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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526730/a-targeted-capture-linkage-map-anchors-the-genome-of-the-schistosomiasis-vector-snail-biomphalaria-glabrata
#1
Jacob A Tennessen, Stephanie R Bollmann, Michael S Blouin
The aquatic planorbid snail Biomphalaria glabrate is one of the most intensively-studied mollusks due to its role in the transmission of schistosomiasis. Its 916 Mb genome has recently been sequenced and annotated, but it remains poorly assembled. Here we used targeted capture markers to map over 10,000 B. glabrate scaffolds in a linkage cross of 94 F1 offspring, generating 24 linkage groups. We added additional scaffolds to these linkage groups based on linkage disequilibrium analysis of targeted capture and whole-genome sequences of 96 unrelated snails...
May 19, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511056/elimination-of-schistosoma-mansoni-in-infected-mice-by-slow-release-of-artemisone
#2
Daniel Gold, Mohammed Alian, Avraham Domb, Yara Karawani, Maysa Jbarien, Jacques Chollet, Richard K Haynes, Ho Ning Wong, Viola Buchholz, Andreas Greiner, Jacob Golenser
The current treatment of schistosomiasis is based on the anti-helminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ). PZQ affects only the adult stages of schistosomes. In addition, resistance to PZQ is emerging. We suggest a drug, which could serve as a potential alternative or complement to PZQ, and as a means of treating infections at earlier, pre-granuloma stage. Derivatives of the peroxidic antimalarial drug artemisinin have been indicated as alternatives, because both plasmodia and schistosomes are blood-feeding parasites...
May 4, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510608/the-biomphalaria-glabrata-dna-methylation-machinery-displays-spatial-tissue-expression-is-differentially-active-in-distinct-snail-populations-and-is-modulated-by-interactions-with-schistosoma-mansoni
#3
Kathrin K Geyer, Umar H Niazi, David Duval, Céline Cosseau, Chad Tomlinson, Iain W Chalmers, Martin T Swain, David J Cutress, Utibe Bickham-Wright, Sabrina E Munshi, Christoph Grunau, Timothy P Yoshino, Karl F Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: The debilitating human disease schistosomiasis is caused by infection with schistosome parasites that maintain a complex lifecycle alternating between definitive (human) and intermediate (snail) hosts. While much is known about how the definitive host responds to schistosome infection, there is comparably less information available describing the snail's response to infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here, using information recently revealed by sequencing of the Biomphalaria glabrata intermediate host genome, we provide evidence that the predicted core snail DNA methylation machinery components are associated with both intra-species reproduction processes and inter-species interactions...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508167/lessons-from-a-15-year-old-boy-with-advanced-schistosomiasis-japonica-in-china-a-case-report
#4
REVIEW
Langui Song, Xiaoying Wu, An Ning, Zhongdao Wu
Schistosomiasis is a chronic, parasitic disease caused by flukes (trematodes) of the genus Schistosoma, which presents the most important global burden of the 17 neglected tropical diseases listed by the World Health Organization. China has made great achievements in schistosomiasis control, and now China is planning to move forward, to eliminate schistosomiasis within 2020, but the fact cannot be denied that the possibility of schistosome infection is still there in some endemic due to its zoonotic nature as well as wide distribution of its intermediate hosts (snails)...
