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probiotics in HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185825/effect-of-probiotic-supplementation-on-cd4-cell-count-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Asma Kazemi, Kurosh Djafarian, John R Speakman, Parviz Sabour, Sepideh Soltani, Sakineh Shab-Bidar
Progressive decline in CD4 cell counts is associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression. Loss of CD4 cells might contribute to gut microbiota alteration and bacterial translocation. Probiotics, by inducing epithelial healing, may promote the restoration of the intestinal CD4+ T-cell population. The aim of this meta-analysis was to systematically review all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of probiotic/prebiotic/synbiotic supplementation on CD4 cell counts in HIV-infected patients...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163538/efficacy-and-safety-of-a-multistrain-probiotic-formulation-depends-from-manufacturing
#2
Vito Trinchieri, Luca Laghi, Beatrice Vitali, Carola Parolin, Ilaria Giusti, Daniela Capobianco, Paola Mastromarino, Claudio De Simone
Background: Variability in probiotics manufacturing may affect their properties, with potential implications for their efficacy and safety. This is of particular concern with probiotic products destined for use in patients with serious medical conditions, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The purpose of the study was to carry out a series of experiments comparing the properties of the US-made probiotic formulation originally commercialized under the brand name VSL#3®, with those of the Italian-made formulation now commercialized under the same name...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160817/impact-of-high-dose-multi-strain-probiotic-supplementation-on-neurocognitive-performance-and-central-nervous-system-immune-activation-of-hiv-1-infected-individuals
#3
Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Jason M Brenchley, Eugenio Nelson Cavallari, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Mariangela Fratino, Claudia Pinacchio, Ivan Schietroma, Saeid Najafi Fard, Carolina Scagnolari, Ivano Mezzaroma, Vincenzo Vullo, Gabriella d'Ettorre
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota has metabolic activity which influences mucosal homeostasis, local and systemic immune responses, and other anatomical systems (i.e., brain). The effects of dysbiosis are still poorly studied in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) positive subjects and insufficient data are available on the impairment of the gut-brain axis, despite neurocognitive disorders being commonly diagnosed in these patients. This study evaluated the impact of a probiotic supplementation strategy on intrathecal immune activation and cognitive performance in combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) treated HIV-1 infected subjects...
November 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048352/effects-of-short-term-probiotic-ingestion-on-immune-profiles-and-microbial-translocation-among-hiv-1-infected-vietnamese-children
#4
Azumi Ishizaki, Xiuqiong Bi, Lam Van Nguyen, Kazunori Matsuda, Hung Viet Pham, Chung Thi Thu Phan, Dung Thi Khanh Khu, Hiroshi Ichimura
Here, we investigated the effects of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on immune profiles and intestinal microbial translocation among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This prospective study included 60 HIV-infected children-including 31 without antiretroviral therapy (ART) (HIV(+)) and 29 who received ART for a median of 3.5 years (ART(+)) and 20 children without HIV infection (HIV(-)). Participants were recruited in Vietnam. All children were given fermented milk containing LcS (6...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045253/gut-microbial-diversity-in-hiv-infection-post-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-a-key-target-for-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#5
Mohamed El-Far, Cécile L Tremblay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the HIV-infected population is living longer and getting older under current treatment regimens, significant challenges arise for health management as the infection is associated with various premature aging phenotypes, particularly increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Here we review the current understanding of HIV-related gut dysbiosis in association with CVD and advances in clinical trials aiming to restore gut microbial diversity. RECENT FINDING: Identification of a unique signature for gut dysbiosis in HIV infection between different cohorts remains challenging...
October 25, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045252/altered-gut-microbiome-composition-in-hiv-infection-causes-effects-and-potential-intervention
#6
Alessandra Bandera, Ilaria De Benedetto, Giorgio Bozzi, Andrea Gori
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aim of this review is to summarize the alterations occurring in gut microbiome composition after HIV infection, and to underline how intestinal dysbiosis can affect immune homeostasis, immune recovery, and persisting immune activation under antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many interventions have been suggested, mostly with inconclusive results. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence showed that gut microbiota from HIV-infected patients harbor reproducible differences compared to uninfected individuals...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035948/hiv-and-aging-role-of-the-microbiome
#7
Seema N Desai, Alan L Landay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review age-associated alterations in microbiota composition, diversity and functional features in context of immune senescence, chronic inflammation and comorbidities associated with HIV infection. The overall goal is to assess whether modulating the microbiome will likely improve resilience of the immune system and augment return to health. RECENT FINDINGS: Alteration in the gut microbiota composition diversity and function occur in HIV and aging...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828217/a-pilot-study-on-the-effects-of-probiotic-supplementation-on-neuropsychological-performance-and-microrna-29a-c-levels-in-antiretroviral-treated-hiv-1-infected-patients
#8
Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Mariangela Fratino, Carla Selvaggi, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Ivan Schietroma, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Paolo Pavone, Giulia Passavanti, Danilo Alunni Fegatelli, Ivano Mezzaroma, Guido Antonelli, Vincenzo Vullo, Carolina Scagnolari, Gabriella d'Ettorre
