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Euan R O Allan, Benjamin Gourbal, Camila B Dores, Anais Portet, Christopher J Bayne, Michael S Blouin
Schistosomiasis is one of the most detrimental neglected tropical diseases. Controlling the spread of this parasitic illness requires effective sanitation, access to chemotherapeutic drugs, and control over populations of the freshwater snails, such as Biomphalaria glabrata, that are essential intermediate hosts for schistosomes. Effectively controlling this disease, while minimizing ecological implications of such control, will require an extensive understanding of the immunological interactions between schistosomes and their molluscan intermediate hosts...
November 11, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
Shiwanthi L Ranasinghe, Mary Duke, Marina Harvie, Donald P McManus
OBJECTIVES: To develop a vaccine against schistosomiasis, which is a major challenge due to the complex life cycle of the causative schistosome parasite. METHODS: SmKI-1 is a 16kDa Kunitz type protease inhibitor present in the excretory/secretory products and tegument of adult worms and eggs of Schistosoma mansoni. Two independent vaccine trials were carried out in mice to determine the efficacy of rSmKI-1 in developing protective immunity. RESULTS: The results obtained showed reductions of 23-33% in adult worms, 28-31% in intestinal eggs, 33-39% in fecal eggs and 20-43% in liver eggs...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Manal Salah El-Din Mahmoud, Ayman Nabil Ibrahim, Abeer Fathy Badawy, Nourhan Mohamed Abdelmoniem
The present work aimed to study the effect of phenyl vinyl sulphone (PVS), a CPI, on different stages of Schistosoma (S.) mansoni in an in vitro culture study and in experimentally infected mice, compared to PZQ. As regards the in vitro study, different concentrations of PVS (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 µg/ml) and PZQ (1 µg/ml) were assessed by % worm mortality for schistosomula and adults, and hemoglobin degradation by schistosomula. In vivo study included 8 groups of mice. Intraperitoneal PVS, subgroup (a), and oral PZQ, subgroup (b), were assessed at different durations post infection (pi); at 1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks pi (groups I, II, III and IV, respectively)...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Euan R O Allan, Michael S Blouin
Freshwater snails are the intermediate hosts for numerous parasitic worms that are detrimental to human and agricultural health. Understanding the immune responses of these snails could be vital for finding ways to block transmission of those parasites. Allelic variation in a recently discovered genomic region in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, influences their susceptibility to schistosomes. Here we tested whether genes in that region, termed the Guadeloupe Resistance Complex (GRC), are involved in recognition of common pathogen-associated molecules that have been shown to be stimulants of the hydrogen peroxide defense pathway...
October 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yi-Qing Li, Yun-Fei Chen, Yi-Ping Dang, Yao Wang, Zhen-Zhong Shang, Qian Ma, Yu-Jie Wang, Juan Zhang, Lei Luo, Quan-Qiang Li, Lei Zhao
The IL-13Rα1 signaling pathway and M2 macrophages play crucial roles in schistosome egg-induced hepatic fibrosis via the expression of pro-fibrotic molecules. This study aims to investigate the inhibitory effect and mechanism of action of corilagin on schistosome egg-induced hepatic fibrosis via the IL-13Rα1 signaling pathway in M2 macrophages in vitro and in vivo. The mRNA and protein expression of IL-13Rα1, PPARγ, KLF4, SOCS1, STAT6, p-STAT6, and TGF-β was measured in vitro with corilagin treatment after IL-13 stimulation and in vivo corilagin treatment after effectively killing the adult schistosomes in schistosome-infected mice...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Ikenna C Eze, Clémence Esse, Fidèle K Bassa, Siaka Koné, Felix Acka, Loukou Yao, Medea Imboden, Fabienne N Jaeger, Christian Schindler, Mireille Dosso, Véronique Laubhouet-Koffi, Dinard Kouassi, Eliézer K N'Goran, Jürg Utzinger, Bassirou Bonfoh, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Individual-level concomitance of infectious diseases and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is poorly studied, despite the reality of this dual disease burden for many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). OBJECTIVE: This study protocol describes the implementation of a cohort and biobank aiming for a better understanding of interrelation of helminth and Plasmodium infections with NCD phenotypes like metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and diabetes. METHODS: A baseline cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted over one year, in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire...