May 16, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507072/recruitment-of-neutrophils-mediated-by-v%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-deteriorate-liver-fibrosis-induced-by-schistosoma-japonicum-infection-in-c57bl-6-mice
#5
Li Zheng, Yuan Hu, Yanjuan Wang, Xibao Huang, Yuxin Xu, Yujuan Shen, Jianping Cao
Conventional adaptive T cell responses contribute to the pathogenesis of Schistosoma japonicum infection, leading to liver fibrosis. However, the role of gamma-delta (γδ) T cells in this disease is less clear. γδ T cells are known to secrete IL-17 in response to infection, exerting either protective or pathogenic functions. In the present study, mice infected with S. japonicum are used as a method to characterize the role of γδ T cells. Combined with the infection of S. japonicum, an extremely significant increase in the percentage of neutrophils in the CD45(+) cells was detected (from approximately 2...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490972/intensifying-responsiveness-towards-neglected-intestinal-helminth-infections-in-a-resource-constrained-setting
#6
Khin Thet Wai, Kay Thwe Han, Tin Oo
Neglected intestinal helminth infections afflict the marginalized communities in Asia. Since 2004, growing body of evidence in Myanmar indicated high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infections (30-40%) among school children. Co-existence of STH (23%) with food-borne trematodes was noted among 383 pregnant women in a selected township in 2012-2014 followed by molecular verification of very low prevalence of schistosome infection (<5%) in the same study site in 2016. The success of transmission elimination plans may depend upon sensitive diagnostic tools to detect persistent infections and polyparasitism...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476935/a-schistosoma-japonicum-infection-promotes-the-expansion-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-by-activating-the-jak-stat3-pathway
#7
Quan Yang, Huaina Qiu, Hongyan Xie, Yanwei Qi, Hefei Cha, Jiale Qu, Mei Wang, Yuanfa Feng, Xin Ye, Jianbing Mu, Jun Huang
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a heterogeneous group of immune cells from the myeloid lineage, play an important part in suppression of host immune responses during many pathologic conditions, including cancer and infectious diseases. Thus, understanding the functional diversity of these cells as well as the underlying mechanisms is crucial for the development of disease control strategies. The role of MDSCs during Schistosoma japonicum infection, however, is not clear, and there is a lack of systematic study so far...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472067/the-effect-of-current-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-on-the-immunogenicity-of-a-candidate-tb-vaccine-mva85a-in-bcg-vaccinated-adolescents-an-open-label-trial
#8
Anne Wajja, Dennison Kizito, Beatrice Nassanga, Angela Nalwoga, Joyce Kabagenyi, Simon Kimuda, Ronald Galiwango, Gertrude Mutonyi, Samantha Vermaak, Iman Satti, Jaco Verweij, Edridah Tukahebwa, Stephen Cose, Jonathan Levin, Pontiano Kaleebu, Alison M Elliott, Helen McShane
INTRODUCTION: Helminth infection may affect vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. Adolescents, a target population for tuberculosis booster vaccines, often have a high helminth burden. We investigated effects of Schistosoma mansoni (Sm) on the immunogenicity and safety of MVA85A, a model candidate tuberculosis vaccine, in BCG-vaccinated Ugandan adolescents. METHODS: In this phase II open label trial we enrolled 36 healthy, previously BCG-vaccinated adolescents, 18 with no helminth infection detected, 18 with Sm only...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465515/salmonella-typhimurium-infection-reduces-schistosoma-japonicum-worm-burden-in-mice
#9
Xiaoyang Zhu, Lu Chen, Junfang Wu, Huiru Tang, Yulan Wang
Coinfection of microorganisms is a common phenomenon in humans and animals. In order to further our understanding of the progress of coinfection and the possible interaction between different pathogens, we have built a coinfection mouse model with Schistosoma japonicum and Salmonella typhimurium, and used this model to investigate the systemic metabolic and immune responses using NMR-based metabonomics and immunological techniques. Our results show that Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC14028) infection reduces the number of adult schistosomal worms and eggs, relieves symptoms of schistosomiasis and also abates the mortality of mice infected by Schistosoma japonicum...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455627/immunization-with-recombinant-schistosome-adenylate-kinase-1-partially-protects-mice-against-schistosoma-japonicum-infection
#10
Yanru Gao, Xiaoshan Zhou, Huan Wang, Rong Liu, Qing Ye, Qinping Zhao, Zhenping Ming, Huifen Dong
Highly effective and safe prophylactic vaccines are urgently needed to sustainably control schistosomiasis, one of the most serious endemic zoonoses in China. In this study, we characterized adenylate kinase 1 from Schistosoma japonicum (SjAK1), a phosphotransferase that regulates cellular energy and metabolism, and evaluated its potential as a recombinant vaccine. Based on real-time quantitative PCR, western blot, and immunolocalization, SjAK1 is active throughout the life of the worm, although its expression is higher in 21-day-old schistosomula, adult worms, and eggs deposited in the host liver...
