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M Martinello, E Gane, M Hellard, J Sasadeusz, D Shaw, K Petoumenos, T Applegate, J Grebely, L Maire, P Marks, G J Dore, G V Matthews
: While interferon-based therapy has excellent efficacy in acute and recent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the side effect profile limits implementation. Sofosbuvir and ribavirin for 12-24 weeks is safe and well tolerated in chronic HCV with efficacy dependent on genotype and disease stage. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of sofosbuvir and ribavirin for six weeks in individuals with recent HCV infection. In this open-label study conducted in Australia and New Zealand, adults with recent HCV (duration of infection <12 months) received sofosbuvir 400mg daily and weight-based ribavirin (<75kg: 1000mg/day; ≥75kg: 1200mg/day) for six weeks...
September 17, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Ruchita Tyagi, Arshdeep Kaur, Pavneet Kaur Selhi, Harpreet Kaur Puri, Neena Sood
Histoplasma capsulatum is no longer confined to certain geographic areas and should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy and organomegaly in HIV-positive patients. We present an unusual case of a 20-year-old immunocompromised male of African origin presenting with fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, and retroperitoneal and cervical lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears from the cervical lymph node revealed numerous yeast forms of histoplasma in macrophages. The patient succumbed to the fulminant infection...
July 2016: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
Panibud Wongprommek, Methee Chayakulkeeree
BACKGROUND: Histoplasmosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Histoplasmosis capsulatum (H. capsulatum), a dimorphic fungus. Histoplasmosis is not endemic to Thailand. Cases of histoplasmosis are sporadic and mostly associated with HIV disease. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of histoplasmosis in Thai patients have not been well described. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with histoplasmosis at Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand MATERIAL AND METHOD: This retrospective investigation studied adult patients with histoplasmosis who attended Siriraj Hospital for treatment between 2002 and 2012 (11 years)...
March 2016: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Anil Arora, Naresh Bansal, Praveen Sharma, Vikas Singla, Varun Gupta, Pankaj Tyagi, Manish Malik, Ashish Kumar
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is common in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) and is an important cause of liver disease. We describe the demographic, clinical and biochemical profile of these patients from a tertiary care center of north India. METHODS: Records of consecutive patients of HCV infection with ESRD on maintenance hemodialysis or with renal transplantation who presented to our unit from January 2009 to June 2013 were analyzed...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
W Nakanga, P Patel, S Panjwani, N Kennedy, K Kawaza
INTRODUCTION: Jaundice is the yellowish pigmentation of the skin, sclera, and mucous membranes resulting from bilirubin deposition. Children born to mothers with HIV are more likely to be born premature, with low birth weight, and to become septic-all risk factors for neonatal jaundice. Further, there has been a change in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV guidelines from single-dose nevirapine to a six-week course, all of which theoretically put HIV-exposed newborns at greater risk of developing neonatal jaundice...
September 2015: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
Joseph B Mabula, Japhet M Gilyoma, Mabula D Mchembe, Hyasinta Jaka, Erasmus Kamugisha, Benson Kidenya, Peter F Rambau, Phillipo L Chalya
Despite recent advances both in preoperative diagnosis and postoperative care, obstructive jaundice still contributes significantly to high morbidity and mortality. A prospective study was undertaken to identify predictors of outcome among patients with obstructive jaundice at Bugando Medical Centre in north-western Tanzania. A total of 138 patients were studied. The male to female ratio was 1:1.6. The median age of patients was 58 years. Patients with malignant obstructive jaundice were older than those of benign type (P < 0...
October 2013: Tanzania Journal of Health Research
Nassir Alhaboob Arabi, Abdulmagid M Musaad, Elsaggad Eltayeb Ahmed, Mohammed M A M Ibnouf, Muataz Salah Eldin Abdelaziz
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis is a major health problem worldwide. Sudan has high burden of tuberculosis (TB) with a prevalence of 209 cases per 100,000 of the population and it is commonly presented with pulmonary disease but involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is not uncommon. Abdominal tuberculosis comprises about 1-3 % of all cases of tuberculosis and about 12% of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It involves the ileocecal region, but involvement of stomach and duodenum are rare sites...
