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David Gurarie, Nathan C Lo, Martial L Ndeffo-Mbah, David P Durham, Charles H King
INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic trematode disease that affects over 240 million people worldwide. The Schistosoma lifecycle is complex, involving transmission via specific intermediate-host freshwater snails. Predictive mathematical models of Schistosoma transmission have often chosen to simplify or ignore the details of environmental human-snail interaction in their analyses. Schistosome transmission models now aim to provide better precision for policy planning of elimination of transmission...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
S N El-Beshbishi, S El Bardicy, M Tadros, M Ayoub, A Taman
Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni infections have broadly overlapping geographical distributions. Praziquantel is the only treatment for human schistosomiasis, so drug tolerance and/or resistance are major concerns. Artemisinin-naphthoquine phosphate (CO-ArNp), an artemisinin-based combination therapy endorsed by the World Health Organization as a gold standard therapy for malaria, has also been identified as a promising treatment for S. mansoni. In this in vitro study, we tested the effect of 1-40 μg/ml CO-ArNp on S...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Ruixiang Zhang, Jian Li, Manyu Xiang, Qinghua Hong, Bin Xu, Wei Hu
Schistosomiasis represents one of the most prevalent parasitic infections affecting over 249 million people worldwide. The pathological damage is mainly caused by the eggs laid by female schistosomes. Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) usually play critical roles in many biological functions. In this study, we cloned, identified and characterized the zinc finger protein SjZF of Schistosoma japonicum. SjZF ortholog proteins were also identified in S. mansoni, S. haematobium, Opisthorchis viverrini and O. sinensis. Fluorescence localization showed that SjZF was particularly expressed in the worm gut of both genders and the vitelline glands of females...
May 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Tao Wei, Chen Xue-Feng, Wu Ming-Yao, Wang Cheng, Du Yi-Fang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of cementing ditch-based project on schistosomiasis control in the irrigation area of Dingshen River basin in Shitai County, Anhui Province. METHODS: The data of Oncomelania hupensis snail surveys from 2009 to 2015 and the data of schistosome infections in humans and livestock from 2009 to 2015 were collected, and the changes of the epidemic situation were analyzed and compared before and after the project. RESULTS: In the cementing ditches, the occurrence rate of living snails decreased by 68...
March 1, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Peng Guo-Hua, Wei Wang-Yuan, Qian Ke, Hu Zhu-Hua, Li Shi-Zhu, Guo Jia-Gang, Yu Qing
OBJECTIVE: To develop a bionic animal skin and evaluate its detective effect of Schistosoma japonicum cercariae so as to provide a new technique for the monitoring of the schistosome susceptibility water body. METHODS: A bionic animal skin was made with pigskin and the experiments were carried out for evaluating its detective effects of S. japonicum cercariae in laboratory and simulate fields, and at the same time, the sentinel mouse method was used as the control...
April 17, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Huang Jin, Tang Chun-Lian, Tu Zu-Wu, Tang Li, Zhang Ke-Hui, Li Qian, Ye Jun
OBJECTIVE: To prepare freeze-drying control materials of IgG antibody against Schistosoma japonicum for detection kits. METHODS: The serum samples of schistosomiasis patients from endemic areas and normal people without history of schistosome infection or contact with infested water in Hubei Province were collected. All the sera were detected by the method approved by China Food and Drug Administration and selected for preparation of quality control samples. RESULTS: Totally twelve positive quality control materials, ten negative quality control materials, and one sensitive and one precision quality control materials were screened...
April 18, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Guan Zhou, Lü Shan, Li Shi-Zhu, Dang Hui, Zhang Li-Juan, Xu Jing
OBJECTIVE: To understand the situation of Schistosoma japonicum infections in foating population and its epidemiological characteristics in China, so as to provide insights into the development of the surveillance strategy and interventions for schistosomiasis. METHODS: According to the protocol of national surveillance project, indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) was employed for serological screening of S. japonicum infections among the floating population in the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2005 to 2014, and the sero-positives were subjected to parasitological examinations...
