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Martha Ali Abdulai, Frank Baiden, George Adjei, Seth Owusu-Agyei
BACKGROUND: Over 2 billion people are infected with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and about 240 million are chronic carriers of the virus. Chronic HBV infection is an important cause of liver cancer. The infectivity of HBV is hundred times higher than the HIV virus yet it receives comparatively little attention in public health. The study assessed knowledge and awareness of HBV among pregnant women in the Kintampo Municipality of Ghana. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in two facilities between September 2010 and November 2010...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Foram Maulin Patel, Parijath N Goswami
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection is well known to induce a spectrum of acute and chronic liver diseases. There has been global decline in the prevalence of hepatitis D infection. The aim of the present study was to know the presence of acute HDV infection among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive cancer patients. METHODS: A total of 5043 samples were subjected for routine testing of HBV, HIV and HCV by ELISA method...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Charles Béguelin, Darius Moradpour, Roland Sahli, Franziska Suter-Riniker, Alexander Lüthi, Matthias Cavassini, Huldrych F Günthard, Manuel Battegay, Enos Bernasconi, Patrick Schmid, Alexandra Calmy, Dominique Braun, Hansjakob Furrer, Andri Rauch, Gilles Wandeler
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection accelerates the progression of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver disease. We assessed the epidemiological characteristics of HDV infection in the nationwide Swiss HIV Cohort Study and evaluated its impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS: All HIV-infected patients with a positive HBsAg test were considered and tested for anti-HDV antibodies. HDV amplification and sequencing were performed in anti-HDV-positive patients...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Rui Tato Marinho, António Costa, Teodomiro Pires, Helena Raposo, Carlos Vasconcelos, Cristina Polónia, Joaquim Borges, Mariana Soares, Graça Vilar, Ana Maria Nogueira
BACKGROUND: HCV treatment among people who inject drugs (PWID) is low. Education programs may be suitable strategies to improve patients' knowledge about their condition and to overcome barriers to access treatment. METHODS: The Health Educational Program (HEP) consisted of patient workshops and educational videos and leaflets, and healthcare professionals' workshops. HEP was implemented at seven substance dependence treatment centers (STDC) in Portugal. The study comprised two cross-sectional evaluations conducted before and after HEP...
October 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Kazuo Imai, Kazuhisa Misawa, Takahiro Matsumura, Yuji Fujikura, Kei Mikita, Masaharu Tokoro, Takuya Maeda, Akihiko Kawana
We herein describe a case of progressive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cholangiopathy despite normalization of laboratory parameters, which had indicated liver dysfunction, after the initiation of combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART). HIV-associated cholangiopathy remains important as a differential diagnosis of bile duct disorders, although it is considered to be a rare disease in the era of cART. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography could thus be a powerful tool for the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease...
2016: Internal Medicine
Kai-Wen Li, Anna Kramvis, Shujia Liang, Xiang He, Qin-Yan Chen, Chao Wang, Qing-Li Yang, Li-Ping Hu, Hui-Hua Jia, Zhong-Liao Fang
In the era of combination therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), liver disease including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), are the major causes of death for patients co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV. However, the mechanisms remain obscure. We aimed to determine whether HCC-related HBV mutations including 1762T/1764A double mutation and pre-S deletions occur more frequently in HBV/HIV co-infected individuals compared to HBV mono-infected individuals. In this study, the basic core promoter (BCP) and the preS/S regions of HBV isolated from 61 pairs of HBV/HIV co-infected and HBV mono-infected participants were analyzed...
October 6, 2016: Virus Research
Marina B Klein, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Linda Wittkop
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection is a common and an important comorbidity in HIV infection. We review current trends in mortality and the potential for early combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and HCV therapy to improve survival in coinfected patients. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV/HCV coinfection increases risk of death from all causes, and from liver disease and harmful drug use in particular. There is growing evidence for a direct role of HIV in liver fibrogenesis and for cART to decrease the risk of dying from liver disease in coinfected persons...
