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Danielle A Zacarias, Nuno Rolão, Flaviane A de Pinho, Ingridi Sene, Jailthon C Silva, Teresinha C Pereira, Dorcas L Costa, Carlos H N Costa
BACKGROUND: An infected host's Leishmania infantum load in blood is considered to be an estimate of his or her total parasite burden. Therefore, the measurement of blood parasite burden is important in the identification of factors involved in parasite control. METHODS: Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on blood samples from 625 patients with kala-azar consecutively admitted to a reference hospital in Teresina, Brazil. Primers were used to amplify a segment of kDNA using the TaqMan system...
April 5, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Ronald Kiguba, Charles Karamagi, Sheila M Bird
We sought to determine the prevalence at admission and incidence during hospitalization of antibiotic-associated suspected adverse drug reactions (aa-ADRs) among Ugandan inpatients; and to characterize these aa-ADRs. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 762 consented adults admitted on medical and gynecological wards of the 1790-bed Mulago National Referral Hospital. Thirty percent were known HIV-seropositive (232/762). Nineteen percent (148/762; 95% CI: 17-22%) of inpatients experienced at least one aa-ADR...
April 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Andrea Vavassori, Paola Lanza, Ilaria Izzo, Salvatore Casari, Silvia Odolini, Serena Zaltron, Elena Festa, Francesco Castelli
New Direct-acting Antiviral Agents (DAA)-based anti-HCV therapies currently provide extraordinary opportunities to cure patients. Drug-drug interactions are however a real challenge during treatment. In particular, in HIV-infected patients in cART, DAA choice is limited by such interactions, which can result both in reduced efficacy and toxicity. We report the case of a HIV-infected patient on cART with atazanavir/ritonavir/abacavir/lamivudine, who presented kidney and biliary lithiasis, the latter treated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy, after beginning anti-HCV treatment with daclatasvir/sofosbuvir/ribavirin...
February 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Sirish C Rao, Imran Ashraf, Fazia Mir, Sami Samiullah, Jamal A Ibdah, Veysel Tahan
BACKGROUND Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been reported as a coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). CASE REPORT A 34-year-old female presented to our clinic with epigastric pain and severe acute hepatitis manifested as jaundice associated with hyperbilirubinemia, elevated transaminases, and coagulopathy. The patient was diagnosed with acute HBV with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) coinfection leading to subsequent chronic hepatitis B...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
Johannes Hartl, Malte H Wehmeyer, Sven Pischke
The relevance of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections has been underestimated for a long time. In the past, HEV infection had been interpreted falsely as a disease limited to the tropics until the relevance of autochthonous HEV infections in the Western world became overt. Due to increased awareness, the incidence of diagnosed autochthonous HEV infections (predominantly genotype 3) in industrialized countries has risen within the last decade. The main source of infections in industrialized countries seems to be infected swine meat, while infections with the tropical HEV genotypes 1 and 2 usually are mainly transmitted fecal-orally by contaminated drinking water...
November 3, 2016: Viruses
Marianne Martinello, Edward Gane, Margaret Hellard, Joe Sasadeusz, David Shaw, Kathy Petoumenos, Tanya Applegate, Jason Grebely, Laurence Maire, Philippa Marks, Gregory J Dore, Gail V Matthews
While interferon-based therapy has excellent efficacy in acute and recent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the side effect profile limits implementation. Sofosbuvir and ribavirin for 12-24 weeks is safe and well tolerated in chronic HCV, with efficacy dependent on genotype and disease stage. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of sofosbuvir and ribavirin for 6 weeks in individuals with recent HCV infection. In this open-label study conducted in Australia and New Zealand, adults with recent HCV (duration of infection <12 months) received sofosbuvir 400 mg daily and weight-based ribavirin (<75 kg, 1,000 mg/day; ≥75 kg, 1,200 mg/day) for 6 weeks...
