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Neurology, multiple sclerosis

Astrid Eliasen, Kim Peder Dalhoff, Henrik Horwitz
INTRODUCTION: Neurological diseases have a profound impact on quality of life. We investigated the risk of suicide attempt in ten neurological diseases. METHODS: Case-control study. Cases were identified from the Danish Poison Information Centre database in the period 2006-2013. The prevalence of ten neurological diagnoses was compared with the prevalence in a randomly sampled age- and gender-matched control group. RESULTS: We identified 8974 cases of suicidal attempt and 89,740 controls...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Kerstin Göbel, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Sven G Meuth
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most emerging fields in neurology[...].
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Dongxiao Jiang, Weiping Ju, Xijun Wu, Xia Zhan
BACKGROUND: To date, although great effort has been made to identify biomarkers of multiple sclerosis (MS), it remains unclear whether lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) can be used as a biomarker for MS. METHODS: This study compared the LPA levels in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with MS in relapse versus in remission and investigated the change in LPA levels in MS patients in relapse after treatment. Forty-one patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) (21 patients in relapse and 20 patients in remission) and 21 patients with non-inflammatory, non-vascular neurological diseases as controls were included in this study...
March 20, 2018: Neurological Research
Laurent Sheybani, Gwenaël Birot, Alessandro Contestabile, Margitta Seeck, Jozsef Zoltan Kiss, Karl Schaller, Christoph M Michel, Charles Quairiaux
Most research on focal epilepsy focuses on mechanisms of seizure generation in the primary epileptic focus (EF). However, neurological deficits that are not directly linked to seizure activity and that may persist after focus removal are frequent. The recruitment of remote brain regions of an epileptic network (EN) is recognized as a possible cause, but a profound lack of experimental evidence exists concerning their recruitment and the type of pathological activities they exhibit.We studied the development of epileptic activities at the large-scale in male mice of the kainate model of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy using high-density surface EEG and multiple-site intracortical recordings...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Selvakumar Ambika, Krishnakumar Padmalakshmi, Viswanathan Venkatraman, Olma V Noronha
BACKGROUND: Optic neuritis in children is an uncommon disorder which usually occurs after a viral illness or vaccination and, less frequently, occurs as a manifestation of a demyelinating disorder. Pediatric optic neuritis usually is bilateral and presents with optic disc edema, recovers rapidly with steroid therapy, and generally has low conversion rate to multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. We report the clinical features and treatment outcomes of pediatric optic neuritis in Indian population, for which little data are available...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Patrick Küry, Avindra Nath, Alain Créange, Antonina Dolei, Patrice Marche, Julian Gold, Gavin Giovannoni, Hans-Peter Hartung, Hervé Perron
The causes of multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have long remained elusive. A new category of pathogenic components, normally dormant within human genomes, has been identified: human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). These represent ∼8% of the human genome, and environmental factors have reproducibly been shown to trigger their expression. The resulting production of envelope (Env) proteins from HERV-W and HERV-K appears to engage pathophysiological pathways leading to the pathognomonic features of MS and ALS, respectively...
March 15, 2018: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Fabian Wenzel, Carsten Meyer, Thomas Stehle, Jochen Peters, Susanne Siemonsen, Christian Thaler, Lyubomir Zagorchev
This work presents a novel approach for the rapid segmentation of clinically relevant subcortical brain structures in T1-weighted MRI by utilizing a shape-constrained deformable surface model. In contrast to other approaches for segmenting brain structures, its design allows for parallel segmentation of individual brain structures within a flexible and robust hierarchical framework such that accurate adaptation and volume computation can be achieved within a minute of processing time. Furthermore, adaptation is driven by local and not global contrast, potentially relaxing requirements with respect to preprocessing steps such as bias-field correction...
March 9, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Reinaldo Uribe-San-Martín, Ethel Ciampi, Roberta Di Giacomo, Macarena Vásquez, Claudia Cárcamo, Jaime Godoy, Giorgio Lo Russo, Laura Tassi
OBJECTIVE: Our aim in this retrospective study was to explore whether corpus callosum atrophy could predict the post-surgical seizure control in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis (HS). METHODS: We used the Corpus Callosum Index (CCI) obtained from best mid-sagittal T2/FLAIR or T1-weighted MRI at two time-points, more than one year apart. CCI has been mainly used in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), but not in epilepsy, so we tested the validity of our results performing a proof of concept cohort, incorporating MS patients with and without epilepsy...
March 3, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Piotr Sowa, Hanne F Harbo, Nathan S White, Elisabeth G Celius, Hauke Bartsch, Pål Berg-Hansen, Stine M Moen, Atle Bjørnerud, Lars T Westlye, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale, Mona K Beyer
BACKGROUND: Restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) is a recently introduced magnetic resonance imaging diffusion technique. The utility of RSI in multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between RSI-derived parameters and neurological disability in MS. METHODS: Seventy-seven relapsing-remitting MS patients were scanned with RSI on a 3-T scanner. RSI-derived parameters: fast and slow apparent diffusion coefficient (sADC), fractional anisotropy, restricted fractional anisotropy, neurite density (ND), cellularity, extracellular water fraction, and free water fraction, were obtained in white matter lesions (WML) and normal appearing white matter (NAWM)...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
James H Rimmer, Cassandra Herman, Brooks Wingo, Kevin Fontaine, Tapan Mehta
BACKGROUND: Hybrid research designs targeting adults with neurologic disability are critical for improving the efficiency of models that can identify, track and intervene on identified health issues. METHODS: Our Russian doll framework encompasses three study phases. Phase 1 involves prospectively following a cohort of participants with disability to examine the relationships between rates of health and functional deficits (e.g., pain, fatigue, deconditioning), functional measures (e...
