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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719280/multiplex-serologic-assessment-of-schistosomiasis-in-western-kenya-antibody-responses-in-preschool-aged-children-as-a-measure-of-reduced-transmission
#1
Kimberly Y Won, Henry M Kanyi, Faith M Mwende, Ryan E Wiegand, E Brook Goodhew, Jeffrey W Priest, Yeuk-Mui Lee, Sammy M Njenga, W Evan Secor, Patrick J Lammie, Maurice R Odiere
AbstractCurrently, impact of schistosomiasis control programs in Schistosoma mansoni-endemic areas is monitored primarily by assessment of parasitologic indicators only. Our study was conducted to evaluate the use of antibody responses as a way to measure the impact of schistosomiasis control programs. A total of 3,612 serum samples collected at three time points from children 1-5 years of age were tested for antibody responses to two schistosome antigens (soluble egg antigen [SEA] and Sm25) by multiplex bead assay...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708450/a-comparison-of-kenyan-biomphalaria-pfeifferi-and-b-sudanica-as-vectors-for-schistosoma-mansoni-including-a-discussion-of-the-need-to-better-understand-the-effects-of-snail-breeding-systems-on-transmission
#2
Martin Mutuku, Lijun Lu, Fredrick Otiato, Ibrahim Ndungu Mwangi, Joseph Mutonga Kinuthia, Geoffrey Murai Maina, Martina Rose Laidemitt, Eric Agola Lelo, Horace Ochanda, Eric Samuel Loker, Gerald Mwandori Mkoji
In Kenya, schistosomes infect an estimated 6 million people with >30 million people at risk of infection. We compared compatibility with, and ability to support and perpetuate, Schistosoma mansoni of Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Biomphalaria sudanica, 2 prominent freshwater snail species involved in schistosomiasis transmission in Kenya. Field-derived B. pfeifferi (from a stream in Mwea, central Kenya) and B. sudanica (from Nawa, Lake Victoria, in western Kenya) were exposed to S. mansoni miracidia isolated from fecal samples of naturally infected humans from Mwea or Nawa...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704396/phenotypic-chemical-and-functional-characterization-of-cyclic-nucleotide-phosphodiesterase-4-pde4-as-a-potential-anthelmintic-drug-target
#3
Thavy Long, Liliana Rojo-Arreola, Da Shi, Nelly El-Sakkary, Kurt Jarnagin, Fernando Rock, Maliwan Meewan, Alberto A Rascón, Lin Lin, Katherine A Cunningham, George A Lemieux, Larissa Podust, Ruben Abagyan, Kaveh Ashrafi, James H McKerrow, Conor R Caffrey
BACKGROUND: Reliance on just one drug to treat the prevalent tropical disease, schistosomiasis, spurs the search for new drugs and drug targets. Inhibitors of human cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (huPDEs), including PDE4, are under development as novel drugs to treat a range of chronic indications including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and Alzheimer's disease. One class of huPDE4 inhibitors that have yielded marketed drugs is the benzoxaboroles (Anacor Pharmaceuticals)...
