, loss of reproductive cycles, hypothermia and anhedonia, and therefore allows investigation of the underlying neurobiology of AN...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474374/mobile-phone-messaging-for-illicit-drug-and-alcohol-dependence-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#17
Babak Tofighi, Joseph M Nicholson, Jennifer McNeely, Frederick Muench, Joshua D Lee
ISSUES: Mobile phone use has increased dramatically and concurrent with rapid developments in mobile phone-based health interventions. The integration of text messaging interventions promises to optimise the delivery of care for persons with substance dependence with minimal disruption to clinical workflows. We conducted a systematic review to assess the acceptability, feasibility and clinical impact of text messaging interventions for persons with illicit drug and alcohol dependence...
May 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472332/the-spectrum-of-rem-sleep-related-episodes-in-children-with-type-1-narcolepsy
#18
Elena Antelmi, Fabio Pizza, Stefano Vandi, Giulia Neccia, Raffaele Ferri, Oliviero Bruni, Marco Filardi, Gaetano Cantalupo, Rocco Liguori, Giuseppe Plazzi
Type 1 narcolepsy is a central hypersomnia due to the loss of hypocretin-producing neurons and characterized by cataplexy, excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and disturbed nocturnal sleep. In children, close to the disease onset, type 1 narcolepsy has peculiar clinical features with severe cataplexy and a complex admixture of movement disorders occurring while awake. Motor dyscontrol during sleep has never been systematically investigated. Suspecting that abnormal motor control might affect also sleep, we systematically analysed motor events recorded by means of video polysomnography in 40 children with type 1 narcolepsy (20 females; mean age 11...
May 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462927/de-novo-evolved-interference-competition-promotes-the-spread-of-biofilm-defectors
#19
Marivic Martin, Anna Dragoš, Theresa Hölscher, Gergely Maróti, Balázs Bálint, Martin Westermann, Ákos T Kovács
Biofilms are social entities where bacteria live in tightly packed agglomerations, surrounded by self-secreted exopolymers. Since production of exopolymers is costly and potentially exploitable by non-producers, mechanisms that prevent invasion of non-producing mutants are hypothesized. Here we study long-term dynamics and evolution in Bacillus subtilis biofilm populations consisting of wild-type (WT) matrix producers and mutant non-producers. We show that non-producers initially fail to incorporate into biofilms formed by the WT cells, resulting in 100-fold lower final frequency compared to the WT...
May 2, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454990/brain-disease-connectivity-plasticity-and-cognitive-therapy-a-neurological-view-of-mental-disorders
#20
G Lubrini, A Martín-Montes, O Díez-Ascaso, E Díez-Tejedor
INTRODUCTION: Our conception of the mind-brain relationship has evolved from the traditional idea of dualism to current evidence that mental functions result from brain activity. This paradigm shift, combined with recent advances in neuroimaging, has led to a novel definition of brain functioning in terms of structural and functional connectivity. The purpose of this literature review is to describe the relationship between connectivity, brain lesions, cerebral plasticity, and functional recovery...
April 25, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
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