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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726916/a-novel-3-d-bio-microfluidic-system-mimicking-in-vivo-heterogeneous-tumour-microstructures-reveals-complex-tumour-stroma-interactions
#1
Qihui Fan, Ruchuan Liu, Yang Jiao, Chunxiu Tian, James D Farrell, Wenwen Diao, Xiaochen Wang, Fengrong Zhang, Wei Yuan, Haibo Han, Jinfeng Chen, Yue Yang, Xixiang Zhang, Fangfu Ye, Ming Li, Zhongcan Ouyang, Liyu Liu
A 3-D microfluidic system consisting of microchamber arrays embedded in a collagen hydrogel with tuneable biochemical gradients that mimics the tumour microenvironment of mammary glands was constructed for the investigation on the interactions between invasive breast cancer cells and stromal cells. The hollow microchambers in collagen provide a very similar 3-D environment to that in vivo that regulates collective cellular dynamics and behaviour, while the microfluidic channels surrounding the collagen microchamber arrays allow one to impose complex concentration gradients of specific biological molecules or drugs...
July 20, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724738/early-life-manipulations-of-vasopressin-family-peptides-alter-vocal-learning
#2
Nicole M Baran, Samantha C Peck, Tabitha H Kim, Michael H Goldstein, Elizabeth Adkins-Regan
Vocal learning from social partners is crucial for the successful development of communication in a wide range of species. Social interactions organize attention and enhance motivation to learn species-typical behaviour. However, the neurobiological mechanisms connecting social motivation and vocal learning are unknown. Using zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a ubiquitous model for vocal learning, we show that manipulations of nonapeptide hormones in the vasopressin family (arginine vasotocin, AVT) early in development can promote or disrupt both song and social motivation...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711473/interaction-of-reelin-and-stress-on-immobility-in-the-forced-swim-test-but-not-dopamine-mediated-locomotor-hyperactivity-or-prepulse-inhibition-disruption-relevance-to-psychotic-and-mood-disorders
#3
Michael J Notaras, Billie Vivian, Carey Wilson, Maarten van den Buuse
RATIONALE: Psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, as well as some mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder, have been suggested to share common biological risk factors. One such factor is reelin, a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein that regulates neuronal migration during development as well as numerous activity-dependent processes in the adult brain. The current study sought to evaluate whether a history of stress exposure interacts with endogenous reelin levels to modify behavioural endophenotypes of relevance to psychotic and mood disorders...
July 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709999/tdcs-over-the-right-inferior-frontal-gyrus-disrupts-control-of-interference-in-memory-a-retrieval-induced-forgetting-study
#4
Davide F Stramaccia, Barbara Penolazzi, Gianmarco Altoè, Giovanni Galfano
Retrieving information from episodic memory may result in later inaccessibility of related but task-irrelevant information. This phenomenon, known as retrieval-induced forgetting, is thought to represent a specific instance of broader cognitive control mechanisms, that would come into play during memory retrieval, whenever non-target competing memories interfere with recall of target items. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown an association between these mechanisms and the activity of the right Prefrontal Cortex...
July 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708131/a-clinicopathological-approach-to-the-diagnosis-of-dementia
#5
REVIEW
Fanny M Elahi, Bruce L Miller
The most definitive classification systems for dementia are based on the underlying pathology which, in turn, is categorized largely according to the observed accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates in neurons and glia. These aggregates perturb molecular processes, cellular functions and, ultimately, cell survival, with ensuing disruption of large-scale neural networks subserving cognitive, behavioural and sensorimotor functions. The functional domains affected and the evolution of deficits in these domains over time serve as footprints that the clinician can trace back with various levels of certainty to the underlying neuropathology...
July 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705258/fate-bias-during-neural-regeneration-adjusts-dynamically-without-recapitulating-developmental-fate-progression
#6
Jeremy Ng Chi Kei, Peter David Currie, Patricia Regina Jusuf
BACKGROUND: Regeneration of neurons in the central nervous system is poor in humans. In other vertebrates neural regeneration does occur efficiently and involves reactivation of developmental processes. Within the neural retina of zebrafish, Müller glia are the main stem cell source and are capable of generating progenitors to replace lost neurons after injury. However, it remains largely unknown to what extent Müller glia and neuron differentiation mirror development. METHODS: Following neural ablation in the zebrafish retina, dividing cells were tracked using a prolonged labelling technique...
July 13, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689673/the-anatomy-of-apathy-a-neurocognitive-framework-for-amotivated-behavior
#7
C Le Heron, M A J Apps, M Husain
Apathy is a debilitating syndrome associated with many neurological disorders, including several common neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and focal lesion syndromes such as stroke. Here, we review neuroimaging studies to identify anatomical correlates of apathy, across brain disorders. Our analysis reveals that apathy is strongly associated with disruption particularly of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), ventral striatum (VS) and connected brain regions...