2015: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Harshad Devarbhavi, Sujata Raj, Venu H Aradya, Vijaykumar T Rangegowda, Girish P Veeranna, Rajvir Singh, Vishnuvardan Reddy, Mallikarjun Patil
UNLABELLED: The liver and skin are the organs most commonly involved in serious adverse drug reactions. Rarely a drug reaction can affect both organs concurrently. The association of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) or toxic epidermal necrosis (TEN) is even rarer and not well studied. We describe our experience of DILI occurring in association with SJS/TEN including the etiologic agents, clinical and biochemical characteristics, and outcome. We identified patients who developed DILI in association with SJS/TEN from a registry of DILI patients from a single center...
March 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Sebastián Marciano, Omar Andrés Galdame, Laura Alicia Barcan, Adrián Carlos Gadano
Hepatitis C recurrence is the main cause of graft loss in liver transplant patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HII). These patients have higher risk of fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis, which is the most severe type of hepatitis C recurrence. Until direct antiviral agents were released, only a minority of patients could be satisfactorily treated. We describe the successful treatment with pegylated-interferon, ribavirin and telaprevir of an hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV co-infected patient who developed fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis after liver transplantation...
March 2015: Acta Gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
Mengying Lv, Ping Xu, Yuan Tian, Jingyu Liang, Yiqiao Gao, Fengguo Xu, Zunjian Zhang, Jianbo Sun
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Seven species from the genus Dictamnus are distributed throughout Europe and North Asia and only two species grow in China. One is Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz., which could be found in many areas of China and has been recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The other is Dictamnus angustifolius G. Don ex Sweet, which is only present in Xinjiang province and has been used as an alternative for Dictamnus dasycarpus in the local for the treatment of rheumatism, bleeding, itching, jaundice, chronic hepatitis and skin diseases...
August 2, 2015: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Anil C Anand, Hitendra K Garg
A large number of patients present with jaundice and encephalopathy in tropical country like India and acute liver failure is the usual cause. Clinical presentation like ALF is also a complication of many tropical infections, and these conditions may mimic ALF but may have subtle differences from ALF. Moreover, what hepatologists see as acute liver failure in tropics is different from what is commonly described in Western Textbooks. Paracetamol overdose, which is possibly the commonest cause of ALF in UK and USA, is hardly ever seen in India...
March 2015: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
A Bagny, O Bouglouga, L M Lawson-Ananisoh, Y L Kaaga, A Kotosso, R El Hadj Yacoubou, M A Djibril, D Redah
OBJECTIVE: To describe the different gastrointestinal manifestations encountered in adult patients with HIV infection in a gastroenterology department in Togo. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This one-year (2011) prospective, descriptive study included all adult HIV-positive patients admitted to our department. Patients not known to be HIV-positive before admission were tested after informed consent. RESULTS: 82 (8.4% of departmental admissions) HIV-positive patients participated in the study...
July 2015: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Ghulam Abbas Miana, Muhammad Riaz, Syed Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Rehan Zafar Paracha, Usman Zafar Paracha
Terpenoid class of molecules possesses a diverse therapeutic properties and potentials owing to their specific structural features. Prostratin and its derivatives are exemplified in this context to exhibit a variety of biological activities. In this review we discuss in detail the role of prostratin as potential therapeutic and underlying molecular mechanisms by which it accomplishes these activities. Prostratin [13-O-acetyl-12-deoxyphorbol] is a phorbol ester that was first isolated from Strathmore weed Pimelea prostrate, a small endemic New Zealand shrub, and characterized by Hecker in 1976...
2015: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
N Mawar, T Katendra, R Bagul, S Bembalkar, A Vedamurthachar, S Tripathy, K Srinivas, K Mandar, N Kumar, N Gupte, R S Paranjape
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Improving quality of life (QOL) of healthy people living with HIV (PLHIV) is critical needing home-based, long-term strategy. Sudarshan Kriya yoga (SKY) intervention is acknowledged for its positive impact on health. It is hypothesised that SKY would improve PLHIV's QOL, justifying an evaluation. METHODS: In this open label randomized controlled pilot trial, 61 adult PLHIV with CD4 count more than 400 cells/µl and Karnofsky scale score above 70 were enrolled...
January 2015: Indian Journal of Medical Research
David Widjaja, Mohammad AlShelleh, Myrta Daniel, Yevgeniy Skaradinskiy
Diffuse large B cell primary hepatic lymphoma is a rare disease with limited available information regarding treatment strategy. Although the liver contains lymphoid tissue and is an important site for lymphocytes activation, primary hepatic lymphoma is rare. Host factors make the liver a poor environment for malignant lymphoma development. Its coexistence with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection increases morbidity and mortality risks. Additionally, jaundice increases chances of developing adverse effects from chemotherapy...