September 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Rebecca J Brown, David Araujo-Vilar, Pik To Cheung, David Dunger, Abhimanyu Garg, Michelle Jack, Lucy Mungai, Elif A Oral, Nivedita Patni, Kristina Rother, Julia von Schnurbein, Ekaterina Sorkina, Takara Stanley, Corinne Vigouroux, Martin Wabitsch, Rachel Williams, Tohru Yorifuji
OBJECTIVE: Lipodystrophy syndromes are extremely rare disorders of deficient body fat associated with potentially serious metabolic complications, including diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, and steatohepatitis. Due to their rarity, most clinicians are not familiar with their diagnosis and management. This practice guideline summarizes diagnosis and management of lipodystrophy syndromes not associated with HIV or injectable drugs. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen participants were nominated by worldwide endocrine societies or selected by the committee as content experts...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Dennis C Liotta, George R Painter
The HIV/AIDS epidemic, which was first reported on in 1981, progressed in just 10 years to a disease afflicting 10 million people worldwide including 1 million in the US. In 1987, AZT was approved for treating HIV/AIDS. Unfortunately, its clinical usefullness was severly limited by associated toxicities and the emergence of resistance. Three other drugs that were approved in the early 1990s suffered from similar liabilities. In 1990, the Liotta group at Emory University developed a highly diastereoselective synthesis of racemic 3'-thia-2',3'-dideoxycytidine and 3'-thia-2',3'-5-fluorodideoxycytidine and demonstrated that these compounds exhibited excellent anti-HIV activity with no apparent cytotoxicity...
October 5, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
M Holmström, A Nangarhari, J Öhman, A-S Duberg, A Majeed, S Aleman
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common in patients with inherited bleeding disorders treated with clotting factor concentrates prior to the introduction of viral inactivation of these products. The long-term consequences of hepatitis C infection in Swedish patients are not fully understood. AIM: To examine the impact of HCV infection on liver-related morbidity and mortality in Swedish patients with inherited bleeding disorders. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on 183 patients with inherited bleeding disorders infected with HCV who attended the Coagulation Unit at Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden...
October 5, 2016: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Shereen Katrak, Lawrence P Park, Christopher Woods, Andrew Muir, Charles Hicks, Susanna Naggie
Background.  Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of cirrhosis and the primary cause of liver transplantation in the United States, and coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases the risk of comorbidities. However, healthcare utilization (HCU) patterns among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients are poorly understood. This study compared the rates of HCU and reasons for hospital admission among HCV-infected, HIV-infected, and HIV/HCV-coinfected veterans. Methods.  Hepatitis C virus- and HIV-infected and HIV/HCV-coinfected veterans in care with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) from 1998 to 2009 (n = 335 371, n = 28 179, n = 13 471, respectively) were identified by HIV- and HCV-associated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes from the clinical case registry...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Adrià Ramírez-Mena, Tracy R Glass, Annja Winter, Namvua Kimera, Alex Ntamatungiro, Christoph Hatz, Marcel Tanner, Manuel Battegay, Hansjakob Furrer, Gilles Wandeler, Emilio Letang
Background.  We evaluated the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver fibrosis/cirrhosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals enrolled in a rural Tanzanian prospective cohort and assessed hepatic fibrosis progression 12-24 months after antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Methods.  All ART-naive HIV-infected adults ≥15-year-old enrolled in the Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort who started ART between 2005 and 2015 were included. Pre-ART factors associated with significant liver fibrosis (aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index [APRI] >1...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Josephine Mbuagbaw, Ahmadou M Jingi, Jean Jacques N Noubiap, Arnaud D Kaze, Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Jean Joel R Bigna, Edvine Wawo Yonta, Kathleen Ngu Blackett
OBJECTIVE: To describe the trends in mortality and the spectrum of disease in HIV-infected and -uninfected inpatients in a population in Yaoundé. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Internal Medicine Unit, University Hospital Centre, Yaoundé, Cameroon. PARTICIPANTS: All deaths registered between January 2000 and May 2007 in the unit. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features and results of all investigations done, cause of death...