July 13, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701752/suppression-of-vamp2-alters-morphology-of-the-tegument-and-affects-glucose-uptake-development-and-reproduction-of-schistosoma-japonicum
#4
Qian Han, Bingguang Jia, Yang Hong, Xiaodan Cao, Qi Zhai, Ke Lu, Hao Li, Chuangang Zhu, Zhiqiang Fu, Yonghong Shi, Jiaojiao Lin
Schistosomiasis caused by schsitosomes is a serious global public health concern. The tegument that surrounds the worm is critical to the schistosomes survival. The tegument apical membrane undergoes a continuous process of rupture and repair owing to membranous vacuoles fusing with the plasma membrane. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2), a member of soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNAREs) is required for membrane fusion. Here, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down the expression of VAMP2 of Schistosoma japonicum (SjVAMP2), and both real-time PCR and western blot analysis confirmed the suppression of this molecule, as well as the suppression of the transcript levels of schistosome glucose transporters (SGTP1 and SGTP4), and insulin receptors (SjIR1 and SjIR2)...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680323/high-prevalence-of-helminths-infection-and-associated-risk-factors-among-adults-living-in-a-rural-setting-central-kenya-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Janet Masaku, Faith Mutungi, Paul M Gichuki, Collins Okoyo, Doris W Njomo, Sammy M Njenga
BACKGROUND: Schistosome infection and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are major public health problems in many developing countries where they contribute to the suffering of populations living in poor settings. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four rural villages in central region of Kenya to provide information on the status of schistosome and STH infections. Previous studies conducted in the area among primary school children showed that there were high STH and Schistosoma mansoni infections...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669843/large-outbreak-of-urogenital-schistosomiasis-acquired-in-southern-corsica-monitoring-the-early-signs-of-the-endemicization
#6
H Noël, M Ruello, A Maccary, C Pellat, C Sommen, J Boissier, H Barré-Cardi, J Fillaux, J-L Termignon, M Debruyne, G Chyderiotis, J Durand, L Ramalli, J-D Chiappini, P Malfait, A Berry
OBJECTIVES: Clustered cases of urogenital schistosomiasis were reported in April 2014 among French and German tourists linked to exposure in the Cavu River, Southern Corsica, between 2011 and 2013. We set up a national surveillance of autochthonous urogenital schistosomiasis documenting the largest possible number of cases to identify potential sites of transmission and to determine the extent of the outbreakin France and Corsica. METHODS: The early response consisted mostly in prohibiting swimming in the river, a nationwide serological screening of all persons exposed to the river between 2011 and 2013, and treating confirmed cases...
June 29, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666754/antiparasitic-activity-of-nerolidol-in-a-mouse-model-of-schistosomiasis
#7
Marcos P Silva, Rosimeire N de Oliveira, Ana C Mengarda, Daniel B Roquini, Silmara M Alegretti, Maria C Salvadori, Fernanda S Teixeira, Damião P de Sousa, Pedro L S Pinto, Josué de Moraes
Schistosomiasis is a major public health problem worldwide, especially in poor communities. Since praziquantel is currently the only drug available to treat schistosomiasis, there is an urgent need to identify new antischistosomal drugs. Nerolidol is a sesquiterpene present as an essential oil in several plants, and it has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo antischistosomal activity of nerolidol in a mouse model of schistosomiasis infected with either adult or juvenile stages of Schistosoma mansoni...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650976/effect-of-praziquantel-on-the-differential-expression-of-mouse-hepatic-genes-and-parasite-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-gene-family-members-during-schistosoma-mansoni-infection
#8
Melissa C Sanchez, Katina V Krasnec, Amalia S Parra, Christian von Cabanlong, Geoffrey N Gobert, Boris Umylny, Pauline M Cupit, Charles Cunningham
Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by sexually dimorphic blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only drug widely available to treat the disease but does not kill juvenile parasites. Here we report the use of next generation sequencing to study the transcriptional effect of PZQ on murine hepatic inflammatory, immune and fibrotic responses to Schistosoma mansoni worms and eggs. An initial T helper cell 1 (Th1) response is induced against schistosomes in mice treated with drug vehicle (Vh) around the time egg laying begins, followed by a T helper cell 2 (Th2) response and the induction of genes whose action leads to granuloma formation and fibrosis...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646891/absence-of-batf3-results-in-reduced-liver-pathology-in-mice-infected-with-schistosoma-japonicum
#9
Lin Chen, Donghui Zhang, Wenyue Zhang, Yuxiao Zhu, Min Hou, Bingya Yang, Zhipeng Xu, Minjun Ji, Guanling Wu
BACKGROUND: The involvement of CD8(+)T cells in schistosomiasis is being increasingly appreciated, but the underlying mechanism is not well defined. RESULTS: In this study, we showed that the absence of Batf3 alleviated liver damage in Batf3 (-/-) mice infected with S. japonicum. We found alleviated liver granulomatous inflammation in Batf3 (-/-) mice with schistosomiasis japonica could not be attributed to the difference in schistosome egg or worm burden. The stronger Tc1 cell responses observed in Batf3 (-/-) mice suggested that the deletion of Batf3 resulted in more activation of CD8(+)T cells unexpectedly during the natural infection of schistosomes...