September 17, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Ruchita Tyagi, Arshdeep Kaur, Pavneet Kaur Selhi, Harpreet Kaur Puri, Neena Sood
Histoplasma capsulatum is no longer confined to certain geographic areas and should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy and organomegaly in HIV-positive patients. We present an unusual case of a 20-year-old immunocompromised male of African origin presenting with fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, and retroperitoneal and cervical lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears from the cervical lymph node revealed numerous yeast forms of histoplasma in macrophages. The patient succumbed to the fulminant infection...
July 2016: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
Panibud Wongprommek, Methee Chayakulkeeree
BACKGROUND: Histoplasmosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Histoplasmosis capsulatum (H. capsulatum), a dimorphic fungus. Histoplasmosis is not endemic to Thailand. Cases of histoplasmosis are sporadic and mostly associated with HIV disease. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of histoplasmosis in Thai patients have not been well described. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with histoplasmosis at Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand MATERIAL AND METHOD: This retrospective investigation studied adult patients with histoplasmosis who attended Siriraj Hospital for treatment between 2002 and 2012 (11 years)...
March 2016: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Anil Arora, Naresh Bansal, Praveen Sharma, Vikas Singla, Varun Gupta, Pankaj Tyagi, Manish Malik, Ashish Kumar
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is common in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) and is an important cause of liver disease. We describe the demographic, clinical and biochemical profile of these patients from a tertiary care center of north India. METHODS: Records of consecutive patients of HCV infection with ESRD on maintenance hemodialysis or with renal transplantation who presented to our unit from January 2009 to June 2013 were analyzed...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
W Nakanga, P Patel, S Panjwani, N Kennedy, K Kawaza
INTRODUCTION: Jaundice is the yellowish pigmentation of the skin, sclera, and mucous membranes resulting from bilirubin deposition. Children born to mothers with HIV are more likely to be born premature, with low birth weight, and to become septic-all risk factors for neonatal jaundice. Further, there has been a change in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV guidelines from single-dose nevirapine to a six-week course, all of which theoretically put HIV-exposed newborns at greater risk of developing neonatal jaundice...
September 2015: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
Joseph B Mabula, Japhet M Gilyoma, Mabula D Mchembe, Hyasinta Jaka, Erasmus Kamugisha, Benson Kidenya, Peter F Rambau, Phillipo L Chalya
Despite recent advances both in preoperative diagnosis and postoperative care, obstructive jaundice still contributes significantly to high morbidity and mortality. A prospective study was undertaken to identify predictors of outcome among patients with obstructive jaundice at Bugando Medical Centre in north-western Tanzania. A total of 138 patients were studied. The male to female ratio was 1:1.6. The median age of patients was 58 years. Patients with malignant obstructive jaundice were older than those of benign type (P < 0...
October 2013: Tanzania Journal of Health Research
Nassir Alhaboob Arabi, Abdulmagid M Musaad, Elsaggad Eltayeb Ahmed, Mohammed M A M Ibnouf, Muataz Salah Eldin Abdelaziz
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis is a major health problem worldwide. Sudan has high burden of tuberculosis (TB) with a prevalence of 209 cases per 100,000 of the population and it is commonly presented with pulmonary disease but involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is not uncommon. Abdominal tuberculosis comprises about 1-3 % of all cases of tuberculosis and about 12% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It involves the ileocecal region, but involvement of stomach and duodenum are rare sites...
November 18, 2015: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Harshad Devarbhavi, Sujata Raj, Venu H Aradya, Vijaykumar T Rangegowda, Girish P Veeranna, Rajvir Singh, Vishnuvardan Reddy, Mallikarjun Patil
UNLABELLED: The liver and skin are the organs most commonly involved in serious adverse drug reactions. Rarely a drug reaction can affect both organs concurrently. The association of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrosis (TEN) is even rarer and not well studied. We describe our experience of DILI occurring in association with SJS/TEN including the etiologic agents, clinical and biochemical characteristics, and outcome. We identified patients who developed DILI in association with SJS/TEN from a registry of DILI patients from a single center...