October 27, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
Claudineide Nascimento Fernandes de Oliveira, Tarsila Ferraz Frezza, Vera Lúcia Garcia, Glyn Mara Figueira, Tiago Manuel Fernandes Mendes, Silmara Marques Allegretti
Human schistosomiasis is an important neglected tropical disease caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma and is responsible for more than 280,000 deaths annually. Treatment for this disease relies currently on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ). Concerns regarding PZQ resistance and insensitivity of juvenile schistosomes have increased the interest in resorting to medicinal plants for alternative drug therapies. This study aimed to perform an in vivo schistosomicidal activity evaluation of crude hexanic (HE) and ethanolic (EE) extracts obtained from Phyllanthus amarus in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni (BH strain)...
October 23, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Clive Shiff
Schistosomiasis has been of concern to local health authorities for most of the last century, and in spite of a lack of effective chemotherapy, the disease was dealt with quite effectively in many endemic countries by snail control and environmental management [1]. Much of this work was reported in journals prior to the electronic era but, sadly, seems to have been subsequently ignored. For many years, there followed a global hiatus on schistosomiasis control, and much of the local expertise was lost, but many things have changed more recently, mainly with the advent of generic and affordable praziquantel...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ponsiano Ocama, Kenneth Christopher Opio, Emmanuel Seremba, Paul Ajal, Betty Stephanie Apica, Emmanuel Odongo Aginya
INTRODUCTION: Both Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and S.mansoni infections are common in Uganda and can cause liver disease. No study has determined co-infection significance in Uganda. We carried out a study on the burden, pattern and factors that contribute to peri-portal fibrosis (PPF) in HIV infected patients attending a Primary healthcare setting at Pakwach. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the HIV clinic at Pakwach health centre IV...
June 2017: African Health Sciences
Manuela Ciddio, Lorenzo Mari, Susanne H Sokolow, Giulio A De Leo, Renato Casagrandi, Marino Gatto
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic, water-related disease that is prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, causing severe and chronic consequences especially among children. Here we study the spatial spread of this disease within a network of connected villages in the endemic region of the Lower Basin of the Senegal River, in Senegal. The analysis is performed by means of a spatially explicit metapopulation model that couples local-scale eco-epidemiological dynamics with spatial mechanisms related to human mobility (estimated from anonymized mobile phone records), snail dispersal and hydrological transport of schistosome larvae along the main water bodies of the region...
October 2017: Advances in Water Resources
Han Ding, Fengchun Liu, Lulu Zhu, Fei Wu, Quan Liu, Siyu He, Wei Shao, Yinan Du, Cuiping Ren, Jijia Shen, Miao Liu
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases affecting millions of humans and animals worldwide. Understanding the signal transduction pathways and the molecular basis of reproductive regulation in schistosomes is critically important for developing new strategies for preventing and treating these infections. Syk kinases regulate the proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis, and survival of various types of cells and have been identified in invertebrates...
October 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Adebayo J Molehin, Souad R Sennoune, Weidong Zhang, Juan U Rojo, Arif J Siddiqui, Karlie A Herrera, Laura Johnson, Justin Sudduth, Jordan May, Afzal A Siddiqui
Schistosomiasis remains a major global health problem. Despite large-scale schistosomiasis control efforts, clear limitations such as possible emergence of drug resistance and reinfection rates highlight the need for an effective schistosomiasis vaccine. Schistosoma mansoni large subunit of calpain (Sm-p80)-based vaccine formulations have shown remarkable efficacy in protecting against S. mansoni challenge infections in mice and baboons. In this study, we evaluated the cross-species protective efficacy of Sm-p80 vaccine against S...
November 2017: Parasitology Research
Vitor Hugo Balasco Serrão, Humberto D'Muniz Pereira, Juliana Roberta Torini de Souza, Larissa Romanello
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni is the etiological agent of schistosomiasis, a debilitating treatment neglected tropical disease that affects approximately 218 million people worldwide. Despite its importance, the treatment of schistosomiasis relies on a single drug, praziquantel. Some reports on the resistance of S. mansoni to this drug have stimulated efforts to develop new drugs to treat this disease. S. mansoni possesses all the same pyrimidine pathways (de novo, salvage and thymidylate cycles) as those of its host...