April 20, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Hu Guang-Han, Xu Jing, Cao Chun-Li, Jin Jia-Ning, Lü Shan, Li Shi-Zhu, Zhou Xiao-Nong
Health education and health promotion are important measures for comprehensive control of schistosomiasis in China, which can improve the compliance rate of residents involved in schistosomiasis control activities, reduce the water contact behavior of the target population, thus avoiding or decreasing the infection of schistosome in endemic areas. In recent years, the comprehensive control of schistosomiasis in China has achieved remarkable results. China has reached the goal of transmission control and is moving toward the transmission interruption or even elimination of schistosomiasis...
April 17, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Hong-Bin Yan, Michael J Smout, Chuan Ju, Anne E Folley, Danielle E Skinner, Victoria H Mann, Alex Loukas, Wei Hu, Paul J Brindley, Gabriel Rinaldi
Schistosomiasis is considered the most important disease caused by helminth parasites, in terms of morbidity and mortality. Tools to facilitate gain- and loss- of-function approaches can be expected to precipitate the discovery of novel interventions, and drug selection of transgenic schistosomes would facilitate the establishment of stable lines of engineered parasites. Sensitivity of developmental stages of schistosomes to the aminonucleoside antibiotic puromycin was investigated. For the schistosomulum and sporocyst stages, viability was quantified by fluorescence microscopy following dual staining with fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodine...
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Renata R F Candido, Alessandra L Morassutti, Carlos Graeff-Teixeira, Timothy G St Pierre, Malcolm K Jones
In this era of increasing demand for sensitive techniques to diagnose schistosomiasis, there is a need for an increased focus on the properties of the parasite eggs. The eggs are not only directly linked to the morbidity of chronic infection but are also potential key targets for accurate diagnostics. Eggs were the primary target of diagnostic tools in the past and we argue they could be the target of highly sensitive tools in the future if we focus on characteristics of their structure and shell surface that could be exploited for enhanced detection...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Swarna Bais, Corbett T Berry, Xiaohong Liu, Gordon Ruthel, Bruce D Freedman, Robert M Greenberg
Parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma cause schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease estimated to affect over 200 million people worldwide. Praziquantel is the only antischistosomal currently available for treatment, and there is an urgent need for new therapeutics. Ion channels play key roles in physiology and are targets for many anthelmintics, yet only a few representatives have been characterized in any detail in schistosomes and other parasitic helminths. The transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily comprises a diverse family of non-selective cation channels that play key roles in sensory transduction and a wide range of other functions...
May 10, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Martina Sombetzki, Nicole Koslowski, Anne Rabes, Sonja Seneberg, Franziska Winkelmann, Carlos Fritzsche, Micha Loebermann, Emil C Reisinger
Infection with the intravascular diecious trematode Schistosoma spp . remains a serious tropical disease and public health problem in the developing world, affecting over 258 million people worldwide. During chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection, complex immune responses to tissue-entrapped parasite eggs provoke granulomatous inflammation which leads to serious damage of the liver and intestine. The suppression of protective host immune mechanisms by helminths promotes parasite survival and benefits the host by reducing tissue damage...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Nelson Siukei Lam, Xinxin Long, Xin-Zhuan Su, Fangli Lu
The World Health Organization estimated that more than 1.5 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths globally, and foodborne trematodiases in humans cause ∼2 million life-years lost to disability and death worldwide every year. Investment in prevention, treatment, and awareness of helminth infections and discovery of new, safe, effective, and affordable anti-helminth drugs are urgently needed. Artemisinin (ART) and its derivatives have been widely used to treat malaria and other protozoan infections; they also possess activities against helminths...