September 2016: JRSM Open
Susanna Naggie, Andrew J Muir
The current standard of care for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) consists of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens, including combinations of DAAs and fixed-dose combination pills. DAAs for HCV are likely to be heralded as one of medicine's greatest advancements. Viral eradication rates are pushing 100% for many HCV-infected populations, including patients with HIV/HCV coinfection, decompensated cirrhosis, liver and kidney transplants, and end-stage liver disease. We highlight the greatest successes of combination DAA therapies, discuss the ongoing challenges, and identify the remaining patient subgroups with unmet medical needs...
September 23, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
Samaneh Abbasi, Manoochehr Makvandi, Gharib Karimi, Niloofar Neisi
BACKGROUND: The SEN virus (SENV) is a prevalent blood borne pathogen that has a worldwide incidence. SENV is comprised of eight genotypes; genotypes H and D are frequently associated with the pathogenesis of non-A - E hepatitis and post-transfusion hepatitis in blood donors and hepatitis patients. So far, no SENV pathogenesis has been reported in the liver biopsies of SENV carriers, but the frequency of SENV and its related genotypes requires further molecular epidemiology studies in different regions of the world...
July 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Rebecca Scherzer, Steven B Heymsfield, David Rimland, William G Powderly, Phyllis C Tien, Peter Bacchetti, Michael G Shlipak, Carl Grunfeld
OBJECTIVE: Liver disease markers have been associated with mortality in HIV-infected individuals, in the modern era of effective antiretroviral therapy. Our objective was to determine which markers are most predictive of mortality in HIV-monoinfected and HIV/HCV-coinfected persons. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured serum albumin, total protein, calculated globulin, aspartate transaminase (AST), and alanine transaminase (ALT) in 193 HIV/HCV-coinfected and 720 HIV-monoinfected persons in the study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection...
September 24, 2016: AIDS
Claire Thorne, Anna Turkova, Giuseppe Indolfi, Elisabetta Venturini, Carlo Giaquinto
OBJECTIVE: To characterise children, adolescents and young adults infected with HIV/HCV vertically or before age 18 years and living in Europe regarding mode of acquisition, HCV genotype, clinical status and treatment. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional study using pooled data from 11 European paediatric HIV cohorts METHODS:: Patients aged > 18 months and < 25 years, with HIV/HCV acquired vertically or in childhood, were included. Anonymised individual-patient data were collected using a standard protocol and modified HIV Cohorts Data Exchange Protocol...
September 24, 2016: AIDS
Louisa Degenhardt, Fiona Charlson, Jeff Stanaway, Sarah Larney, Lily T Alexander, Matthew Hickman, Benjamin Cowie, Wayne D Hall, John Strang, Harvey Whiteford, Theo Vos
BACKGROUND: Previous estimates of the burden of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among people who inject drugs have not included estimates of the burden attributable to the consequences of past injecting. We aimed to provide these estimates as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2013. METHODS: We modelled the burden of HBV and HCV (including cirrhosis and liver cancer burden) and HIV at the country, regional, and global level...
September 21, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Tatiana Pushkarsky, Evgeny Shilov, Natalya Kruglova, Ronald Naumann, Beda Brichacek, Lucas Jennelle, Dmitri Sviridov, Andrey Kruglov, Sergei Nedospasov, Michael I Bukrinsky
HIV-infected individuals are at high risk of developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, in part due to HIV-induced impairment of cholesterol metabolism. In vitro studies demonstrated that HIV-1 protein Nef inhibits activity of ABCA1, the main cellular cholesterol transporter, leading to cholesterol accumulation in macrophages and conversion of these cells into foam cells, characteristic for atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms of Nef-mediated effects on cholesterol metabolism in vivo are not well characterized...
September 21, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
V Filingeri, S Francioso, D Sforza, F Santopaolo, F M Oddi, G Tisone
OBJECTIVE: In the last decades, liver biopsy was the reference procedure for the diagnosis and follow-up of liver disease. Aim of present retrospective analysis was to assess the prevalence of complications and risk factors after Percutaneous Liver Biopsy (PLB) performed for diagnosis and staging in patients with chronic liver disease and for monitoring the graft in liver transplanted patients PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were collected from a total of 1.011 PLB performed with the Menghini technique between January 2004 and December 2014 at the Hepatology and Transplant Units of the University of Rome Tor Vergata...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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