INTRODUCTION: The gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of cognition, mood, anxiety, and pain, and can impact cognitive functions by producing neuroactive substances or releasing bacterial by-products and metabolites. No information is available on the effects of a probiotic supplementation on brain function of HIV+ subjects. In light of the above considerations, we performed a pilot study in cART-treated HIV-1-positive patients with long-term virologic suppression. The aims were to analyze the effect of high-concentration multistrain probiotic supplementation (Vivomixx®; Visbiome®) on several neurocognitive abilities and to evaluate the safety of this supplementation...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818264/the-potential-management-of-oral-candidiasis-using-anti-biofilm-therapies
#9
Warren Chanda, Thomson P Joseph, Wendong Wang, Arshad A Padhiar, Mintao Zhong
Candida albicans is a minor component of the oral microbiota and an opportunistic pathogen that takes advantage of the immunocompromised host and causes oral mucositis and oral candidiasis. This organism is able to undergo phenotypic modification from a yeast to hyphae growth phase, one of the key arsenals for immune cell evasion, tissue invasion and biofilm formation. The latter property coupled with overgrowth and immune compromising factors such as HIV/AIDS, cancer treatments, organ transplantation, diabetes, corticosteroid use, dentures, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use have modified the fungus from a normal component of the microflora to a foe of an oral cavity and resulting in reduced sensitivity towards commonly utilised antifungal agents...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670111/historical-development-of-vaginal-microbicides-to-prevent-sexual-transmission-of-hiv-in-women-from-past-failures-to-future-hopes
#10
REVIEW
Fernando Notario-Pérez, Roberto Ruiz-Caro, María-Dolores Veiga-Ochoa
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a global public health concern and is particularly serious in low- and middle-income countries. Widespread sexual violence and poverty, among other factors, increase the risk of infection in women, while currently available prevention methods are outside the control of most. This has driven the study of vaginal microbicides to prevent sexual transmission of HIV from men to women in recent decades. The first microbicides evaluated were formulated as gels for daily use and contained different substances such as surfactants, acidifiers and monoclonal antibodies, which failed to demonstrate efficacy in clinical trials...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621726/microbiota-and-probiotics-in-health-and-hiv-infection
#11
REVIEW
Chiara D'Angelo, Marcella Reale, Erica Costantini
Microbiota play a key role in various body functions, as well as in physiological, metabolic, and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Evidence indicates that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that reside on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer interact with the host immune system, thus, a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621554/gut-microbiota-changes-and-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#12
Tomislav Preveden, Emidio Scarpellini, Natasa Milić, Francesco Luzza, Ludovico Abenavoli
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health problem with 150 million infected people worldwide. Liver can be greatly affected by changes in gut microbiota due to increased intestinal permeability with passage of microbial antigens into the liver through the portal circulation. The concept of 'gut-liver' axis is important to understand the pathophysiology of several liver diseases. Several recent studies also revealed that an altered gut microbiota can be implicated in the pathogenesis of HCV-induced chronic liver disease (CHC)...
September 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607543/modulation-of-tryptophan-serotonin-pathway-by-probiotic-supplementation-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-patients-preliminary-results-of-a-new-study-approach
#13
Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Saeid Najafi Fard, Ivan Schietroma, Andrea Mastrangelo, Claudia Pinacchio, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Gabriella De Girolamo, Eugenio Nelson Cavallari, Maura Statzu, Luca Laghi, Annamaria Vullo, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Vincenzo Vullo, Gabriella d'Ettorre
BACKGROUND: To date, no data are available regarding the effects of probiotics on the pathway of tryptophan/serotonin metabolism among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1-infected individuals. Because a condition of dysbiosis might be responsible for the altered use of tryptophan described in this population, the aim of this study was to investigate the link between probiotic supplementation and serotonin levels in combined antiretroviral therapy-treated patients and the subsistence of an interplay with inflammation...
2017: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474815/probiotic-supplementation-promotes-a-reduction-in-t-cell-activation-an-increase-in-th17-frequencies-and-a-recovery-of-intestinal-epithelium-integrity-and-mitochondrial-morphology-in-art-treated-hiv-1-positive-patients
#14
Gabriella d'Ettorre, Giacomo Rossi, Carolina Scagnolari, Mauro Andreotti, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Ivan Schietroma, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Saeid Najafi Fard, Vito Trinchieri, Paola Mastromarino, Carla Selvaggi, Silvia Scarpona, Gianfranco Fanello, Fausto Fiocca, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Guido Antonelli, Jason M Brenchley, Vincenzo Vullo
INTRODUCTION: HIV infection is characterized by a persistent immune activation associated to a compromised gut barrier immunity and alterations in the profile of the fecal flora linked with the progression of inflammatory symptoms. The effects of high concentration multistrain probiotic (Vivomixx®, Viale del Policlinico 155, Rome, Italy in EU; Visbiome®, Dupont, Madison, Wisconsin in USA) on several aspects of intestinal immunity in ART-experienced HIV-1 patients was evaluated. METHODS: A sub-study of a longitudinal pilot study was performed in HIV-1 patients who received the probiotic supplement twice a day for 6 months (T6)...
