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probiotics in HIV

Anna-Ursula Happel, Shameem Z Jaumdally, Tanya Pidwell, Tracy Cornelius, Heather B Jaspan, Remy Froissart, Shaun L Barnabas, Jo-Ann S Passmore
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are widely used to improve gastrointestinal (GI) health, but they may also be useful to prevent or treat gynaecological disorders, including bacterial vaginosis (BV) and candidiasis. BV prevalence is high in South Africa and is associated with increased HIV risk and pregnancy complications. We aimed to assess the availability of probiotics for vaginal health in retail stores (pharmacies, supermarkets and health stores) in two major cities in South Africa. METHODS: A two-stage cluster sampling strategy was used in the Durban and Cape Town metropoles...
January 19, 2017: BMC Women's Health
Carolina Scagnolari, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Carla Selvaggi, Ivan Schietroma, Saeid Najafi Fard, Andrea Mastrangelo, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Claudia Pinacchio, Paolo Pavone, Gianfranco Fanello, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Vincenzo Vullo, Gabriella d'Ettorre
Recently the tryptophan pathway has been considered an important determinant of HIV-1 infected patients' quality of life, due to the toxic effects of its metabolites on the central nervous system (CNS). Since the dysbiosis described in HIV-1 patients might be responsible for the microbial translocation, the chronic immune activation, and the altered utilization of tryptophan observed in these individuals, we speculated a correlation between high levels of immune activation markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-1 infected patients and the over-expression of indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) at the gut mucosal surface...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Connie J Kim, Sharon L Walmsley, Janet M Raboud, Colin Kovacs, Bryan Coburn, Rodney Rousseau, Robert Reinhard, Ron Rosenes, Rupert Kaul
OBJECTIVES: Despite substantial improvements in HIV outcomes with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), morbidity and mortality remain above population norms. The gut mucosal immune system is not completely restored by cART, and the resultant microbial translocation may contribute to chronic inflammation, inadequate CD4 T-cell recovery, and increased rates of serious non-AIDS events. Since the microbial environment surrounding a CD4 T cell may influence its development and function, we hypothesize that probiotics provided during cART might reduce inflammation and improve gut immune health in HIV-positive treatment-naïve individuals (PROOV IT I) and individuals with suboptimal CD4 recovery on cART (PROOV IT II)...
July 2016: HIV Clinical Trials
D L Moyes, D Saxena, M D John, D Malamud
Recent years have seen a massive expansion in our understanding of how we interact with our microbial colonists. The development of new, rapid sequencing techniques such as pyrosequencing and other next-generation sequencing systems have enabled us to begin to characterise the constituents of our diverse microbial communities, revealing the astonishing genetic richness that is our microbiome. Despite this, our ignorance of how these communities change over the course of an HIV infection is profound. Whilst some steps have been made to characterise the HIV microbiome at selected sites, these reports are still limited and much remains to be done...
April 2016: Oral Diseases
H Miller, R Ferris, B R Phelps
Probiotics are defined by the WHO as 'live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host'. Ongoing research has shown probiotics provide benefits to humans, including protection and restoration of the gastrointestinal and other mucosal tracts. As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activates gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), several studies have investigated the effect of probiotics on CD4 cell count and related outcomes among those living with HIV. These studies are summarised here...
June 2016: Beneficial Microbes
Zenda Woodman
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal disorder affecting women of reproductive age and is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted infections such as human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV-1). Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest BV and HIV-1 burden and yet very few studies have focused on understanding the aetiology of BV and its association with HIV in this region. It has been suggested that we need to accurately diagnose and treat BV to lower the risk of HIV infection globally. However, effective diagnosis requires knowledge of what constitutes a "healthy" cervicovaginal microbiome and current studies indicate that Lactobacillus crispatus might not be the only commensal protective against BV: healthy women from different countries and ethnicities harbour alternative commensals...
March 11, 2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Brett Williams, Alan Landay, Rachel M Presti
Recent developments in molecular techniques have allowed researchers to identify previously uncultured organisms, which has propelled a vast expansion of our knowledge regarding our commensal microbiota. Interest in the microbiome specific to HIV grew from earlier findings suggesting that bacterial translocation from the intestines is the cause of persistent immune activation despite effective viral suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Studies of SIV infected primates have demonstrated that Proteobacteria preferentially translocate and that mucosal immunity can be restored with probiotics...
