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Fawaz Abo-Alhassan, Fatemah Faras, Yousef M Malek, Munish Joneja, Piyaray M Dhar
BACKGROUND: Appendicular schistosomiasis is an unusual etiology of acute appendicitis, which has been reported in countries endemic in schistosomiasis, such as sub-saharan Africa and South America. Nowadays, due to globalization, this disease has been diagnosed in non-endemic countries. Kuwait is a country possessing a larger percentage of foreigners than national citizens. Therefore, several cases of schistosomal appendicitis were found. METHOD: The clinicopathological records of all patients that underwent appendectomy during January 2007 and December 2011 were recorded from the archives of Al-Adan Hospital in Kuwait...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Sutas Suttiprapa, Gabriel Rinaldi, Isheng J Tsai, Victoria H Mann, Larisa Dubrovsky, Hong-Bin Yan, Nancy Holroyd, Thomas Huckvale, Caroline Durrant, Anna V Protasio, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Sergey Iordanskiy, Matthew Berriman, Michael I Bukrinsky, Paul J Brindley
Schistosomiasis is the most important helminthic disease of humanity in terms of morbidity and mortality. Facile manipulation of schistosomes using lentiviruses would enable advances in functional genomics in these and related neglected tropical diseases pathogens including tapeworms, and including their non-dividing cells. Such approaches have hitherto been unavailable. Blood stream forms of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of the hepatointestinal schistosomiasis, were infected with the human HIV-1 isolate NL4-3 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
James J Cody, Wannaporn Ittiprasert, André N Miller, Lucie Henein, Margaret M Mentink-Kane, Michael H Hsieh
Schistosomiasis remains a health burden in many parts of the world. The complex life cycle of Schistosoma parasites and the economic and societal conditions present in endemic areas make the prospect of eradication unlikely in the foreseeable future. Continued and vigorous research efforts must therefore be directed at this disease, particularly since only a single World Health Organization (WHO)-approved drug is available for treatment. The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Schistosomiasis Resource Center (SRC) at the Biomedical Research Institute provides investigators with the critical raw materials needed to carry out this important research...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Margarida Ressurreição, Firat Elbeyioglu, Ruth S Kirk, David Rollinson, Aidan M Emery, Nigel M Page, Anthony J Walker
During infection of their human definitive host, schistosomes transform rapidly from free-swimming infective cercariae in freshwater to endoparasitic schistosomules. The 'somules' next migrate within the skin to access the vasculature and are surrounded by host molecules that might activate intracellular pathways that influence somule survival, development and/or behaviour. However, such 'transactivation' by host factors in schistosomes is not well defined. In the present study, we have characterized and functionally localized the dynamics of protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation during early somule development in vitro and demonstrate activation of these protein kinases by human epidermal growth factor, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, particularly at the parasite surface...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Martina R Laidemitt, Eva T Zawadzki, Sara V Brant, Martin W Mutuku, Gerald M Mkoji, Eric S Loker
Paramphistomoids are ubiquitous and widespread digeneans that infect a diverse range of definitive hosts, being particularly speciose in ruminants. We collected adult worms from cattle, goats and sheep from slaughterhouses, and cercariae from freshwater snails from ten localities in Central and West Kenya. We sequenced cox1 (690 bp) and internal transcribed region 2 (ITS2) (385 bp) genes from a small piece of 79 different adult worms and stained and mounted the remaining worm bodies for comparisons with available descriptions...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology
R M Anderson, H C Turner, S H Farrell, J E Truscott
Schistosomiasis is global in extent within developing countries, but more than 90% of the at-risk population lives in sub-Saharan Africa. In total, 261 million people are estimated to require preventive treatment. However, with increasing drug availability through donation, the World Health Organization has set a goal of increasing coverage to 75% of at-risk children in endemic countries and elimination in some regions. In this chapter, we discuss key biological and epidemiological processes involved in the schistosome transmission cycle and review the history of modelling schistosomiasis and the impact of mass drug administration, including both deterministic and stochastic approaches...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Julie N R Collins, James J Collins
Schistosomes are flatworm parasites that claim the lives of more than 200,000 people in poverty-stricken regions every year. Much of the pathology due to infection is the direct result of injury spurred by the parasite's eggs becoming lodged in host tissues. Thus, asking basic questions about germ cell biology may not only identify novel therapeutic approaches, but could also uncover conserved mechanisms that regulate the germline in diverse metazoa. Here, we detail useful methods for studying the schistosome germline including EdU labeling, whole-mount in situ hybridization, and RNA interference...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Francisca Mutapi
Schistosomiasis, commonly known as bilharzia, is a parasitic disease prevalent in Africa, Asia and South America. The majority of the cases occur in Sub-Saharan Africa where schistosomiasis is a major public health problem impacting on child health and development as well as adult health when infections become chronic. Control of schistosomiasis is by treatment of infected people with the antihelminthic drug praziquantel. Current schistosome control programmes advocated by the World Health Assembly in 2001 are aimed at regular school-based integrated deworming strategies in order to reduce development of severe morbidity, promote school health and to improve cognitive potential of children...
