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Neurology, multiple sclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430292/failure-of-the-vascular-hypothesis-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-cerebrospinal-venous-insufficiency
#1
Maha M A Zakaria, Shahira Y Mikhael, Azza K Abu Hussein, Rania A Salah El-Din, Hany W Abd El-Malak, Iman H Hewedi, Hany S Nadim
<i>Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a series of stenotic malformations in the cerebrospinal venous outflow routes, which is postulated to cause multiple sclerosis (MS). The hypotheses assumed that CCSVI leads to iron deposition which triggers inflammation and demyelination in MS. Invasive endovascular treatment of CCSVI was initiated based on the previous theory. The present study was designed to validate this hypothesis using a rat model of CCSVI. Bilateral jugular vein ligation (JVL) was performed on female albino rats (n = 15), and sham-operated rats (n = 15) were used as a control group...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423529/pif-promotes-brain-re-myelination-locally-while-regulating-systemic-inflammation-clinically-relevant-multiple-sclerosis-m-smegmatis-model
#2
Giuseppe Migliara, Martin Mueller, Alessia Piermattei, Chaya Brodie, Michael J Paidas, Eytan R Barnea, Francesco Ria
Neurologic disease diagnosis and treatment is challenging. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease with few clinical forms and uncertain etiology. Current studies suggest that it is likely caused by infection(s) triggering a systemic immune response resulting in antigen/non-antigen-related autoimmune response in central nervous system (CNS). New therapeutic approaches are needed. Secreted by viable embryos, PreImplantation Factor (PIF) possesses a local and systemic immunity regulatory role...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417344/biotherapy-in-inflammatory-diseases-of-the-cns-current-knowledge-and-applications
#3
REVIEW
Nicolas Collongues, Laure Michel, Jérôme de Seze
Biotherapy represents an innovative therapeutic approach that includes immunotherapy (vaccines, apheresis, and antibodies); gene therapy; and stem cell transplants. Their development helps to cross the bridge from bench to bedside and brings new hope of a cure for severe diseases in different fields of medicine. In neurology, a growing range of applications is being developed for these medications. Valuable results are now available in the field of autoimmunity, neuro-oncology, paraneoplastic manifestations, and neurodegenerative disorders...
May 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416816/scalable-electrophysiology-in-intact-small-animals-with-nanoscale-suspended-electrode-arrays
#4
Daniel L Gonzales, Krishna N Badhiwala, Daniel G Vercosa, Benjamin W Avants, Zheng Liu, Weiwei Zhong, Jacob T Robinson
Electrical measurements from large populations of animals would help reveal fundamental properties of the nervous system and neurological diseases. Small invertebrates are ideal for these large-scale studies; however, patch-clamp electrophysiology in microscopic animals typically requires invasive dissections and is low-throughput. To overcome these limitations, we present nano-SPEARs: suspended electrodes integrated into a scalable microfluidic device. Using this technology, we have made the first extracellular recordings of body-wall muscle electrophysiology inside an intact roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans...
April 17, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416274/fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis-insights-into-evaluation-and-management
#5
REVIEW
Samar S Ayache, Moussa A Chalah
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system, characterized by the accumulation of numerous neurological symptoms and signs throughout its course. Fatigue is one of the most distressing complaints that MS patients may experience over their lifetime. In spite of its high prevalence, the pathophysiology of MS fatigue is far from being fully elucidated and a constellation of mechanisms seems implicated in this setting. Several factors could contribute to its development and/or exacerbation, and this requires a careful workup in order to search for all possible underlying causes, such as sleep disturbances, endocrine dysfunction and mood disorders, to cite a few...