May 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Ivan Vujkovic-Cvijin, Louise A Swainson, Simon N Chu, Alexandra M Ortiz, Clark A Santee, Annalise Petriello, Richard M Dunham, Douglas W Fadrosh, Din L Lin, Ali A Faruqi, Yong Huang, Cristian Apetrei, Ivona Pandrea, Frederick M Hecht, Christopher D Pilcher, Nichole R Klatt, Jason M Brenchley, Susan V Lynch, Joseph M McCune
Gut microbes can profoundly modulate mucosal barrier-promoting Th17 cells in mammals. A salient feature of HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) immunopathogenesis is the loss of Th17 cells, which has been linked to increased activity of the immunomodulatory enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO 1). The role of gut microbes in this system remains unknown, and the SIV-infected rhesus macaque provides a well-described model for HIV-associated Th17 loss and mucosal immune disruption. We observed a specific depletion of gut-resident Lactobacillus during acute and chronic SIV infection of rhesus macaques, which was also seen in early HIV-infected humans...
November 24, 2015: Cell Reports
Linda V Thomas, Kaori Suzuki, Jia Zhao
This report summarises talks given at the 8th International Yakult Symposium, held on 23-24 April 2015 in Berlin. Two presentations explored different aspects of probiotic intervention: the small intestine as a probiotic target and inclusion of probiotics into integrative approaches to gastroenterology. Probiotic recommendations in gastroenterology guidelines and current data on probiotic efficacy in paediatric patients were reviewed. Updates were given on probiotic and gut microbiota research in obesity and obesity-related diseases, the gut-brain axis and development of psychobiotics, and the protective effects of equol-producing strains for prostate cancer...
December 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
Kazhila C Chinsembu
Challenges of resistance to synthetic antimicrobials have opened new vistas in the search for natural products. This article rigorously reviews plants and other natural products used in oral health: Punica granatum L. (pomegranate), Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile), Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea), chewing sticks made from Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A.D.C., Diospyros lycioides Desf., and Salvadora persica L. (miswak), honey and propolis from the manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium J.R. Forst...
February 2016: Acta Tropica
Akinobu Kajikawa, Lin Zhang, Alora LaVoy, Sara Bumgardner, Todd R Klaenhammer, Gregg A Dean
Surface layer proteins of probiotic lactobacilli are theoretically efficient epitope-displaying scaffolds for oral vaccine delivery due to their high expression levels and surface localization. In this study, we constructed genetically modified Lactobacillus acidophilus strains expressing the membrane proximal external region (MPER) from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) within the context of the major S-layer protein, SlpA. Intragastric immunization of mice with the recombinants induced MPER-specific and S-layer protein-specific antibodies in serum and mucosal secretions...
2015: PloS One
Augustine Mpofu, Anita R Linnemann, Martinus J R Nout, Marcel H Zwietering, Eddy J Smid, Heidy M W den Besten
Mutandabota is a dairy product consumed as a major source of proteins and micronutrients in Southern Africa. In this study the microbial safety of traditional and a variant of mutandabota fermented with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba (yoba mutandabota) was investigated by challenging the products with five important food pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Bacillus cereus. Pasteurized full-fat cow's milk was used for producing traditional and yoba mutandabota, and was inoculated with a cocktail of strains of the pathogens at an inoculum level of 5...
January 18, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Venkateswarlu Chamcha, Andrew Jones, Bernard R Quigley, June R Scott, Rama Rao Amara
The induction of a potent humoral and cellular immune response in mucosal tissue is important for the development of an effective HIV vaccine. Most of the current HIV vaccines under development use the i.m. route for immunization, which is relatively poor in generating potent and long-lived mucosal immune responses. In this article, we explore the ability of an oral vaccination with a probiotic organism, Lactococcus lactis, to elicit HIV-specific immune responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments of BALB/c mice...
November 15, 2015: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Katia Falasca, Jacopo Vecchiet, Claudio Ucciferri, Marta Di Nicola, Chiara D'Angelo, Marcella Reale
UNLABELLED: Inflammation persists in patients infected with HIV. Reduction of inflammatory cytokines and microbial translocation might be one way that this could be managed. PURPOSE: The anti-inflammatory properties of certain probiotic strains prompted us to investigate whether a probiotic could reduce the inflammatory index of HIV-infected patients. METHODS: The study involved 30 HIV+ males on antiretroviral therapy, who were given one bottle of fermented milk Yakult Light® containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) twice a day for four weeks...