September 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453589/-effects-of-prebiotics-and-probiotics-on-gastrointestinal-tract-lymphoid-tissue-in-hiv-infected-patients
#15
REVIEW
Manuel G Feria, Natalia A Taborda, Juan C Hernandez, María T Rugeles
HIV infection induces alterations in almost all immune cell populations, mainly in CD4+ T cells, leading to the development of opportunistic infections. The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) constitutes the most important site for viral replication, because the main target cells, memory T-cells, reside in this tissue. It is currently known that alterations in GALT are critical during the course of the infection, as HIV-1 induces loss of tissue integrity and promotes translocation of microbial products from the intestinal lumen to the systemic circulation, leading to a persistent immune activation state and immune exhaustion...
February 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450817/the-emerging-therapeutic-role-of-medical-foods-for-gastrointestinal-disorders
#16
Brian P Ciampa, Emmanuel Reyes Ramos, Marie Borum, David B Doman
In addition to drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that treat, cure, or mitigate disease, medical foods are a tool to help manage chronic conditions and diseases. A medical food, according to the FDA, is a food that is developed to be eaten or administered enterally under the guidance of a physician and that is meant for the specific dietary management of a condition or disease for which distinctive nutritional requirements, based upon known scientific principles, are established by medical evaluation...
February 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388647/impact-of-probiotic-saccharomyces-boulardii-on-the-gut-microbiome-composition-in-hiv-treated-patients-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Judit Villar-García, Robert Güerri-Fernández, Andrés Moya, Alicia González, Juan J Hernández, Elisabet Lerma, Ana Guelar, Luisa Sorli, Juan P Horcajada, Alejandro Artacho, Giuseppe D Auria, Hernando Knobel
Dysbalance in gut microbiota has been linked to increased microbial translocation, leading to chronic inflammation in HIV-patients, even under effective HAART. Moreover, microbial translocation is associated with insufficient reconstitution of CD4+T cells, and contributes to the pathogenesis of immunologic non-response. In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we recently showed that, compared to placebo, 12 weeks treatment with probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii significantly reduced plasma levels of bacterial translocation (Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein or LBP) and systemic inflammation (IL-6) in 44 HIV virologically suppressed patients, half of whom (n = 22) had immunologic non-response to antiretroviral therapy (<270 CD4+Tcells/μL despite long-term suppressed viral load)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103868/probiotics-for-vaginal-health-in-south-africa-what-is-on-retailers-shelves
#18
Anna-Ursula Happel, Shameem Z Jaumdally, Tanya Pidwell, Tracy Cornelius, Heather B Jaspan, Remy Froissart, Shaun L Barnabas, Jo-Ann S Passmore
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are widely used to improve gastrointestinal (GI) health, but they may also be useful to prevent or treat gynaecological disorders, including bacterial vaginosis (BV) and candidiasis. BV prevalence is high in South Africa and is associated with increased HIV risk and pregnancy complications. We aimed to assess the availability of probiotics for vaginal health in retail stores (pharmacies, supermarkets and health stores) in two major cities in South Africa. METHODS: A two-stage cluster sampling strategy was used in the Durban and Cape Town metropoles...
January 19, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689995/probiotics-differently-affect-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue-indolamine-2-3-dioxygenase-mrna-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-neopterin-levels-in-antiretroviral-treated-hiv-1-infected-patients-a-pilot-study
#19
Carolina Scagnolari, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Carla Selvaggi, Ivan Schietroma, Saeid Najafi Fard, Andrea Mastrangelo, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Claudia Pinacchio, Paolo Pavone, Gianfranco Fanello, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Vincenzo Vullo, Gabriella d'Ettorre
Recently the tryptophan pathway has been considered an important determinant of HIV-1 infected patients' quality of life, due to the toxic effects of its metabolites on the central nervous system (CNS). Since the dysbiosis described in HIV-1 patients might be responsible for the microbial translocation, the chronic immune activation, and the altered utilization of tryptophan observed in these individuals, we speculated a correlation between high levels of immune activation markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-1 infected patients and the over-expression of indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) at the gut mucosal surface...
September 27, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27267710/can-probiotics-reduce-inflammation-and-enhance-gut-immune-health-in-people-living-with-hiv-study-designs-for-the-probiotic-visbiome-for-inflammation-and-translocation-proov-it-pilot-trials
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Connie J Kim, Sharon L Walmsley, Janet M Raboud, Colin Kovacs, Bryan Coburn, Rodney Rousseau, Robert Reinhard, Ron Rosenes, Rupert Kaul
OBJECTIVES: Despite substantial improvements in HIV outcomes with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), morbidity and mortality remain above population norms. The gut mucosal immune system is not completely restored by cART, and the resultant microbial translocation may contribute to chronic inflammation, inadequate CD4 T-cell recovery, and increased rates of serious non-AIDS events. Since the microbial environment surrounding a CD4 T cell may influence its development and function, we hypothesize that probiotics provided during cART might reduce inflammation and improve gut immune health in HIV-positive treatment-naïve individuals (PROOV IT I) and individuals with suboptimal CD4 recovery on cART (PROOV IT II)...
July 2016: HIV Clinical Trials
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