June 24, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637488/a-high-throughput-colorimetric-assay-for-detection-of-schistosoma-mansoni-viability-based-on-the-tetrazolium-salt-xtt
#10
Pedro Henrique Nascimento Aguiar, Núbia Monteiro Gonçalves Soares Fernandes, Carlos Leomar Zani, Marina Moraes Mourão
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni is a trematode parasite that causes schistosomiasis, one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, leading to the loss of 2.6 million disability-adjusted life years. Praziquantel is the only drug available, and new drugs are required. The most common strategy in schistosomiasis drug discovery is the use of the schistosomula larval-stage for a pre-screen in drug sensitivity assays. However, assessing schistosomula viability by microscopy has always been a limitation to the throughput of such assays...
June 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633651/epidemiology-of-intestinal-helminthiasis-among-school-children-with-emphasis-on-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-in-wolaita-zone-southern-ethiopia
#11
Bereket Alemayehu, Zewdneh Tomass, Fiseha Wadilo, Dawit Leja, Song Liang, Berhanu Erko
BACKGROUND: Intestinal helminth infections are major parasitic diseases causing public health problems in Ethiopia. Although the epidemiology of these infections are well documented in Ethiopia, new transmission foci for schistosomiasis are being reported in different parts of the country. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal helminth infections among school children and determine the endemicity of schistosomiasis in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia...
June 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623957/developing-a-mathematical-model-for-the-evaluation-of-the-potential-impact-of-a-partially-efficacious-vaccine-on-the-transmission-dynamics-of-schistosoma-mansoni-in-human-communities
#12
Andria Stylianou, Christoforos Hadjichrysanthou, James E Truscott, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: There is currently no vaccine available to protect humans against infection with the schistosome digenean parasites, although candidate formulations for Schistosoma mansoni are under trial in animal models, including rodents and primates. Current strategies for the control of infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) targeted at school-aged children of age 5 to 14 years. This approach is unlikely to eliminate exposure to infection except in settings with very low levels of transmission...
June 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619672/point-of-care-diagnosis-of-multiple-schistosome-parasites-species-specific-dna-detection-in-urine-by-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp
#13
Nilanjan Lodh, Kei Mikita, Kwabena M Bosompem, William K Anyan, Joseph K Quartey, Joseph Otchere, Clive J Shiff
Schistosomes are easily transmitted and high chance of repeat infection, so if control strategies based on targeted mass drug administration (MDA) are to succeed it is essential to have a test that is sensitive, accurate and simple to use. It is known and regularly demonstrated that praziquantel does not always eliminate an infection so in spite of the successes of control programs a residual of the reservoir survives to re-infect snails. The issue of diagnostic sensitivity becomes more critical in the assessment of program effectiveness...
June 12, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606164/the-importance-of-patient-compliance-in-repeated-rounds-of-mass-drug-administration-mda-for-the-elimination-of-intestinal-helminth-transmission
#14
Sam H Farrell, James E Truscott, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: Systematic non-compliance to chemotherapeutic treatment among a portion of the eligible population is thought to be a major obstacle to the elimination of helminth infections by mass drug administration (MDA). MDA for helminths is repeated at defined intervals such as yearly or every 2 years, as a consequence of the inability of the human host to develop fully protective immunity to reinfection. As such, how an individual complies to these repeated rounds of MDA can have a significant impact on parasite transmission...
June 12, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599669/characterization-of-schistosoma-japonicum-tetraspanning-orphan-receptor-and-its-role-in-binding-to-complement-c2-and-immunoprotection-against-murine-schistosomiasis
#15
Shuai Ma, Jinli Zai, Yanhui Han, Yang Hong, Min Zhang, Xiaodan Cao, Qian Han, Ke Lu, Zhixin Zhao, Jiaojiao Lin, Zhiqiang Fu
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis remains an important global public health problem, as millions of people are at risk of acquiring infection. An ideal method for sustainable control of schistosomiasis would be to develop an efficient vaccine. Schistosomes can survive in the host vascular system by immune evasion, regulating the host complement cascade. Schistosoma japonicum tetraspanning orphan receptor (SjTOR) is a complement regulator, which is a tegument membrane protein. To date there is no experimental evidence to explain the function of SjTOR...