March 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Sebastián Marciano, Omar Andrés Galdame, Laura Alicia Barcan, Adrián Carlos Gadano
Hepatitis C recurrence is the main cause of graft loss in liver transplant patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HII). These patients have higher risk of fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis, which is the most severe type of hepatitis C recurrence. Until direct antiviral agents were released, only a minority of patients could be satisfactorily treated. We describe the successful treatment with pegylated-interferon, ribavirin and telaprevir of an hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV co-infected patient who developed fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis after liver transplantation...
March 2015: Acta Gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
Mengying Lv, Ping Xu, Yuan Tian, Jingyu Liang, Yiqiao Gao, Fengguo Xu, Zunjian Zhang, Jianbo Sun
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Seven species from the genus Dictamnus are distributed throughout Europe and North Asia and only two species grow in China. One is Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz., which could be found in many areas of China and has been recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The other is Dictamnus angustifolius G. Don ex Sweet, which is only present in Xinjiang province and has been used as an alternative for Dictamnus dasycarpus in the local for the treatment of rheumatism, bleeding, itching, jaundice, chronic hepatitis and skin diseases...
August 2, 2015: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Anil C Anand, Hitendra K Garg
A large number of patients present with jaundice and encephalopathy in tropical country like India and acute liver failure is the usual cause. Clinical presentation like ALF is also a complication of many tropical infections, and these conditions may mimic ALF but may have subtle differences from ALF. Moreover, what hepatologists see as acute liver failure in tropics is different from what is commonly described in Western Textbooks. Paracetamol overdose, which is possibly the commonest cause of ALF in UK and USA, is hardly ever seen in India...
March 2015: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
A Bagny, O Bouglouga, L M Lawson-Ananisoh, Y L Kaaga, A Kotosso, R El Hadj Yacoubou, M A Djibril, D Redah
OBJECTIVE: To describe the different gastrointestinal manifestations encountered in adult patients with HIV infection in a gastroenterology department in Togo. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This one-year (2011) prospective, descriptive study included all adult HIV-positive patients admitted to our department. Patients not known to be HIV-positive before admission were tested after informed consent. RESULTS: 82 (8.4% of departmental admissions) HIV-positive patients participated in the study...
July 2015: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Ghulam Abbas Miana, Muhammad Riaz, Syed Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Rehan Zafar Paracha, Usman Zafar Paracha
Terpenoid class of molecules possesses a diverse therapeutic properties and potentials owing to their specific structural features. Prostratin and its derivatives are exemplified in this context to exhibit a variety of biological activities. In this review we discuss in detail the role of prostratin as potential therapeutic and underlying molecular mechanisms by which it accomplishes these activities. Prostratin [13-O-acetyl-12-deoxyphorbol] is a phorbol ester that was first isolated from Strathmore weed Pimelea prostrate, a small endemic New Zealand shrub, and characterized by Hecker in 1976...
2015: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
N Mawar, T Katendra, R Bagul, S Bembalkar, A Vedamurthachar, S Tripathy, K Srinivas, K Mandar, N Kumar, N Gupte, R S Paranjape
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Improving quality of life (QOL) of healthy people living with HIV (PLHIV) is critical needing home-based, long-term strategy. Sudarshan Kriya yoga (SKY) intervention is acknowledged for its positive impact on health. It is hypothesised that SKY would improve PLHIV's QOL, justifying an evaluation. METHODS: In this open label randomized controlled pilot trial, 61 adult PLHIV with CD4 count more than 400 cells/µl and Karnofsky scale score above 70 were enrolled...
January 2015: Indian Journal of Medical Research
David Widjaja, Mohammad AlShelleh, Myrta Daniel, Yevgeniy Skaradinskiy
Diffuse large B cell primary hepatic lymphoma is a rare disease with limited available information regarding treatment strategy. Although the liver contains lymphoid tissue and is an important site for lymphocytes activation, primary hepatic lymphoma is rare. Host factors make the liver a poor environment for malignant lymphoma development. Its coexistence with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection increases morbidity and mortality risks. Additionally, jaundice increases chances of developing adverse effects from chemotherapy...
February 16, 2015: World Journal of Clinical Cases
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