July 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687372/effects-of-a-free-choice-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-on-brain-per2-and-bmal1-protein-expression-in-mice
#8
Aurea Blancas-Velazquez, Susanne E la Fleur, Jorge Mendoza
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) times the daily rhythms of behavioral processes including feeding. Beyond the SCN, the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), involved in feeding regulation and metabolism, and the epithalamic lateral habenula (LHb), implicated in reward processing, show circadian rhythmic activity. These brain oscillators are functionally coupled to coordinate the daily rhythm of food intake. In rats, a free choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet leads to a rapid increase of calorie intake and body weight gain...
July 5, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682460/strategies-for-managing-rival-bacterial-communities-lessons-from-burying-beetles
#9
Ana Duarte, Martin Welch, Chris Swannack, Josef Wagner, Rebecca M Kilner
1.The role of bacteria in animal development, ecology and evolution is increasingly well-understood, yet little is known of how animal behaviour affects bacterial communities. Animals that benefit from defending a key resource from microbial competitors are likely to evolve behaviours to control or manipulate the animal's associated external microbiota. 2.We describe four possible mechanisms by which animals could gain a competitive edge by disrupting a rival bacterial community: 'weeding', 'seeding', 'replanting' and 'preserving'...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681758/basal-ganglia-their-role-in-complex-cognitive-procedures-in-experimental-models-and-in-clinical-practice
#10
Rita Moretti, Paola Caruso, Elena Crisman, Silvia Gazzin
Apart from the well known role of the basal ganglia (BG) in motor control, their important role in regulating the cognitive functions is emerging. This article traces the scientific work that explores this role of BG in reinforcement learning, perceptual decision making, and other nonmotor pathways (speech fluency, cognition, attention and behaviour). It also highlights the important role played by the BG networks in determining the development of a child's brain. It retraces the various pathways and connections of the BG with the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and other regions that may be utilized in the establishment of complex cognitive procedures...
July 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676240/local-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-evokes-generalized-effects-on-gamma-and-high-frequency-oscillations-and-behavior
#11
Jaime Lee, Matthew R Hudson, Terence J O'Brien, Jess Nithianantharajah, Nigel C Jones
The NMDA receptor (NMDAr) hypofunction theory of schizophrenia suggests that aberrant signaling through NMDAr underlies the pathophysiology of this disease. This is commonly modeled in rodents via treatment with NMDAr antagonists, which causes a range of behavioral effects that represent endophenotypes related to schizophrenia. These drugs also disrupt high-frequency neural oscillations within the brain, also potentially relevant to disease. We studied the effect of localized NMDAr hypofunction on the generation of neural oscillations occurring both locally and in distant brain regions, and on behaviors routinely used as endophenotypes to model psychosis in rodents...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675687/disruptive-physiology-olfaction-and-the-microbiome-gut-brain-axis
#12
John Bienenstock, Wolfgang A Kunze, Paul Forsythe
This review covers the field of olfaction and chemosensation of odorants and puts this information into the context of interactions between microbes and behaviour; the microbiome-gut-brain axis (MGBA). Recent emphasis has also been placed on the concept of the holobiome which states that no single aspect of an organism should be viewed separately and thus must include examination of their associated microbial populations and their influence. While it is known that the microbiome may be involved in the modulation of animal behaviour, there has been little systematized effort to incorporate into such studies the rapidly developing knowledge of the wide range of olfactory systems...
July 4, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674745/selective-enhancement-of-nmda-receptor-mediated-locomotor-hyperactivity-by-male-sex-hormones-in-mice
#13
Maarten van den Buuse, Jac Kee Low, Perrin Kwek, Sally Martin, Andrea Gogos
RATIONALE: Altered glutamate NMDA receptor function is implicated in schizophrenia, and gender differences have been demonstrated in this illness. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the interaction of gonadal hormones with NMDA receptor-mediated locomotor hyperactivity and PPI disruption in mice. RESULTS: The effect of 0.25 mg/kg of MK-801 on locomotor activity was greater in male mice than in female mice. Gonadectomy (by surgical castration) significantly reduced MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion in male mice, but no effect of gonadectomy was seen in female mice or on amphetamine-induced locomotor hyperactivity...
July 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673914/the-effect-of-hypoxia-on-fish-schooling
#14
REVIEW
Paolo Domenici, John F Steffensen, Stefano Marras
Low-oxygen areas are expanding in the oceans as a result of climate change. Work carried out during the past two decades suggests that, in addition to impairing basic physiological functions, hypoxia can also affect fish behaviour. Given that many fish species are known to school, and that schooling is advantageous for their survival, the effect of hypoxia on schooling behaviour may have important ecological consequences. Here, we review the effects of hypoxia on school structure and dynamics, together with the mechanisms that cause an increase in school volume and that ultimately lead to school disruption...