April 14, 2017: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414816/fourier-transform-power-spectrum-is-a-potential-measure-of-tissue-alignment-in-standard-mri-a-multiple-sclerosis-study
#6
Shrushrita Sharma, Yunyan Zhang
Loss of tissue coherency in brain white matter is found in many neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). While several approaches have been proposed to evaluate white matter coherency including fractional anisotropy and fiber tracking in diffusion-weighted imaging, few are available for standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here we present an image post-processing method for this purpose based on Fourier transform (FT) power spectrum. T2-weighted images were collected from 19 patients (10 relapsing-remitting and 9 secondary progressive MS) and 19 age- and gender-matched controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413713/catastrophic-outcome-of-patients-with-a-rebound-after-natalizumab-treatment-discontinuation
#7
Inés González-Suarez, Luis Rodríguez de Antonio, Aida Orviz, Sara Moreno-García, María D Valle-Arcos, Jordi A Matias-Guiu, Cristina Valencia, Manuela Jorquera Moya, Celia Oreja-Guevara
INTRODUCTION: Natalizumab (NTZ) is an effective drug for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. In some patients discontinuation is mandatory due to the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. However, severe clinical and radiological worsening has been described after drug cessation. Our aim was to describe the clinical and radiological features of the rebound phenomenon. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients switched from NTZ to Fingolimod (FTY) who had presented a rebound after discontinuation were selected...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412919/neurological-disorders-in-medical-use-of-cannabis-an-update
#8
Renata Solimini, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Simona Pichini, Roberta Pacifici
Medical cannabis is increasingly used as a treatment or adjunct treatment with different levels of efficacy in several neurological disorders or related symptoms (such as multiple sclerosis, autism, Parkinson and Alzheimer disease, Tourette's syndrome, Huntington's disease, neuropathic pain, epilepsy, headache), as well as in other medical conditions (e.g. nausea and vomiting, glaucoma, appetite stimulation, cancer, inflammatory conditions, asthma). Nevertheless, a number of neurological adverse effects from use of medical cannabis on the short- and on the long- term have been reported, in addition to other adverse health events...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412918/neurological-aspects-of-medical-use-of-cannabidiol
#9
Carmen Mannucci, Michele Navarra, Fabrizio Calapai, Elvira Ventura Spagnolo, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Roberto Da Cas, Francesca Menniti Ippolito, Gioacchino Calapai
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol (CBD) is among the major secondary metabolites of Cannabis devoid of the delta-9-tetra-hydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is a resorcinol-based compound with a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic properties, including neuroprotective effects in numerous pathological conditions. CBD neuroprotection is due to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory activi-ties and the modulation of a large number of brain biological targets (receptors, channels) involved in the development and maintenance of neurodegenerative diseases...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410876/the-treatment-of-fatigue-by-non-invasive-brain-stimulation
#10
REVIEW
Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Moussa A Chalah, Alaa Mhalla, Ulrich Palm, Samar S Ayache, Veit Mylius
The use of non-invasive brain neurostimulation (NIBS) techniques to treat neurological or psychiatric diseases is currently under development. Fatigue is a commonly observed symptom in the field of potentially treatable pathologies by NIBS, yet very little data has been published regarding its treatment. We conducted a review of the literature until the end of February 2017 to analyze all the studies that reported a clinical assessment of the effects of NIBS techniques on fatigue. We have limited our analysis to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)...
April 11, 2017: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407574/air-pollution-by-particulate-matter-pm10-may-trigger-multiple-sclerosis-relapses
#11
Jonathan Roux, Denis Bard, Estelle Le Pabic, Claire Segala, Jacques Reis, Jean-Claude Ongagna, Jérôme de Sèze, Emmanuelle Leray
BACKGROUND: Seasonal variation of relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS) suggests that season-dependent factors, such as ambient air pollution, may trigger them. However, only few studies have considered possible role of air pollutants as relapse's risk factor. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10µm (PM10) on MS relapses. METHODS: In total, 536 relapsing MS patients from Strasbourg city (France) were included, accounting for 2052 relapses over 2000-2009 period...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404595/nlr-members-nlrc4-and-nlrp3-mediate-sterile-inflammasome-activation-in-microglia-and-astrocytes
#12
Leslie Freeman, Haitao Guo, Clément N David, W June Brickey, Sushmita Jha, Jenny P-Y Ting
Inflammation in the brain accompanies several high-impact neurological diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS), stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. Neuroinflammation is sterile, as damage-associated molecular patterns rather than microbial pathogens elicit the response. The inflammasome, which leads to caspase-1 activation, is implicated in neuroinflammation. In this study, we reveal that lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), a molecule associated with neurodegeneration and demyelination, elicits NLRP3 and NLRC4 inflammasome activation in microglia and astrocytes, which are central players in neuroinflammation...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401369/the-importance-of-vegf-kdr-signaling-pathway-genes-should-not-be-ignored-when-the-risk-of-developing-multiple-sclerosis-is-taken-into-consideration
#13
Mehrdokht Mazdeh, Rezvan Noroozi, Jalal Gharesouran, Arezou Sayad, Alireza Komaki, Mohammad Mahdi Eftekharian, Mohsen Habibi, Mehdi Toghi, Mohammad Taheri
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) pathway trigger the process of angiogenesis as well as inflammation, which contributes to the development and progression of demyelinating lesions in multiple sclerosis. This work is a case-control study comprising of a total of 400 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 400 healthy controls. Participants were subjected to neurological examination and peripheral blood sampling for genotyping. Polymorphisms in the VEGF and KDR genes were assessed using the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) method...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396703/characteristics-and-incidence-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-older-adults-using-home-care-in-ontario-from-2003-2013
#14
Connor McGuire, Vicki L Kristman, Lynn Martin, Michel Bédard
OBJECTIVES: Describe the characteristics and determine the annual cumulative incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in older adults receiving home care in Ontario from 2003 to 2013. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of longitudinal data from the Ontario Association of Community Care Access Centers (N = 554,313). TBI, demographic variables, depression, neurological conditions, and recent falls were measured from the Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care...