May 1, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Laura Zanisi, Pietro Benedetto Faré, Gabriele Poncini
Although rarely diagnosed in Switzerland, urinary tract schistosomiasis is common in the migrants' regions of origin, such as sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East. Early recognition of this condition, even if asymptomatic, is crucial, because it increases the risk for HIV transmission and, if left untreated, can result in infertility and is associated with the development of bladder cancer. The diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis should be especially suspected in case of terminal haematuria and eosinophilia in patients with a history of skin exposure to fresh water in endemic areas...
May 2, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
S A El-Refai, A F Atia, S F Mahmoud
Schistosomiasis is a chronic debilitating parasitic disease that causes hepatic damage and is known to be endemic in developing countries. Recent control strategies for schistosomiasis depend exclusively on chemotherapeutic agents, specifically praziquantel. Unfortunately, praziquantel has low efficacy in the early phase of infection, and resistance to treatment is increasingly reported. The aim of this work was to find an alternative treatment by assessing the in vivo activity of aqueous extract of Callistemon citrinus against Schistosoma mansoni in both prepatent and patent phases in experimentally infected mice...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Dina M Metwally, Ebtesam M Al-Olayan, Mohammad Alanazi, Sanaa B Alzahrany, Abdelhabib Semlali
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is an acute and chronic zoonotic parasitic disease caused by trematode worms. The host inflammatory response to schistosome eggs leads to perioval granulomata formation, mainly in the liver and intestine. This study investigated the potential antischistosomal and anti-inflammatory activity of both garlic extract and allicin on liver fibrotic markers in BALB/c mice with schistosomiasis (S. mansoni infection) compared with that of the commonly used drug, praziquantel (PZQ)...
April 27, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Carolyn E Adler
Two proteins required for the growth of a skin-like structure called the tegument in parasitic flatworms could be new targets for drugs to kill these parasites.
April 24, 2018: ELife
Sha Zhou, Qianqian Qi, Xiaofan Wang, Lina Zhang, Lei Xu, Liyang Dong, Jifeng Zhu, Yalin Li, Xuefeng Wang, Zhipeng Xu, Feng Liu, Wei Hu, Liang Zhou, Xiaojun Chen, Chuan Su
CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a pivotal role in limiting immunopathological damage to host organs after schistosome infection. TGF-β is an essential factor for the periphery conversion of CD4+ CD25- T cells into CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Tregs by inducing the key transcription factor Foxp3. Antigen presenting cells (APCs), which highly express TGF-β, are involved in parasite antigen-induced Treg convertion in peripheral. However, the mechanisms underlying high TGF-β induction in APCs by parasite antigens remain to be clarified during schistosome infection...
April 26, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Bartholomew N Ondigo, Eric M Ndombi, Sarah C Nicholson, John K Oguso, Jennifer M Carter, Nupur Kittur, William Evan Secor, Diana M S Karanja, Daniel G Colley
Immunoregulation is considered a common feature of Schistosoma mansoni infections, and elevated levels of T regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes have been reported during chronic human schistosomiasis. We now report that the removal of Treg (CD4+/CD25hi /CD127low lymphocytes) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of S. mansoni -infected individuals leads to increased levels of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated interferon gamma (IFNγ) production and decreased interleukin-10 (IL-10) responses. Exposure to schistosome antigens did not result in measurable IFNγ by either PBMC or Treg-depleted populations...
April 23, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Minh-Anh Dang-Trinh, Jose Ma M Angeles, Kharleezelle J Moendeg, Adrian Miki C Macalanda, Luna Higuchi, Chiho Oto, Masashi Kirinoki, Yuichi Chigusa, Shin-Ichiro Kawazu
Schistosoma japonicum, causing zoonotic intestinal schistosomiasis, is found in China, the Philippines and parts of Indonesia. Severe disease manifestations are basically due to the deposition of eggs in some vital organs such as the liver, spleen and brain. Traditionally, histopathological microscopic examination of the egg burden was used to evaluate the intensity of infection in the affected organs. However, this technique is laborious, time-consuming and requires trained personnel. In this study, real time PCR targeting the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase I gene was used to compare with microscopic examination of tissue sections in evaluating the egg burdens in different affected organs...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
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