June 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591406/the-use-of-circulating-cathodic-antigen-rapid-test-and-serology-for-diagnosis-of-active-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-in-migrants-in-italy-a-non-endemic-country-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Laura Infurnari, Laura Galli, Alba Bigoloni, Alessia Carbone, Stefania Chiappetta, Angelo Sala, Norberto Ceserani, Adriano Lazzarin, Antonella Castagna, Giovanni Gaiera/
Diagnosis of schistosomiasis in migrants coming from endemic areas can be difficult, especially in asymptomatic subjects. Light-intensity disease, in fact, may be missed due to the low sensitivity of the stool microscopy and serologic testing cannot distinguish between a resolved infection and an active infection in patients who have been infected and treated in the past, because specific antibodies can persist despite cure. We describe a cross-sectional study conducted on 82 migrants tested for Schistosoma mansoni on single blood (anti-schistosome antibodies, total IgE) and urine [point-of-care (POC) circulating-cathodic-antigen (CCA) test] samples...
June 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555471/comparison-of-the-spatial-patterns-of-schistosomiasis-in-zimbabwe-at-two-points-in-time-spaced-twenty-nine-years-apart-is-climate-variability-of-importance
#17
Ulrik B Pedersen, Dimitrios-Alexios Karagiannis-Voules, Nicholas Midzi, Tkafira Mduluza, Samson Mukaratirwa, Rasmus Fensholt, Birgitte J Vennervald, Thomas K Kristensen, Penelope Vounatsou, Anna-Sofie Stensgaard
Temperature, precipitation and humidity are known to be important factors for the development of schistosome parasites as well as their intermediate snail hosts. Climate therefore plays an important role in determining the geographical distribution of schistosomiasis and it is expected that climate change will alter distribution and transmission patterns. Reliable predictions of distribution changes and likely transmission scenarios are key to efficient schistosomiasis intervention-planning. However, it is often difficult to assess the direction and magnitude of the impact on schistosomiasis induced by climate change, as well as the temporal transferability and predictive accuracy of the models, as prevalence data is often only available from one point in time...
May 8, 2017: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555405/molecular-characterization-and-expression-profile-of-nanos-in-schistosoma-japonicum-and-its-influence-on-the-expression-several-mammalian-stem-cell-factors
#18
Bikash Ranjan Giri, Xiaoli Du, Tianqi Xia, Yongjun Chen, Hao Li, Guofeng Cheng
Pluripotent stem cells, called neoblasts, are well known for the regenerative capability and developmental plasticity in flatworms. Impressive advancement has been made in free-living flatworms, while in case of its parasitic counterpart, neoblast-like stem cells have attracted recent attention for its self-renewal and differentiation capacity. Nanos is a key conserved post-transcriptional regulator critical for the formation, development, and/or maintenance of the pluripotent germ line stem cell systems in many metazoans including schistosomes...
July 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552799/an-explorative-analysis-of-process-and-formulation-variables-affecting-comilling-in-a-vibrational-mill-the-case-of-praziquantel
#19
Beatrice Perissutti, Nadia Passerini, Ramona Trastullo, Jennifer Keiser, Debora Zanolla, Guglielmo Zingone, Dario Voinovich, Beatrice Albertini
Praziquantel, a BCS II class anthelmintic drug used for the treatment of schistosome infections, was coground in a vibrational mill with different polymers (linear and crosslinked povidone, copovidone and sodium starch glycolate). An explorative analysis of formulation variables (drug-polymer wt ratio and polymer type) and process parameters (type of grinding media, grinding time and frequency) was carried out with the help of an experimental screening design. The influence of the above mentioned factors on three PZQ characteristics (residual crystallinity, water solubility enhancement and drug recovery) was studied...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542189/mir-277-4989-regulate-transcriptional-landscape-during-juvenile-to-adult-transition-in-the-parasitic-helminth-schistosoma-mansoni
#20
Anna V Protasio, Stijn van Dongen, Julie Collins, Leonor Quintais, Diogo M Ribeiro, Florian Sessler, Martin Hunt, Gabriel Rinaldi, James J Collins, Anton J Enright, Matthew Berriman
Schistosomes are parasitic helminths that cause schistosomiasis, a disease affecting circa 200 million people, primarily in underprivileged regions of the world. Schistosoma mansoni is the most experimentally tractable schistosome species due to its ease of propagation in the laboratory and the high quality of its genome assembly and annotation. Although there is growing interest in microRNAs (miRNAs) in trematodes, little is known about the role these molecules play in the context of developmental processes...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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