March 2017: Canadian Geriatrics Journal: CGJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396625/cd133-positive-membrane-particles-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-inflammatory-and-degenerative-neurological-diseases
#15
Tobias Bobinger, Lisa May, Hannes Lücking, Stephan P Kloska, Petra Burkardt, Philipp Spitzer, Juan M Maler, Denis Corbeil, Hagen B Huttner
Background: Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a frequently used diagnostic tool in a variety of neurological diseases. Recent studies suggested that investigating membrane particles enriched with the stem cell marker CD133 may offer new avenues for studying neurological disease. In this study, we evaluated the amount of membrane particle-associated CD133 in human CSF in neuroinflammatory and degenerative diseases. Methods: We compared the amount of membrane particle-associated CD133 in CSF samples collected from 45 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus, parkinsonism, dementia, and cognitive impairment, chronic inflammatory diseases and 10 healthy adult individuals as controls...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395677/tuberous-sclerosis-complex-in-the-western-cape-south-africa-the-clinical-presentation-features
#16
E Kija, B Schlegel, P Samia, M Wessels, J M Wilmshurst
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic neurocutaneous condition, which affects multiple organ systems. This study aimed to determine the presenting features of children with TSC in Cape Town, South Africa. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a TSC clinic, and clinical features at presentation were prospectively collected. Thirty-nine children (23 boys; median age 10 (range 1 - 26) years; median diagnosis age 16 (0 - 153) months) were recruited. Twenty-one (54%) children presented with focal seizures...
March 29, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393275/traumatic-multiple-cervical-spine-injuries-in-a-patient-with-osteopetrosis-and-its-management
#17
Ashok Keshav Rathod, Rakesh Padmakar Dhake, Mandar Deepak Borde
STUDY DESIGN: Single case report. OBJECTIVE/PURPOSE: To report multiple level fractures of cervical spine in a patient with osteopetrosis and its management. Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited condition characterized by defective remodeling resulting in hard and brittle bones with diffuse osteosclerosis. Fractures of spine are rare as compared to the common long bone fractures. We report a case of traumatic multiple level fractures of cervical spine in osteopetrosis and its management which has rarely been reported in the literature before, if any...
April 9, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392472/nf-l-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-serum-is-a-biomarker-of-neuronal-damage-in-an-inducible-mouse-model-of-neurodegeneration
#18
Anthony Brureau, Véronique Blanchard-Bregeon, Catherine Pech, Stéphanie Hamon, Pascal Chaillou, Jean-Claude Guillemot, Pascal Barneoud, Philippe Bertrand, Laurent Pradier, Thomas Rooney, Nathalie Schussler
Accumulation of neurofilaments (NFs), the major constituents of the neuronal cytoskeleton, is a distinctive feature of neurological diseases and several studies have shown that soluble NFs can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Here we have used an inducible transgenic mouse model of neurodegeneration, CamKII-TetOp25 mice, to evaluate whether NF-L levels in CSF or blood can be used as a biochemical biomarker of neurodegeneration...
April 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392360/matrine-promotes-nt3-expression-in-cns-cells-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#19
Ming-Liang Zhang, Xiao-Jian Zhang, Jian Kang, Hui-Jun Zhang, Xiao-Long Chen, Nan Liu, Shu-Qing Liu, Wen-Di Ma, Guang-Xian Zhang, Lin Zhu
Neurotrophin 3 (NT3) is a potent neurotrophic factor for promoting remyelination and recovery of neuronal function; upregulation of its expression in the central nervous system (CNS) is thus of major therapeutic importance for neurological deficits. Matrine (MAT), a quinolizidine alkaloid derived from the herb Radix Sophorae Flavescent, has been recently reported to effectively ameliorate clinical signs in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), by secreting antiinflammatory cytokines...
April 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391792/insights-from-ultrahigh-field-imaging-in-multiple-sclerosis
#20
REVIEW
Matthew K Schindler, Pascal Sati, Daniel S Reich
Ultrahigh-field (≥7 T) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is being used at many leading academic medical centers to study neurologic disorders. The improved spatial resolution and anatomic detail are due to the increase in signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratio at higher magnetic field strengths. Ultrahigh-field MR imaging improves multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion detection, with particular sensitivity to detect cortical lesions. The increase in magnetic susceptibility effects inherent to ultrahigh field can be used to detect pathologic features of MS lesions, including a central vein, potentially useful for diagnostic considerations, and heterogeneity among MS lesions, potentially useful in determining lesion outcomes...
May 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
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