February 16, 2015: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Wendel Coura-Vital, Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda de Araújo, Ilka Afonso Reis, Frederico Figueiredo Amancio, Alexandre Barbosa Reis, Mariângela Carneiro
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, case-fatality rates attributable to visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are high and knowledge of the risk factors associated with death may help reduce mortality. The aim of this study was to construct and validate a scoring system for prognosis of death from VL by using all cases reported in Brazil from 2007 to 2011. METHODOLOGY: In this historical cohort study, 18,501 VL cases were analyzed; of these, 17,345 cases were cured and 1,156 cases caused death...
December 2014: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Benoit Trottier, Daniele Longpré, Harold Dion, Sylvie Vezina, Stephane Lavoie, Chrissi Galanakis, Nima Machouf, Réjean Thomas
INTRODUCTION: In HIV+ patients exhibiting multidrug resistance (MDR), NRTIs often have little activity, increased toxicity, drug interactions and add unnecessary treatment costs. The 48 week VERITAS study demonstrated that these patients can have a safe and effective simplification of salvage regimen by removing inactive NRTIs as determined by genotypic data. Virological, immunological, clinical and financial outcomes were evaluated at an additional 96 weeks of follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MDR patients with an undetectable viral load (VL) on a stable regimen containing at least four ARVs (including one inactive NRTI) were enrolled in an open-label, prospective simplification trial, where one inactive NRTI was removed at baseline (BL)...
2014: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Andrea Antinori, Stefano Bonora, Antonella Cingolani, Giovanni Cassola, Gioacchino Angarano, Vincenzo Vullo, Cristina Mussini, Andrea Gori, Franco Maggiolo, Antonella Castagna
INTRODUCTION: In a recent clinical trial (ACTG 5257), no difference in viral failure (VF) of a first-line cART containing atazanavir/r (ATV/r) or darunavir/r (DRV/r) was found [1]. For the endpoint of discontinuation due to intolerance, the regimen with DRV/r was superior to that of ATV/r (49% of the stops of ATV/r were attributed to jaundice or hyperbilirubinemia). These and other intolerances to ATV/r remain a concern for clinicians. METHODS: Participants in the ICONA Foundation Study who started cART with 2NRTI+ ATV/r or DRV/r while ART-naïve were included...
2014: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Veronika Kanestri, Konstantin Mironov, Alexey Kravchenko, Anastasiya Pokrovskaya, Olga Dribnohodova, Elena Dunayeva, Galina Tsiganova, Marina Harbutly, Marina Goliusova, Vladislav Konnov, Nadezhda Kozirina, Vasiliy Shahgildyan, Ulyana Kuimova, Anna Popova, Oksana Efremova, Danila Konnov
INTRODUCTION: The UGT1A1*28 (rs8175347) polymorphism is associated with hyperbilirubinemia. The presence of 6 TA-repeats in the UGT1A1 gene promoter region corresponds to normal UGT1TA1 activity. A detection of 7 TA-repeats in hetero- or homozygous individuals [(TA)6/(TA)7 and (TA)7/(TA)7] is associated with lower UGT1TA1 activity, which may eventually result in the development of Gilbert syndrome and/or modified individual response to drugs metabolized by this enzyme. ATV contributes to the decreased levels of UGT1A1, which may lead to elevations of indirect bilirubin, jaundice and even to therapy discontinuation...
2014: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Joseph J Eron, Jay Lalezari, Jihad Slim, Joseph Gathe, Peter J Ruane, Chia Wang, Richard Elion, Gary Blick, Amit Khatri, Yiran B Hu, Krystal Gibbons, Linda Fredrick, Melannie Co, Ronald D'Amico, Barbara Da Silva-Tillmann, Roger Trinh, Mark S Sulkowski
OBJECTIVE: Whether concomitant HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) affects the safety and efficacy of interferon-free HCV therapies or whether HCV treatment may negatively affect HIV control is unclear. We assessed the 3 direct-acting antiviral (3D) regimen of ombitasvir, ABT-450 (identified by AbbVie and Enanta; co-dosed with ritonavir) and dasabuvir with ribavirin (RBV) in HCV/HIV-1 co-infected patients with and without cirrhosis, including HCV treatment-experienced, receiving atazanavir (ATV)- or raltegravir (RAL)-based ART therapy...
2014: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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