October 11, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Qiang Wang, Akram A Da'dara, Patrick J Skelly
Schistosomes are intravascular, parasitic flatworms that cause debilitating disease afflicting >200 million people. Proteins expressed at the host-parasite interface likely play key roles in modifying the worm's local environment to ensure parasite survival. Proteomic analysis reveals that two proteases belonging to the calpain family (SmCalp1 and SmCalp2) are expressed in the Schistosoma mansoni tegument. We have cloned both; while highly conserved in domain organization they display just 31% amino acid sequence identity...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Alessandra Guidi, Cristiana Lalli, Roberto Gimmelli, Emanuela Nizi, Matteo Andreini, Nadia Gennari, Fulvio Saccoccia, Steven Harper, Alberto Bresciani, Giovina Ruberti
Schistosomiasis, one of the most prevalent neglected parasitic diseases affecting humans and animals, is caused by the Platyhelminthes of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes are the only trematodes to have evolved sexual dimorphism and the constant pairing with a male is essential for the sexual maturation of the female. Pairing is required for the full development of the two major female organs, ovary and vitellarium that are involved in the production of different cell types such as oocytes and vitellocytes, which represent the core elements of the whole egg machinery...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Gordana Panic, Marie-Thérèse Ruf, Jennifer Keiser
To date there is only one drug in use, praziquantel, to treat more than 250 million people afflicted with schistosomiasis, a debilitating parasitic disease. The aryl hydantoin Ro 13-3978 is a promising drug candidate with superior in vivo activity to praziquantel against both adult and juvenile Schistosoma mansoni Given the drugs' contrasting low activity in vitro, and the timing of its onset of action in vivo, it was postulated that immune-assisted parasite clearance could contribute to the drug's in vivo activity...
October 2, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
A Akere, A O Oluwasola, T O Fakoya, A Lawan
Intestinal Schistosomiasis is a serious disease and is commonly produced by S. mansoni and japonicum. The presence of viable ova of the organism in the colon elicits inflammation, formation of granuloma, ulcers, haemorrhage and colonic fibrosis with subsequent longterm sequelae. Schistosoma mansoni is endemic in the Middle East, Africa, Central and South America. This is a case of a Nigerian with colonic polypoid masses which turned out to be Schistosomal mansoni infection.
June 2017: Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine
Siyu He, Lulu Zhu, Fengchun Liu, Quan Liu, Yanjing Shao, Mengqing Hua, Han Ding, Wei Shao, Yinan Du, Xin Hou, Cuiping Ren, Miao Liu, Jijia Shen
Vasa, an enzyme belonging to the helicase family, contributes to the regulation of reproductive system development in many species. Thus, we hypothesized that the Vasa3 gene may function in the reproductive system of the parasite Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum), which is a major causative agent of schistosomiasis. It is a severe disease globally affecting humans and animals. To test this hypothesis, we firstly conducted whole mount in situ hybridization analyses and found that the S. japonicum Vasa3 (SjVasa3) gene was expressed mainly in the reproductive organs...
January 5, 2018: Gene
Abeer A Elhenawy, Rehab H Ashour, Nairmen Nabih, Naglaa M Shalaby, Amr A El-Karef, Hala S Abou-El-Wafa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tyrphostin "AG1024" is an insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitor that displayed an effect on the viability of larval and mature schistosomes in vitro. We sought to investigate the possible in vivo role of AG1024 as a potential new anti-Schistosoma drug against immature and adult stages of Schistosoma mansoni and its effect on the degree of hepatic fibrosis and insulin pathway. METHODS: The study included a control non-infected group and 5 groups of S...
November 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jennifer A Downs, Kathryn M Dupnik, Govert J van Dam, Mark Urassa, Peter Lutonja, Dieuwke Kornelis, Claudia J de Dood, Pytsje Hoekstra, Chifundo Kanjala, Raphael Isingo, Robert N Peck, Myung Hee Lee, Paul L A M Corstjens, Jim Todd, John M Changalucha, Warren D Johnson, Daniel W Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis affects 218 million people worldwide, with most infections in Africa. Prevalence studies suggest that people with chronic schistosomiasis may have higher risk of HIV-1 acquisition and impaired ability to control HIV-1 replication once infected. We hypothesized that: (1) pre-existing schistosome infection may increase the odds of HIV-1 acquisition and that the effects may differ between men and women, and (2) individuals with active schistosome infection at the time of HIV-1 acquisition may have impaired immune control of HIV-1, resulting in higher HIV-1 viral loads at HIV-1 seroconversion...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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