March 14, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
N Stübiger, K Ruprecht, U Pleyer
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the brain and the spinal cord occurring mostly in young adults and is associated with temporary or permanent neurological deficits. An association between uveitis and MS has been recognized for a long time. Current data indicate an approximately 10 times higher prevalence of uveitis in patients with MS compared to the general population. In particular, MS is associated with intermediate uveitis and typically with concomitant retinal vasculitis...
March 13, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Elise Allender, Harvinderjeet Deol, Sarah Schram, Kathleen J Maheras, Alexander Gow, Eleanor H Simpson, Fei Song
Neuregulin1 (NRG1) is a differentiation factor that regulates glial development, survival, synaptogenesis, axoglial interactions, and microglial activation. We previously reported that a targeted NRG1 antagonist (HBD-S-H4) given intrathecally, reduces inflammatory microglial activation in a spinal cord pain model and a neurodegenerative disease mouse model in vivo, suggesting that it may have effects in neuroninflammatory and neuronal disorders. We hypothesized that expression of HBD-S-H4 in the central nervous system (CNS) could reduce disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely used animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS)...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Carolina Candeias da Silva, Denis Bernardi Bichuetti, Sonia Maria Cesar de Azevedo Silva, Henrique Ballalai Ferraz, Enedina Maria Lobato de Oliveira, Vanderci Borges
INTRODUCTION: Movement disorders are not rare in demyelinating diseases but there are few studies comparing their frequency between multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Our aim was to determine the frequency and the related features of movement disorders in a cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study of patients with multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder...
March 3, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Arife Çimen Atalar, Yüksel Erdal, Betül Tekin, Muhammed Yıldız, Özlem Akdoğan, Ufuk Emre
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common chronic neurological disease that causes disability. MS can have various clinical manifestations, one of which is olfactory dysfunction. In clinical practice, olfactory disturbances are usually underdiagnosed. The aim of our study is to assess olfactory function and its relationship with MS disease duration, disability and cognition. METHOD: We assessed 31 MS patients and 24 healthy controls matched in sex and age at our MS outpatient clinic of the Istanbul Education and Research Hospital Neurology Department...
March 3, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
L Monge Galindo, A L Martínez de Morentín, V Pueyo Royo, J P García Iñiguez, S Sánchez Marco, J López-Pisón, J L Peña-Segura
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: In this article, we present our experience on optic neuritis (ON) and provide a diagnostic/therapeutic protocol, intended to rule out other aetiologies (particularly infection), and a fact sheet for parents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a descriptive, retrospective study of patients with ON over a 27-year period (1990-2017). A review of the available scientific evidence was performed in order to draft the protocol and fact sheet...
March 8, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
E J Ramos González, L J Ramirez Jirano, D Z García Martínez, G G Ortiz, L F Jave Suárez, C A Leal Cortes, O K Bitzer Quintero
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, demyelinating, autoimmune disease of the central nervous system causing neuroinflammation. Experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) is a model of the disease. MS is classically treated with interferon beta (IFN-β) and glatiramer acetate (GA). Melatonin (MLT) has been reported to modulate immune system responses. The aim of the present study is to analyse the effects of MLT administration in comparison with the first-line treatments for MS (IFN-β and GA)...
March 8, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Kyla A McKay, Helen Tremlett, John D Fisk, Tingting Zhang, Scott B Patten, Lorne Kastrukoff, Trudy Campbell, Ruth Ann Marrie
OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence suggests that comorbidity may influence disability outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS); we investigated the association between psychiatric comorbidity and MS disability progression in a large multiclinic population. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study accessed prospectively collected information from linked clinical and population-based health administrative databases in the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Nova Scotia...
March 9, 2018: Neurology
Neil H Riordan, Isabela Morales, Giselle Fernández, Nicole Allen, Neal E Fearnot, Michael E Leckrone, Dedra Jones Markovich, Darla Mansfield, Dorita Avila, Amit N Patel, Santosh Kesari, Jorge Paz Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressively debilitating neurological condition in which the immune system abnormally erodes the myelin sheath insulating the nerves. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been used in the last decade to safely treat certain immune and inflammatory conditions. METHODS: A safety and feasibility study was completed on the use of umbilical cord MSC (UCMSC) as a treatment for MS. In this 1-year study, consenting subjects received seven intravenous infusions of 20 × 106 UCMSC over 7 days...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Stephanie L Harrison, Kate E Laver, Kayla Ninnis, Cherie Rowett, Natasha A Lannin, Maria Crotty
PURPOSE: To examine in people with neurological disorders, which method/s of providing external cues to improve task performance are most effective. METHODS: Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were systematically searched. Two reviewers independently screened, extracted data, and assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). RESULTS: Twenty six studies were included. Studies examined a wide-range of cues including visual, tactile, auditory, verbal, and multi-component cues...
March 9, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Claudine Boiziau, Macha Nikolski, Elodie Mordelet, Justine Aussudre, Karina Vargas-Sanchez, Klaus G Petry
Multiple sclerosis is characterized by inflammatory lesions dispersed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) leading to severe neurological handicap. Demyelination, axonal damage, and blood brain barrier alterations are hallmarks of this pathology, whose precise processes are not fully understood. In the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rat model that mimics many features of human multiple sclerosis, the phage display strategy was applied to select peptide ligands targeting inflammatory sites in CNS...
March 7, 2018: Inflammation
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