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673767/diminished-motor-imagery-capability-in-adults-with-motor-impairment-an-fmri-mental-rotation-study
#15
S R Kashuk, J Williams, G Thorpe, P H Wilson, G F Egan
Recent research has demonstrated that adults with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder (pDCD) show similar behavioural deficits as those observed in children DCD when performing a motor imagery task. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the pattern of neural activation in adults with pDCD during motor imagery differed from adults without motor skill impairment. Twelve adults with pDCD (5 male; age M=24.5 yrs) and 11 adults without pDCD (6 male; age M=26.7 yrs) participated. The hand rotation task was used to assess motor imagery ability, while functional neural images were acquired using a 3 Tesla MR scanner...
June 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671963/effects-of-selective-and-combined-activation-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-on-reproductive-organ-development-and-sexual-behaviour-in-japanese-quail-coturnix-japonica
#16
Anna Mattsson, Björn Brunström
Excess estrogen exposure of avian embryos perturbs reproductive organ development in both sexes and demasculinizes the reproductive behaviors of adult males. We have previously shown that these characteristic effects on the reproductive organs also can be induced by exposure of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) embryos to selective agonists of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). In contrast, the male copulatory behavior is only weakly affected by developmental exposure to an ERα agonist. To further elucidate the respective roles of ERα and ERβ in estrogen-induced disruption of sexual differentiation, we exposed Japanese quail embryos in ovo to the selective ERα agonist 16α-lactone-estradiol (16αLE2), the selective ERβ agonist WAY-200070, or both substances in combination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670337/clinician-perceptions-of-sleep-problems-and-their-treatment-in-patients-with-non-affective-psychosis
#17
Aliyah Rehman, Felicity Waite, Bryony Sheaves, Stephany Biello, Daniel Freeman, Andrew Gumley
Aims and method: To assess clinicians' views about their understanding and treatment of sleep problems in people with non-affective psychosis. An online survey was emailed to adult mental health teams in two NHS trusts. Results: One hundred and eleven clinicians completed the survey. All clinicians reported disrupted sleep in their patients, and endorsed the view that sleep and psychotic experiences each exacerbate the other. However, most clinicians (n = 92, 82%) assessed sleep problems informally, rather than using standard assessment measures...
April 3, 2017: Psychosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665973/negative-expectations-interfere-with-the-analgesic-effect-of-safety-cues-on-pain-perception-by-priming-the-cortical-representation-of-pain-in-the-midcingulate-cortex
#18
Abeer F Almarzouki, Christopher A Brown, Richard J Brown, Matthew H K Leung, Anthony K P Jones
It is well known that the efficacy of treatment effects, including those of placebos, is heavily dependent on positive expectations regarding treatment outcomes. For example, positive expectations about pain treatments are essential for pain reduction. Such positive expectations not only depend on the properties of the treatment itself, but also on the context in which the treatment is presented. However, it is not clear how the preceding threat of pain will bias positive expectancy effects. One hypothesis is that threatening contexts trigger fearful and catastrophic thinking, reducing the pain-relieving effects of positive expectancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658302/one-ligand-two-regulators-and-three-binding-sites-how-kdpg-controls-primary-carbon-metabolism-in-pseudomonas
#19
Rosaria Campilongo, Rowena K Y Fung, Richard H Little, Lucia Grenga, Eleftheria Trampari, Simona Pepe, Govind Chandra, Clare E M Stevenson, Davide Roncarati, Jacob G Malone
Effective regulation of primary carbon metabolism is critically important for bacteria to successfully adapt to different environments. We have identified an uncharacterised transcriptional regulator; RccR, that controls this process in response to carbon source availability. Disruption of rccR in the plant-associated microbe Pseudomonas fluorescens inhibits growth in defined media, and compromises its ability to colonise the wheat rhizosphere. Structurally, RccR is almost identical to the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway regulator HexR, and both proteins are controlled by the same ED-intermediate; 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate (KDPG)...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647469/intra-articular-injection-of-microrna-140-mirna-140-alleviates-osteoarthritis-oa-progression-by-modulating-extracellular-matrix-ecm-homeostasis-in-rats
#20
H-B Si, Y Zeng, S-Y Liu, Z-K Zhou, Y-N Chen, J-Q Cheng, Y-R Lu, B Shen
OBJECTIVE: Disruptions of extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis are key events in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). MicroRNA-140 (miRNA-140) is expressed specifically in cartilage and regulates ECM-degrading enzymes. Our objective in this study was to determine if intra-articular injection of miRNA-140 can attenuate OA progression in rats. DESIGN: miRNA-140 levels in human normal and OA cartilage derived chondrocytes and synovial fluid were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
June 21, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
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