October 2015: Nutrients
Gabriella d'Ettorre, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Nina Calantone, Gabriella De Girolamo, Luigi Bianchi, Valeria Bellelli, Tommaso Ascoli-Bartoli, Sonia Marcellini, Ombretta Turriziani, Jason M Brenchley, Vincenzo Vullo
BACKGROUND: HIV infection results in damage to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, microbial translocation and immune activation. These are not completely normalized with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Moreover, increate morbidity and mortality of cART-treated HIV-infected individuals is associated with inflammation. METHODS: In order to enhance GI tract immunity, we recruited and treated 20 HIV-infected humans with cART supplemented with probiotics and followed inflammation and immunological parameters (clinical trial number NCT02164344)...
2015: PloS One
Ashli O'Rourke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent literature pertaining to infectious oesophagitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Infectious oesophagitis is an uncommon condition of the oesophagus caused by viral, bacterial or fungal agents. A compromised immune system is the most important risk factor for the development of infectious oesophagitis and HIV or AIDS and solid organ transplant patients are particularly at risk. Common symptoms of infectious oesophagitis include odynophagia and dysphagia, but it can be difficult to distinguish infectious oesophagitis from other causes of oesophagitis based on patient symptoms alone...
December 2015: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
Roy D Sleator
Given the increasing commercial and clinical relevance of probiotics, improving their stress tolerance profile and ability to overcome the physiochemical defences of the host is an important biological goal. Herein, I review the current state of the art in the design of engineered probiotic cultures, with a specific focus on their utility as therapeutics for the developing world; from the treatment of chronic and acute enteric infections, and their associated diarrhoeal complexes, to targeting HIV and application as novel mucosal vaccine delivery vehicles...
August 15, 2015: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
V Stadlbauer
This opinion statement discusses indications, efficacy and safety of probiotics in immunosuppressed patients. The best evidence available is for the prophylaxis of infections in patients after liver transplantation and for patients with liver cirrhosis. For other organ transplantations and for bone marrow transplantation the efficacy of probiotic interventions has not been proven yet, but in these patient groups safety is a concern. Also in critically ill patients, the data on efficacy are inconclusive and safety is a concern...
2015: Beneficial Microbes
A M Ortiz, Z A Klase, S R DiNapoli, I Vujkovic-Cvijin, K Carmack, M R Perkins, N Calantone, C L Vinton, N E Riddick, J Gallagher, N R Klatt, J M McCune, J D Estes, M Paiardini, J M Brenchley
Increased mortality in antiretroviral (ARV)-treated, HIV-infected individuals has been attributed to persistent immune dysfunction, in part due to abnormalities at the gastrointestinal barrier. In particular, the poor reconstitution of gastrointestinal Th17 cells correlates with residual translocation of dysbiotic, immunostimulatory microflora across a compromised intestinal epithelial barrier. We have previously demonstrated that oral probiotics promote increased intestinal CD4(+) T-cell reconstitution during ARV treatment in a non-human primate model of HIV infection; however, essential mucosal T-cell subsets, such as Th17 cells, had limited recovery...
March 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Birgitte Stiksrud, Piotr Nowak, Felix C Nwosu, Dag Kvale, Anders Thalme, Anders Sonnerborg, Per M Ueland, Kristian Holm, Stein-Erik Birkeland, Anders E A Dahm, Per M Sandset, Knut Rudi, Johannes R Hov, Anne M Dyrhol-Riise, Marius Trøseid
BACKGROUND: Microbial translocation and chronic inflammation may contribute to non-AIDS morbidity in patients with HIV. This study assessed the impact of probiotic intervention on microbial translocation and inflammation in patients on antiretroviral therapy with viral suppression and subnormal CD4 count. METHODS: Thirty-two patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (CD4 <500 cells/μL) were randomized in a double-blind fashion to multistrain daily probiotics (n = 15), placebo (n = 9), or controls (n = 8) for 8 weeks...
December 1, 2015: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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