April 28, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454578/evaluating-the-variation-in-the-projected-benefit-of-community-wide-mass-treatment-for-schistosomiasis-implications-for-future-economic-evaluations
#11
Hugo C Turner, James E Truscott, Alison A Bettis, Sam H Farrell, Arminder K Deol, Jane M Whitton, Fiona M Fleming, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: The majority of schistosomiasis control programmes focus on targeting school-aged children. Expanding the use of community-wide mass treatment to reach more adults is under consideration. However, it should be noted that this would require a further increase in programmatic resources, international aid, and commitment for the provision of praziquantel. Consequently, it is important to understand (i) where a change of strategy would have the greatest benefit, and (ii) how generalisable the conclusions of field trials and analytical studies based on mathematical models investigating the impact of community-wide mass treatment, are to a broad range of settings...
April 28, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437474/improvement-of-a-tissue-maceration-technique-for-the-determination-of-placental-involvement-in-schistosomiasis
#12
Martha Charlotte Holtfreter, Heinrich Neubauer, Tanja Groten, Hosny El-Adawy, Jana Pastuschek, Joachim Richter, Dieter Häussinger, Mathias Wilhelm Pletz, Benjamin Thomas Schleenvoigt
Schistosomiasis in pregnancy may cause low birth weight, prematurity and stillbirth of the offspring. The placenta of pregnant women might be involved when schistosome ova are trapped in placental tissue. Standard histopathological methods only allow the examination of a limited amount of placental tissue and are therefore not sufficiently sensitive. Thus, placental schistosomiasis remains underdiagnosed and its role in contributing to schistosomiasis-associated pregnancy outcomes remains unclear. Here we investigated an advanced maceration method in order to recover a maximum number of schistosome ova from the placenta...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420302/the-genus-spirorchis-maccallum-1918-digenea-schistosomatoidea-and-the-early-history-of-parasitology-in-the-united-states
#13
Thomas Reid Platt
We know little about the founders of our discipline apart from their scientific contributions and brief biographical sketches, most frequently in published obituaries. A number of years ago, Ralph Lichtenfels, then Director of the National Parasite Collection, sent me photocopies of letters between Henry Baldwin Ward, Horace W. Stunkard, George A. MacCallum, and William G. MacCallum dating from the early years of the 20th century that hinted at a series of conflicts centered on the proposal of Spirorchis MacCallum, 1918 (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413380/expression-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-and-transforming-growth-factor-alpha-in-cancer-bladder-schistosomal-and-non-schistosomal
#14
Afkar A Badawy, Ali El-Hindawi, Olfat Hammam, Mona Moussa, Noha S Helal, Amira Kamel
INTRODUCTION: Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been described in several solid tumors including bladder cancer. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) is frequently deregulated in neoplastic cells and plays a role in the development of bladder cancer. TGFα-EGFR ligand-receptor combination constitutes an important event in multistep tumorigenesis. METHODS: This study was done on 30 bladder biopsies from patients with urothelial carcinoma, 15 with squamous cell carcinoma, 10 with cystitis and 5 normal control bladder specimens...
January 2017: Current Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407808/nested-pcr-assay-for-detection-of-schistosoma-japonicum-infection-in-domestic-animals
#15
Xin Zhang, Chuan-Chuan He, Jin-Ming Liu, Hao Li, Ke Lu, Zhi-Qiang Fu, Chuan-Gang Zhu, Yi-Ping Liu, Lai-Bao Tong, De-Bao Zhou, Li Zha, Yang Hong, Ya-Mei Jin, Jiao-Jiao Lin
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis japonica is a common zoonosis. Domestic animals are the primary source of infection and play an important role in disease transmission. The prevalence and infectivity of this disease in domestic animals in China have significantly decreased and, for this reason, diagnostics with a higher sensitivity have become increasingly necessary. It was reported that polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods could be used to detect schistosome infection in humans and animals and presented a high sensitivity and specificity...