October 12, 2016: Parasitology
Biniam Mathewos Tebeje, Marina Harvie, Hong You, Alex Loukas, Donald P McManus
Schistosomiasis, caused mainly by S. mansoni, S. haematobium and S. japonicum, continues to be a serious tropical disease and public health problem resulting in an unacceptably high level of morbidity in countries where it is endemic. Praziquantel, the only drug currently available for treatment, is unable to kill developing schistosomes, it does not prevent re-infection and its continued extensive use may result in the future emergence of drug-resistant parasites. This scenario provides impetus for the development and deployment of anti-schistosome vaccines to be used as part of an integrated approach for the prevention, control and eventual elimination of schistosomiasis...
September 30, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Priscilla Masamba, Abiola Fatimah Adenowo, Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Abidemi Paul Kappo
In spite of various control measures and eradication methods that have been in progress, schistosomiasis still prevails as one of the most prevalent debilitating parasitic diseases, typically affecting the poor and the underprivileged that are predominantly concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. The parasitic schistosome blood fluke responsible for causing the disease completes its complex developmental cycle in two hosts: humans and freshwater snails, where they physically undergo gross modifications to endure the different conditions associated with each host...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ana Eliza Zeraik, Margarita Staykova, Marina Gabriel Fontes, Indrė Nemuraitė, Roy Quinlan, Ana Paula Ulian Araújo, Ricardo DeMarco
Septins are GTP-binding proteins that are highly conserved among eukaryotes and which are usually membrane-associated. They have been linked to several critical cellular functions such as exocytosis and ciliogenesis, but little mechanistic detail is known. Their assembly into filaments and membrane binding properties are incompletely understood and that is specially so for non-human septins where such information would offer therapeutic potential. In this study we use Schistosoma mansoni, exhibiting just four septin genes, as a simpler model for characterizing the septin structure and organization...
September 26, 2016: Biochimie
Marion A L Picard, Jérôme Boissier, David Roquis, Christoph Grunau, Jean-François Allienne, David Duval, Eve Toulza, Nathalie Arancibia, Conor R Caffrey, Thavy Long, Sabine Nidelet, Marine Rohmer, Céline Cosseau
BACKGROUND: Among more than 20,000 species of hermaphroditic trematodes, Schistosomatidae are unusual since they have evolved gonochorism. In schistosomes, sex is determined by a female heterogametic system, but phenotypic sexual dimorphism appears only after infection of the vertebrate definitive host. The completion of gonad maturation occurs even later, after pairing. To date, the molecular mechanisms that trigger the sexual differentiation in these species remain unknown, and in vivo studies on the developing schistosomulum stages are lacking...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Renata P Colaneri, Fabrício F Coelho, Roberto de Cleva, Paulo Herman
AIM: To propose a laparoscopic treatment for schistosomal portal hypertension. METHODS: Ten patients with schistosomiasis and portal hypertension, with previous gastrointestinal hemorrhage from esophageal varices rupture, were evaluated. Patients were subjected to a laparoscopic procedure, with ligature of splenic artery and left gastric vein. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed on the 30th postoperative day, when esophageal varices diameter was measured and band ligature performed...