April 13, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407789/identification-and-functional-characterisation-of-a-schistosoma-japonicum-insulin-like-peptide
#16
Xiaofeng Du, Donald P McManus, Pengfei Cai, Wei Hu, Hong You
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that insulin receptors in schistosomes, triggered by host insulin, play an important role in parasite growth, development and fecundity by regulating glucose metabolism. However, limited information is available on the recently identified endogenous insulin-like peptide (ILP) in blood flukes. RESULTS: We isolated ILPs from Schistosoma japonicum (SjILP) and S. recognised (SmILP) and present results of their molecular and structural analysis...
April 14, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395189/novel-carbazole-aminoalcohols-as-inhibitors-of-%C3%AE-hematin-formation-antiplasmodial-and-antischistosomal-activities
#17
Weisi Wang, Qiang Li, Yufen Wei, Jian Xue, Xiao Sun, Yang Yu, Zhuo Chen, Shizhu Li, Liping Duan
Malaria and schistosomiasis are two of the most socioeconomically devastating parasitic diseases in tropical and subtropical countries. Since current chemotherapeutic options are limited and defective, there is an urgent need to develop novel antiplasmodials and antischistosomals. Hemozoin is a disposal product formed from the hemoglobin digestion by some blood-feeding parasites. Hemozoin formation is an essential process for the parasites to detoxify free heme, which is a reliable therapeutic target for identifying novel antiparasitic agents...
April 2, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392476/schistosoma-mansoni-displays-an-adenine-phosphoribosyltransferase-preferentially-expressed-in-mature-female-gonads-and-vitelaria
#18
Ana Eliza Zeraik, Vitor Hugo Balasco Serrão, Larissa Romanello, Juliana Roberta Torini, Alexandre Cassago, Ricardo DeMarco, Humberto D'Muniz Pereira
Schistosoma mansoni depends upon the purine salvage pathway to obtain purine nucleotides; therefore, enzymes from this pathway are essential for parasite survival. Here, we focused on the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) enzyme, which catalyzes the condensation reaction between adenine and PRPP (5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate) to produce AMP and PPi. Kinetic experiments using the heterologously expressed protein of one APRT isoform from S. mansoni indicate that it is catalytically active, and whole-mount in situ hybridization studies indicate that the transcripts of this protein are concentrated in the posterior region of the ovary and vitellaria of female adult worms...
April 6, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388965/a-novel-colloidal-gold-immunochromatography-assay-strip-for-the-diagnosis-of-schistosomiasis-japonica-in-domestic-animals
#19
Rui Xu, Jintao Feng, Yang Hong, Chao Lv, Dengyun Zhao, Jiaojiao Lin, Ke Lu, Hao Li, Jinming Liu, Xiaodan Cao, Tao Wang, Jinli Zai, Zhaozhe Wang, Bingguang Jia, Qian Han, Chuangang Zhu
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern in China and an epidemiological survey has revealed that schistosome-infected bovines and goats are the main transmission sources for the disease. Therefore, development of a sensitive technique for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in domestic animals is necessary. METHOD: A novel colloidal gold immunochromatography assay (GICA) strip was developed for detecting Schistosoma japonicum in domestic animals...
April 7, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388940/putting-the-treatment-of-paediatric-schistosomiasis-into-context
#20
REVIEW
Takafira Mduluza, Francisca Mutapi
Despite increased international efforts to control schistosomiasis using preventive chemotherapy, several challenges still exist in reaching the target populations. Until recently, preschool-aged children had been excluded from the recommended target population for mass drug administration, i.e. primary school children aged 6-15 years. Our studies and those of others provided the evidence base for the need to treat preschool-aged children that led to recommendations by the World Health Organization to include preschool-aged children in treatment programmes in 2010...
April 7, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
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