September 22, 2016: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
Huguette Nguedie Tchouanguem, Florent Ymele Fouelifack, Basile Keugoung, Loic Dongmo Fouelifa, Roger Somo Moyou
INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis, the second endemic parasitic infection in the world, is a parasitosis caused by trematodes from the genus Schistosoma. Our study aims to assess the prevalence of different species of schistosomes (Schistosoma mansoni, haematobium and intercalatum) among schoolchildren and to identify risk factors, clinical signs of schistosomiasis, and schistosomiasis intermediate host snails in stagnant water. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study over a three months period...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Jacinta Wairimu Macharia, Zipporah W Ng'ang'a, Sammy Michugu Njenga
INTRODUCTION: helminthic infections caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and schistosomes are among the most prevalent afflictions of humans who live in areas of poverty. An operational research was undertaken in 5 villages of Kwale County during a pilot control programme which included both the adults and school going children. Willingness of community members to participate in the treatment as well as in the research is critical. A cross sectional study sought to determine factors influencing community participation in control and related operational research and assess the treatment coverage for urogenital schistosomiasis and hookworms in rural villages of Kwale County...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Xi Sun, Fan Yang, Jia Shen, Zhen Liu, Jinyi Liang, Huanqin Zheng, Mingchiu Fung, Zhongdao Wu
Sj16 is a Schistosoma japonicum-derived protein (16 kDa in molecular weight) that has been identified as an immune modulation molecule, but the mechanisms of modulation of immune responses are not known. In this report, we aimed to investigate the host immune regulation mechanism by recombinant Sj16 (rSj16) and thus illuminate the molecular mechanism of immune evasion by S. japonicum. The effect of rSj16 and rSj16 mutants on the biology of dendritic cells (DCs) was assessed by examining DC maturation, cytokine production, and expression of surface markers by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
September 17, 2016: Parasitology Research
Débora Orcia, Ana Eliza Zeraik, José L S Lopes, Joci N A Macedo, Clarissa Romano Dos Santos, Katia C Oliveira, Leticia Anderson, B A Wallace, Sergio Verjovski-Almeida, Ana Paula Ulian Araujo, Ricardo DeMarco
BACKGROUND: The Micro-Exon Gene-14 (MEG-14) displays a remarkable structure that allows the generation of antigenic variation in Schistosomes. Previous studies showed that the soluble portion of the MEG-14 protein displays features of an intrinsically disordered protein and is expressed exclusively in the parasite esophageal gland. These features indicated a potential for interaction with host proteins present in the plasma and cells from ingested blood. METHODS: A yeast two-hybrid experiment using as bait the soluble domain of Schistosoma mansoni MEG-14 (sMEG-14) against a human leukocyte cDNA library was performed...
September 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Luis Janssen, Gisele Lorranna Silva Santos, Herick Sampaio Muller, Anderson Rodrigues Araújo Vieira, Tatiana Amabile de Campos, Vicente de Paulo Martins
It is long known that some parasite infections are able to modulate specific pathways of host's metabolism and immune responses. This modulation is not only important in order to understand the host-pathogen interactions and to develop treatments against the parasites themselves but also important in the development of treatments against autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Throughout the life cycle of schistosomes the mammalian hosts are exposed to several biomolecules that are excreted/secreted from the parasite infective stage, named cercariae, from their tegument, present in adult and larval stages, and finally from their eggs...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Jun Sun, Su-Wen Wang, Chang-Long Jin, Xiao-Li Zeng, Xing-Yu Piao, Ling Bai, Dan-Li Tang, Chang-Le Ji
Both schistosomes and malaria parasites produce hemozoin and cause host anaemia. However, the relationship between anaemia and hemozoin is unclear. Although some studies have proposed that hemozoin is related to anaemia in malaria patients, whether hemozoin alone can cause anaemia in patients infected by malaria parasites or schistosomes is uncertain. To investigate the effect of hemozoin on hosts, β-haematin was injected intravenously to normal mice. Then, liver and spleen tissues were observed. Mouse blood was examined...
September 15, 2016: Parasitology Research
Kenji Ishida, Emmitt R Jolly
Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease that affects over 240 million people worldwide and is considered the most important neglected tropical disease following malaria. Free-swimming freshwater cercariae, one of the six morphologically distinct schistosome life stages, infect humans by directly penetrating through the skin. Cercariae identify and seek the host by sensing chemicals released from human skin. When they reach the host, they burrow into the skin with the help of proteases and other contents released from their acetabular glands and transform into schistosomula, the subsequent larval worm stage upon skin infection...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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